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(b Robidetsa estate, St Petersburg province, March 20, 1898; d Paris, Jan 8, 1954).

Estonian graphic artist. He studied in Tallinn at the college of art and design (1915–19), at the Pallas Art School (1919–22 and 1923–4) in Tartu under Anton Starkopf (1889–1966) and Georg Kind (1897–1945), and at the Akademie, Dresdon (1923–4), under Selmer Werner (1864–1953). He concentrated on sculpture and printmaking, later devoting himself to graphic art. From 1925 to 1938 he lived mostly in Paris. Viiralt’s early work bears the stamp of late German Expressionism, but he later assimilated various Parisian influences, the most important of which was Surrealism. In engravings, lithographs and monotypes of the mid- to late 1920s, grotesquely drawn, fantastic and erotic images predominate; they are connected with the symbol of the contemporary megalopolis as the centre of entertainment and vice. The large-format prints Hell (etching and engraving, 1930–32), Cabaret (etching and engraving, 1931) and ...


Aída Sierra Torres

(b Veracruz, 1848; d Tacubaya, Mexico City, Feb 14, 1904).

Mexican illustrator and lithographer. He began his career in 1869, making prints for the weekly La ilustración potosina in San Luis Potosí. He collaborated with Alejandro Casarín and Jesús Alamilla on illustrations using engravings coloured with pen for the novel Ensalada de pollos by José Tomás de Cuéllar. In these the use of a schematic design accentuated the appearance of the figures portrayed. He created caricatures (1872–3) for La orquesta and other periodicals, but he established his reputation with caricatures (1874–6) of government figures for the weekly Hijo Ahuizote. Villasana was a member of the political party of President Porfirio Díaz and in 1880 published ferocious caricatures of Díaz’s opponents in El coyote emplumado. He was co-publisher in 1883, with Ireneo Paz, of La patria ilustrada and in 1888 he founded his own weekly, México y sus costumbres; in both periodicals he published his own caricatures of public figures. In ...


Morgan Falconer

( Mahé de la )

(b Quimper, Finistère, March 27, 1926).

French sculptor . He started studying architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Nantes in 1947 but abandoned his studies in 1949 and moved to Paris. There he began to collect torn posters from the streets to construct pictorial tableaux, usually by mounting them on canvas. He held his first solo exhibition at the Colette Allendy Gallery, Paris in 1957, and signed the manifesto of the Nouveau Realistes in October 1960, confirming his association with artists such as Raymond Hains. His early work was dark in colour and usually eschewed imagery in favour of fragments of typography. Arts Ménagers: Avril 1958 (1958; see 2001 exh. cat., Paris, p. 27) is typical: a cartoon sketch of a pair of eyes stare out from the centre of the canvas, an area of paper suggests a jaw line, and hints of letters are dotted about. He was disappointed with the frequent comparison of these works to Cubist painting and so he altered his style in the following years, employing brighter colours and more imagery as opposed to typography. In ...


Daniel Robbins

[ Duchamp, Gaston ]

(b Damville, Eure, July 31, 1875; d Puteaux, nr Paris, June 9, 1963).

French painter, printmaker and illustrator. The oldest of three brothers who became major 20th-century artists, including Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Marcel Duchamp, he learnt engraving at the age of 16 from his maternal grandfather, Emile-Frédéric Nicolle (1830–94), a ship-broker who was also a much appreciated amateur artist. In January 1894, having completed his studies at the Lycée Corneille in Rouen, he was sent to study at the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris, but within a year he was devoting most of his time to art, already contributing lithographs to Parisian illustrated newspapers such as Assiette au beurre. At this time he chose his pseudonym: Jack (subsequently Jacques) in homage to Alphonse Daudet’s novel Jack (1876) and Villon in appreciation of the 15th-century French poet François Villon; soon afterwards this new surname was combined with the family name by Raymond. Marcel Duchamp and their sister ...


W. Iain Mackay

(b Arequipa, April 22, 1900; d Arequipa, July 15, 1931).

Peruvian painter and illustrator. He first exhibited in Arequipa in 1917 after leaving school, and in 1918 he went to Lima, where he was influenced most notably by the work of the Peruvian painter Daniel Hernández, who from 1919 to 1924 taught him at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes. After working as an art critic for the newspaper El Comercio and contributing as a caricaturist to the magazines Mundial and Variedades, in 1925 he began teaching at the Escuela Nacional. Vinatea Reinoso’s caricatures were rarely rebellious or anarchic but reflected the gentle satire typical of the work of Pancho Fierro. His painting, which pioneered Peruvian Indigenism, was influenced by the work of the French Impressionists and by the other leading Indigenist painter, José Sabogal, although Vinatea Reinoso used more complex perspectives and structures than many Indigenists. His colours were generally subdued and were applied with fragmentary brushstrokes, giving a somewhat unfinished appearance to his works (e.g. ...


John Steen

(b Eindhoven, Sept 18, 1950).

Dutch sculptor and draughtsman. He trained in graphics at the Koninklijke Academie voor Kunst and Vormgeving in ’s Hertogenbosch between 1968 and 1973. Initially he made drawings, but soon began to construct objects and figures made from wood combined with feathers, paper and hair. He entitled the geometric constructions Getimmerde tekeningen (‘Drawings in carpentry’), for example the wood and paint architectural structure of a bridge, Untitled (1980; Otterlo, Kröller–Müller). Impressed by the photo of Eddie Carmel (The Jewish Giant) by Diane Arbus, he made a standing figure, Giant (1982; priv. coll., Belgium). Inspired by the work of Constantin Brancusi he made Untitled (wood and black cloth, 1983; Amsterdam, Stedel. Mus.). These influences are significant for Visch’s later development in which the figurative, characterized by a delicately balanced gravity and sensitive treatment of the skin, faced a more constructive, repetitive style. Vish’s intentions are mainly poetic and philosophical. He regularly executed monumental commissions, for example an installation in ...


Grischka Petri

(b Leverkusen, nr Cologne, Oct 14, 1932; d Berlin, April 3, 1998).

German painter, sculptor, décollagist, composer, video artist, and performance artist. He was one of the fathers of the European Happening movement. Vostell studied typography, lithography, and painting in Cologne, Wuppertal, Paris, and Düsseldorf (1950–58). In 1959 he married Mercedes Guardado Olivenza in Cáceres, Spain. Early in his career he discovered Décollage , a technique of cutting, tearing away or otherwise removing pieces of an image. His spelling of the term, dé-coll/age, underlined the term’s dialectical implications of destruction and creation. In the 1960s he worked with chemicals to transfer the process to photography, video, and film, turning it into an all-encompassing strategy of image deconstruction, often within the iconographic framework of violence and sexuality as communicated by mass media.

Vostell’s combined décollage with car parts and television sets, being one of the first artists using such a device as part of a sculpture in 1958. In 1962 he joined the ...


(b Teufen, April 8, 1877; d Zurich, 1943).

Swiss painter, printmaker, illustrator and theatre designer. He studied with a decorative painter in Stuttgart and briefly at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Strasbourg (1902), though he was chiefly self-taught through study trips to Belgium, France, Spain, Italy and Japan, which impressed him deeply. His freely brushed, figurative style and preoccupation with such Symbolist artists as Ferdinand Hodler and Arnold Böcklin allied him with the avant-garde of his day. He was a member of the Berlin Secession, and the connections he made through the group, together with the acknowledged clarity of his stylish book illustrations, won him many commissions. In a prolific career he also produced costume and stage designs, wall frescoes and numerous prints. Later paintings showed his admiration for the flat, all-over colour planes of Cézanne. He was the brother of the writer Robert Walser (1878–1956) and illustrated a number of his books, for example Seeland...


Kelly Holohan

[née Becker, Beatrice Lamberton]

(b New York, Sept 20, 1900; d Epsom, Surrey, Sept 16, 1969).

American typographic scholar, active also in the UK. She is commonly referred to as the ‘first lady of typography’. Warde went to Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, where she became interested in typography. She met the book designer and typographer Frederic Warde (1894–1939) while he was director of printing at Princeton University Press and they married in December 1922. It was his friendship with Bruce Rogers that helped Warde land her first job. Rogers wrote a letter to Henry Lewis Bullen at the American Type Founders Company in New Jersey and Warde was hired as the assistant librarian. In addition to designing typefaces, ATF had a typographical library and a printing museum. It was here that Warde acquired much of the type knowledge that would shape the direction of her career. Bullen inspired Warde to write her first important scholarly article by showing her a type specimen of Garamond in their collection. He was able to discern that it was not 16th-century type and stated that anyone who discovered its origin would create their reputation. Warde made that discovery while gathering research for an article. She found a title page with the exact Garamond specimen, but the typefounder was actually Jean Jannon, who published it in ...


Marco Livingstone

[Warhola, Andrew ]

(b Pittsburgh, PA, Aug 6, 1928; d New York, Feb 22, 1987).

American painter, printmaker, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, film maker, writer, and collector. After studying at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh from 1945 to 1949, he moved to New York and began working as a commercial artist and illustrator for magazines and newspapers. His work of the 1950s, much of it commissioned by fashion houses, was charming and often whimsical in tone, typified by outline drawings using a delicate blotted line that gave even the originals a printed appearance; a campaign of advertisements for the shoe manufacturers I. Miller & Sons in 1955–6 (Kornbluth, pp. 113–21) was particularly admired, helping to earn him major awards from the Art Directors Club.

Warhol continued to support himself through his commercial work until at least 1963, but from 1960 he determined to establish his name as a painter. Motivated by a desire to be taken as seriously as the young artists whose work he had recently come to know and admire, especially Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, he began by painting a series of pictures based on crude advertisements and on images from comic strips. These are among the earliest examples of ...


Janda Gooding

(b Ashford, Kent, March 4, 1887; d Perth, June 11, 1944).

Australian painter, printmaker and illustrator of English birth who worked mostly in Western Australia. After initial studies at the St Martin’s School of Art and at the City of London Guilds, he worked as an artist and illustrator for several publications before emigrating to Western Australia for health reasons. He arrived in Perth on 11 May 1915 and worked as a commercial graphic artist before taking a post as a public servant in Narrogin.

Returning to Perth in 1921, he became Assistant Art master to J.W. R. Linton (1869–1947) at Perth Technical School. It was from this time that he first started to make colour woodcut prints by the Japanese method of hand-colouring the individual blocks. His prints achieved delicate tonal variations with a strong sense of oriental design and their simplicity and attractiveness made them popular among a wide audience. A 1924 article in The Studio magazine brought his work to international prominence and a print was acquired by the British Museum. He produced many exquisite watercolours of the local landscape and exhibited these widely throughout Australia with a solo exhibition at the Fine Art Society in London in ...


Alexandra Noble

(b Greenburg, PA, March 29, 1946).

American photographer. He studied under Lisette Model and later became a major figure in international fashion photography. His best-known work derives from advertising assignments for the fashion designers Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren and Karl Lagerfeld, presenting the unique synthesis of an uncompromising personal vision with an interpretation of varied historical influences. His low-angle shots of men in heroic poses recall the images of Aryan youths made in the 1930s, while some of his studio portraits evoke the spirit of classic Hollywood portraiture. His work contains a highly charged eroticism and plays on sexual ambiguity, as for example in his photographic journal O Rio de Janiero (New York, 1986).

Weber, Bruce Per lui (Milan 1985) Branded Youth and Other Stories, text by M. Harrison and C. S. Smith (Boston, New York, Toronto and London, 1997) Bruce Weber Photographs (Pasadena, 1983) J. Cheim, ed.: Bruce Weber (New York, 1989)...


( Reijmert )

(b The Hague, Jan 12, 1860; d Santpoort, June 25, 1937).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and illustrator . He first trained as a landscape gardener in Amsterdam. In 1878–9, however, he received lessons in painting from the cattle painter Dirk van Lokhorst (1818–93) and he was working in Drenthe, Gelderland and North Brabant. During that time he also received tuition from the marine painter Jacob Eduard van Heemskerck van Beest (1828–94). Wenckebach lived and worked in Utrecht from 1880 to 1886, in Amsterdam until 1898 and thereafter in Santpoort.

Wenckebach’s preference was for traditional genres such as land-, river- and townscapes; in the latter, his drawings of views of old Amsterdam in particular are well known. In his style of painting and choice of subject-matter, he showed himself to be a late follower of the Hague school . Through a number of publishers he received many commissions as an illustrator and designer of books. In this field he collaborated on, among other things, the Verkade albums, a large series devoted to the history and nature of the Netherlands, and various children’s books. He is, however, particularly well known for his work for the ...


(b Frankfurt an der Oder, May 9, 1843; d Berlin, Jan 4, 1915).

German painter and illustrator . He studied at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin from 1859 and in 1862 moved to Karlsruhe, where he studied with Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, Ludwig Des Coudres (1820–78) and Adolf Schrödter. Under the influence of Karl Friedrich Lessing he became interested in history painting. He was a friend of the poet Victor von Scheffel and illustrated his works (e.g. Gaudeamus, 1867). In 1867 he was in Paris and in 1868–9 in Italy. On returning to Germany in 1870 he received his first important commissions. He specialized in detailed scenes of contemporary events, particularly those involving soldiers. His best-known work, William of Prussia Proclaimed Emperor of Germany, 18th January 1870 (1877, destr.; version, Friedrichsruh, Bismarck-Mus.), depicts the event he had witnessed at Versailles; it is a typical example of his sober, Naturalistic style and his taste for patriotic subjects. In 1874 he became a member of the Akademie der Künste in Berlin and a year later was appointed director. In ...


Marco Livingstone

(b Los Angeles, CA, Nov 25, 1928).

American painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He took up painting as a self-taught artist in 1953, the same year in which he began working as an illustrator in the Production Engineering Department of Northrop Aircraft in Los Angeles. In 1960, two years after leaving that job and one year after marrying the American painter Jo(sephine Gail) Baer , he settled in New York, where he became associated with the nascent Pop art movement. The Minimalist sculptor Donald Judd, who favourably reviewed his first one-man show at the Robert Elkon Gallery, New York, in 1963, was to become a lifelong supporter; although it might seem curious that an artist whose work was as severe as Judd’s would appreciate the often lighthearted figurative work of Wesley, with its linear comic-book style and pastel colours, Judd clearly appreciated the clarity of form, subtlety, precision of placement and economy of means that defined Wesley’s art from the beginning. ...


[Reginald] ( John )

(b London, June 24, 1905; d Normandy, July 18, 1944).

English painter, illustrator and designer . He demonstrated a talent for drawing, particularly humorous illustration, while at school. Encouraged by his parents, he entered the Royal Academy of Arts Schools in London under Charles Sims. He did not, however, enjoy the atmosphere of the Academy and transferred to the Slade School of Fine Art, London, where he was considered to be one of the best young artists of his generation. Whistler embarked on an academic study of art history and architecture. He had no real relationship with avant-garde contemporaries, but an affinity with such classical and romantic painters as Poussin, Claude, Watteau, Boucher and Canaletto. He also showed a strong interest in Georgian architecture. After leaving the Slade, he was commissioned to paint a mural for the Tate Gallery restaurant in London: he depicted a pastoral scene that encircled the room, the Pursuit of Rare Meats (1926–7). Whistler was a prolific illustrator, creating hand-coloured pen drawings for Jonathan Swift’s ...


Louise Sandhaus

( Yvonne Elizabeth Stella )

(b Ontario, May 31, 1953).

American graphic designer, art historian and art educator of Canadian birth. She studied at Michigan State University, East Lansing, transferring in 1973 to the design programme run by Katherine McCoy at Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI, receiving her BFA in 1975. She then worked for Vignelli Associates in New York from 1977 to 1978, while researching the history of American graphic design post World War II on weekends. Her personal research led to further study at Yale University (1982). While at Yale she designed Perspecta 19, Yale’s architectural journal, followed by the Chamber Works and Theatrum Mundi portfolios for the architect Daniel Libeskind (b 1946), and architect John Hejduk’s book Mask of Medusa in 1985. These projects launched her reputation for thoughtful and distinctively designed books on architecture, art and design.

Her 1982 MFA thesis, entitled Trends in American Graphic Design: 1930–1955, was quickly recognized as an important contribution to design scholarship and subsequently led to many commissions for essays. While teaching in the University of Houston’s architecture school during the early 1980s, Wild wrote the influential essay ‘More Than A Few Questions about Graphic Design Education’ (...


Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Châlons-sur-Marne, July 31, 1857; d Paris, Feb 4, 1926).

French illustrator, printmaker and painter . After studying at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, Willette entered the studio of Alexandre Cabanel where he encountered Rodolphe Salis, the future founder in Montmartre of the Chat Noir cabaret (1881) and journal (1882). As a member of the Club des Hydropathes (1874–81), a group of writers, actors and artists who met regularly at a café in the Quartier Latin and from 1881 at the Chat Noir, Adolphe Willette became associated with the anti-establishment, humorous and satirical spirit of the avant-garde artistic community in Montmartre.

Willette was an early and regular illustrator of the Chat Noir and Courrier français (founded in 1885), the two principal (albeit tongue-in-cheek) chronicles of Montmartre. For two years from 1888 Willette and the poet Emile Goudeau published the satirical journal Le Pierrot: in 1896 and 1897 they collaborated on the sporadically issued journal ...


Margaret Rose Vendryes

(b Mayfield, KY, April 30, 1899; d New York, NY, Jan 1, 1977).

American painter. Wilson worked as graphic artist in Chicago for five years after completing the four-year commercial art program at the Art Institute of Chicago School in 1923. He became an adept colorist with a particular interest in still life composition. Wilson hoped to grow as a painter after moving to Harlem, New York in 1928 where he worked odd jobs for wages. Three years later, he permanently relocated to Greenwich Village. He exhibited with the Harmon Foundation, at the Detroit Museum, the Contemporary Arts and Roko Galleries in New York City, and at most of the large historically black universities and colleges. Wilson socialized with important members of the New Negro arts movement such as Aaron Douglas and Jacob Lawrence whose abbreviated figurative works tempered his academic realist style ( see New Negro Movement ). His skill with linear gestures, affinity with nature, and ability to strike a coherent balance between them identify this best work. With two years of Guggenheim fellowships, he spent time with the African Americans living on South Carolina’s Sea Islands in ...


( Ludwig )

(b Offenbach am Main, Oct 29, 1905; d London, July 5, 1989).

German typographic designer and teacher active in England . Following an early apprenticeship with a firm of metalworkers, from 1924 to 1928 he studied with the typographical designer Rudolf Koch (1876–1934) at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Offenbach, and later in Pforzheim, where he trained as a goldsmith. In 1929–33 he taught lettering at the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildenden Künste in Frankfurt and at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Offenbach. He designed book jackets, posters, trademarks and jewellery, as well as tapestries and metalwork (Offenbach am Main, Klingspor Mus.) in a manner rooted in medieval styles. He designed his first new typeface, Hyperion, in 1932. On a trip to London in that year he met Stanley Morison, who commissioned from him a new typeface for the Monotype Corporation (Albertus, 1935–7; bold and light versions, 1940). His other type designs include Tempest (1936), Pegasus Roman (1938) and Decorata (...