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Gordon Campbell

(b 1732; d 1798).

Dutch glass-engraver. He specialized in stipple-engraved portraits of public figures, using line-engraving for features such as hair. The term ‘Wolff glass’ is useful as a stylistic term, but his work was widely imitated and many attributions are no more than hopeful.

Two Masters of Stipple Engraved Glass: David Maude-Roxby-Montalto (1934–) and David Wolff (1732–1798)...

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Peter Strieder

(b Nuremberg, 1434–7; d Nuremberg, Nov 30, 1519).

German painter and woodcutter. The head of a large workshop which produced altarpieces, memorial pictures, portraits, and designs for glass paintings in late 15th-century Nuremberg, he also provided notable innovations in the art of the woodcut. He is famed as the teacher of Dürer family §(1); after Wolgemut’s death in 1519, Dürer added that date to a portrait of his former master done in 1516, but the 82 years mentioned in the inscription could either be Wolgemut’s lifespan or his age when painted.

He was the son of the painter Valentin Wolgemut (fl 1433/6; d 1469–70), who may have been the Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I (see Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I), though the latter’s work does not begin until after mid-century. He was probably first trained in his father’s workshop. Michael Wolgemut is first mentioned as a painter when instituting legal proceedings in Nuremberg in ...

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Christine Boyanoski

(b Orillia, Ont., Oct 8, 1903; d Toronto, Jan 27, 1966).

Canadian sculptor . She is best known for her modernist interpretations of the Canadian landscape in sculpture, using such unconventional materials as aluminium, tin and glass. She attended the Ontario College of Art in Toronto (1921–6), concentrating on sculpture, which had interested her since childhood. After marrying her instructor Emanuel Hahn (1881–1957) in 1926, Wood went to New York and in 1926–7 studied at the Art Students League with Robert Laurent (1890–1970) and Edward McCarten (1879–1947). In 1927 she began exploring in sculptural form the spatial relationships of landscape elements, based on personal observations recorded in many drawings made in northern Ontario. For one of these works, the marble relief Passing Rain (1928; London, Ont., Reg. A.G.), she was awarded the Lord Willingdon Award for sculpture in 1929. She was also occupied throughout her career with monuments and architectural sculpture, notable examples being the Welland-Crowland War Memorial (...

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Geoffrey R. Edwards

(b Melbourne, 1948).

Australian glass artist . He studied architecture at the University of Melbourne and graduated in 1972. Largely self-taught in the production of glass, he was active in the development of various kiln-working techniques applied to architectural glass. Following his first exhibition of autonomous glass panels in 1976, Wright was awarded numerous church and public commissions including a vast wall of glass (1976) for the Reception Centre at the Royal Zoological Gardens in Melbourne; a set of windows (1987) for the new Parliament House in Canberra; and a window cycle (1988) for the St James’s Anglican church in Sydney. Wright’s compositions are notable for their rhythms, juxtaposed fields of loose pattern and simple, organic imagery that often alludes to the processes of germination and growth. Many of the artist’s smaller, autonomous panels are assembled from mechanically fastened sections of glass with contrasting surface treatments and textures. A series of exhibition pieces made reference to medical X-ray images and incorporated fused motifs and figures with cloudy abstract passages of chemically treated glass....

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Gordon Campbell

Article

Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Kraków, Jan 15, 1869; d Kraków, Nov 28, 1907).

Polish painter, pastellist, decorative artist, illustrator, writer and theatre director . He was the son of the Kraków sculptor Franciszek Wyspiański (1836–1902) and studied at the Kraków School of Fine Arts, mostly under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Wyspiański and Józef Mehoffer, the school’s most talented students, were appointed to complete Matejko’s painted decorations for St Mary, Kraków, a task that prompted Wyspiański’s interest in both decorative painting and stained glass. In 1890 he travelled in Italy, Switzerland, France and Germany, and also to Prague. In 1891 he continued his training in Paris, where he remained with intervals until 1894, studying at the Académie Colarossi under Joseph Blanc, Gustave Courtois (1852–1924) and Louis Auguste Girardot (b 1858). Wyspiański also worked independently in Paris, studying paintings in the museums and fascinated by contemporary art. Through Władysław Ślewiński, he met Paul Gauguin and members of the Nabis....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1915).

Japanese industrial designer , active in the USA. He worked in Charlotte Perriand ’s Japanese office, and in the 1950s emigated to the USA, where he designed two stools that have since become famous: the fibreglass ‘Elephant’ stool (1954), which was the first all-plastic stool, and the ‘Butterfly’ stool (...

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Gordon Campbell

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Julia Robinson

(b Bern, ID, Oct 13, 1935).

American composer. Young was an exponent of experimental “drone” music and an originator of Minimalism (whose diverse practitioners include Terry Riley, Steve Reich and Philip Glass). Educated at the University of California, Los Angeles (1957–8), he completed his graduate studies in composition at the University of California, Berkeley. An avid and talented jazz musician, Young performed with legendary figures Ornette Coleman and Don Cherry. In 1959, he attended Summer Courses at Darmstadt, the center of New Music, taking advanced composition with Karlheinz Stockhausen. There he discovered the work of John Cage and met Cage’s great interpreter David Tudor, who put Young in contact with Cage. Back in California, Young presented Cage’s work, adopting some of his radical strategies in his own music. A landmark Young composition of this period is Poem for Tables, Chairs, Benches, etc. (1960), a piece of indeterminate duration.

In 1960 Young moved to New York and galvanized a receptive circle of Cage-inspired artists and composers. Young’s most significant contribution to this milieu were his ...

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Ronald Alley

(b Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia, July 12, 1892; d May 30, 1980).

French painter, sculptor and stained-glass artist of Russian descent. He studied literature at Moscow University while also taking painting courses at private academies; his painting teachers included Il’ya Mashkov, one of the founders of the Jack of Diamonds group. After leaving the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic in 1920, he lived for two years in Florence and then for a year in Berlin, where he designed sets and costumes for the Ballets Russes. He settled in Paris in 1923 and in the 1920s and 1930s painted in a figurative style influenced by Renaissance masters such as Leonardo and Michelangelo; his themes included biblical subjects, prophets, vagabonds, gypsies and landscapes.

During the German Occupation Zack, as a Jew, took refuge at Villefranche-sur-Mer and in a village in the Isère, returning to Paris in 1945. His work then began to develop towards abstraction, becoming completely non-figurative in 1947, and he became one of the leading exponents of ...

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Gordon Campbell

(b, c. 1450; d before 1519).

Swiss glass stainer. His workshop in Zurich produced small heraldic panels in the Gothic style; the fine detail was achieved by scratching flashed glass with a quill. There are examples of his glass in the Schweizerisches Landesmuseum in Zurich and (since 2000) in the Metropolitan Museum in New York....

Article

Alena Adlerová

Czech centre of glass production. It is situated in the Jizerské Mountains in an area where stonecutting and glass engraving have flourished for centuries. The rise of glassmaking at Železný Brod is associated with the specialist glassmaking school founded in 1920. The artistic nature of the school and the outstanding local industry between 1918 and 1939 was the responsibility of the various teaching schools run by graduates of the Academy of Applied Arts in Prague: the director, Alois Metelák (1897–1980), produced many cut-glass designs, and Ladislav Přenosil (1893–1965) taught glass engraving. Examples of the cottage industry work done at Železný Brod included small glass figures for beads or miner’s lamps designed by Jaroslav Brychta (1895–1971). Important artists working at the school and in production after World War II include Břetislav Novák (1913–82), Miloslav Klinger (b 1922), Ladislav Oliva (b...

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Geoffrey R. Edwards

(b Berlin, March 31, 1928).

Australian glass artist of German birth. He studied design at the Master School of Arts and Crafts in Berlin and, after emigrating to Australia in 1952, studied painting, printmaking and glass at the Melbourne Institute of Technology. In 1974 he pursued further study at stained-glass workshops in Cologne, Germany, and in 1975 he studied with Patrick Reyntiens and Ludwig Schaffrath in England. In 1979 Zimmer embarked upon another period of research at the Staatliche Glasfachschule, Hadamar, Germany. Zimmer became aware of the expressive potential of contemporary stained glass while studying with William Gleeson at the Melbourne Institute of Technology. He applied his graphic and design skills to the medium of glass with such commitment and imagination that his heavily textured, expressionist panels soon became one of the most enduring influences on Australian glass artists. Zimmer produced hemispherical ‘lens’ panels by fusing layers of irregular fragments of glass. He also framed broad, boldly painted segments of glass in richly embossed lead channels, and used metallic lustre and stain-painting to decorate glass. These methods contribute to an unmistakable quality of sombre chiaroscuro which often serves to underscore the strain of passionate, socio-political narrative evident in much of Zimmer’s work. After some years as senior lecturer in glass studies at the Chisholm Institute of Technology in Melbourne, in ...

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Jane Shoaf Turner

(b Amsterdam, 1641; d Amsterdam, May 18, 1724

Dutch collector, dealer and artist . He was trained by Pieter Janssen as a glass-engraver and was active as a dealer in glass until 1687, when he became one of Amsterdam’s most important saleroom brokers and appraisers and began to deal in other forms of art. By 1690 he had become one of the leading dealers in paintings, drawings and prints, counting not only Dutch collectors but also foreigners among his clientele, for instance Prince Eugene of Savoy. Long before this, from c. 1660, however, he had himself begun to collect drawings, prints and books. He owned drawings by mostly Dutch artists, such as Gerrit Berckheyde, Cornelis Bega, Jan Both, Pieter van Laer, Jan Noordt and Jacob Backer, and no less than seven volumes of drawings by Rembrandt. He seems to have applied his mark, a cartouche printed in black with the initials I.P.Z. (see Lugt), to drawings that passed through his hands as well as into his own collection. He also generally inscribed the name of the artist on each sheet, though at times he was deliberately optimistic with his attributions, especially with drawings said to be by Italian artists. He often bought prints and drawings already assembled in albums, which he then broke up and reconstituted into new ‘series’ that included individual items that were more difficult to sell. His print collection was more wide-ranging, with examples by Dutch, Flemish, Italian, French and German artists. Again, however, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell