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Julie Lawson

(b Banffshire [now Grampian], Feb 7, 1823; d Aberdeen, March 9, 1893).

Scottish photographer and painter. He served an apprenticeship as a carpenter but decided to become a painter and trained at art schools in Edinburgh and London. After several years as a drawing-master in Aberdeen, he joined the photographic business of John Hay jr in 1853. In 1855 Wilson opened his own photographic studio in Aberdeen. By the 1860s it was one of the most prolific and successful photographic businesses in Scotland. He won international acclaim as a landscape photographer and was particularly famed for his instantaneous photographs such as View in Leith Docks (undated albumen print; Edinburgh, N.P.G.), which makes telling use of contre-jour effects in the silhouetting of ships’ masts against the sky. He received royal patronage, becoming photographer to Queen Victoria in Scotland. At the International Exhibition of 1862, Wilson was awarded a medal for ‘the beauty of his small pictures of clouds, shipping, waves etc. from nature’. From ...


Francis Summers

(b London, 17th April 1963).

English sculptor and photographer. She studied in London at Central St Martins School of Art and Chelsea School of Art, completing her studies in 1987. Her work uses the photographic in a sculptural manner, in that the photograph becomes a kind of object. Her Seamen I (1991; see 1994 exh. cat.), for example, is a composite of floor sculpture and photography. Spreading across the floor in an ejaculative gesture, the work consists of a number of cropped photographs of erect penises taken from pornographic magazines, placed under glass. Having the effect of making each member solitary and isolated from its original body, these penises seem exposed, needing protection. Her Two Points of Speech in Sight (1993; see 1994 exh. cat.) continues her work in using photography to analyse the body and sexuality. Existing as two tiny photographs placed in elaborate poured plaster frames, the photographs resemble eyes, yet on closer examination turn out to be clenched mouths. Confusing vision with orality, Wiltshire metaphorically places the bodily drives in the act of seeing. Her ...


Leslie Heiner

[Carl; Karl] ( Ferdinand )

(b Siegburg, nr Bonn, Feb 19, 1828; d St Louis, MO, Nov 28, 1862).

American painter and photographer of German birth. He arrived in St Louis in 1843. From 1846 to 1850 he studied painting under the St Louis artist Leon de Pomarede (1807–92). In 1852 he continued his studies at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, where he worked with Josef Fay (1813–75) and Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze until about 1856. In 1858, having once more based himself in St Louis, he travelled up the Mississippi in order to draw and photograph Indians. Wimar joined a party of the American Fur Trading Company and made several journeys between 1858 and 1860 up the Mississippi, Missouri and Yellowstone rivers in search of Indian subjects. His painting, the Buffalo Hunt (1860; St Louis, MO, Washington U., Gal. A.), became one of the original works in the collection of the Western Academy of Art. In 1861 Wimar was commissioned to decorate the rotunda of the St Louis Court-house with scenes of the settlement of the West (mostly destr.)...


(b Warsaw, Feb 24, 1885; d Jeziory, Polesie, Sept 17, 1939).

Polish writer, art theorist, painter and photographer . He was the son of the architect, painter and critic Stanisław Witkiewicz (1851–1915), creator of the ‘Zakopane style’ ( see Poland, Republic of §II 3. ). He spent his childhood in Zakopane in the Tatra Mountains and was educated at his family home, a place frequented by artists and intellectuals, and also through his many travels to Eastern and Western Europe. From his wide acquaintance with contemporary art, he was particularly impressed by the paintings of Arnold Böcklin. Witkiewicz’s often interrupted studies (1904–10) under Józef Mehoffer at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków had less influence than his lessons in Zakopane and Brittany with Władysław Slewiński, who introduced him to the principles of Gauguin’s Synthetism. Witkiewicz abandoned the naturalism of his first landscapes, executed under the influence of his father, rejected linear perspective and modelling and began to use flat, well-contoured forms and vivid colours, as in ...


Chr. Will

( Arnold )

(b Amsterdam, Aug 13, 1860; d Amsterdam, April 13, 1923).

Dutch painter, printmaker, photographer and critic . He came from an old Amsterdam family of wealthy aristocrats with strong cultural ties. From 1876 to 1884 he was a pupil of August Allebé at the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam. J. W. Kaiser (1813–1900) and Rudolf Stang (1831–1927) instructed him in graphic arts. In 1880 he co-founded St Luke’s Society of Artists with Jacobus van Looy and Antoon Derkinderen. In 1882 he visited Paris with van Looy. Between 1883 and 1888 he worked regularly at his family estate, Ewijkshoeve, south of Baarn, often staying there in the company of artistic friends—writers and musicians, as well as painters. With Jan Veth he founded the Nederlandsche Etsclub (Dutch Etching Club), which from 1885 made a strong contribution to the revival of etching in the Netherlands. Witsen was the first among his circle of friends to have his own etching press and also a camera....


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Berlin, Aug 1, 1930; d Hamburg, Nov 10, 1988).

German photographer . He studied art history and literature in Paris, Hamburg and the USA. Influenced by his encounter with American photography, he studied at the Bayerische Staatslehranstalt für Lichtbildwesen (until 1956). He then became an independent photographer in Hamburg, teaching at the Staatliche Meisterschule für Mode Photographie and setting up a studio-house in ...



Philip Cooper

[ Schulze, Alfred Otto Wolfgang ]

(b Berlin, May 27, 1913; d Champigny-sur-Marne, nr Paris, Sept 1, 1951).

German painter, draughtsman, photographer and illustrator . In 1919, when his father was appointed head of the Saxon State Chancellery, the family moved from Berlin to Dresden. The following year Wols started taking violin lessons, showing a precocious musical talent. Having finished his studies at a grammar school in Dresden in 1931 he was too young to take the Abitur examination and so decided to abandon it. Fritz Busch, the conductor of the Dresden Opera, then offered to get him a post as a first violinist with an orchestra. Instead he worked for a few months in the studio of the photographer Gena Jonas in Dresden while also spending time as a garage mechanic.

In 1932 Wols travelled to Frankfurt am Main to study anthropology under the German ethnologist Leo Frobenius, a friend of the family, at the Afrika-Institut, though without his Abitur the plan was short-lived. He then moved to Berlin and entered the ...


International movement that documented social and political conditions from the viewpoint of the working class and flourished from around 1926 to 1939. Worker photography first appeared in the Soviet Union and Germany in the mid-1920s, with the organization of amateur photography groups and the publication of specialized magazines that encouraged workers to take up the camera for the documentation of their socio-economic reality. Its appearance was linked to the rise of the modern illustrated press, which flourished after World War I, and the creation of popular proletarian newspapers and magazines in opposition to the mainstream bourgeois press. Organized worker photography functioned as an avant-garde movement, in both the artistic and political senses of this term; it had a distinct group identity and was guided by proletarian ideology in employing new media and techniques not merely to communicate messages but to achieve the revolutionary transformation of the world. As a working class movement, it advocated collective practices and published photographs that were often anonymous. As an international political movement, its activities were promoted by the Moscow-based Communist International (Comintern). With the rise of Stalinism and the Third Reich, organized Soviet and German worker photography came to an end in the early 1930s, at the same time that its activities began to appear in other European countries and the United States. The international movement collapsed by the start of World War II in ...


Catherine M. Grant

(b London, May 12, 1963).

English photographer. She studied in London at the Slade School of Fine Art (1982–6) and at Goldsmiths’ College (1988–90), graduating with an MFA. In her early photographs she turned the camera on the institutions that support the visual arts, making portraits of the people who commissioned or curated her work in the period from 1984 to 1995. One such work, Portrait: Selection Committee for the Arts Council of England (1995; London, AC England Col.), was acquired by the very people represented in it. Her colour images are given a strong presence as a result of being mounted on light boxes; the use of solarization around the figures’ heads, like auras, further enhances their luminosity. In a project for Springfield Hospital, London, Yass took portraits of the clients and carers as well as shots of the empty interiors, all of which were displayed in the hospital in ...


A. N. Lavrentiev

( Petrovich )

(b Kazanskaya-na-Donu, 1881; d Moscow, 1948).

Russian photographer. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1901, then worked as a painter, turning to photography in the second decade of the 20th century. He experimented with complex laboratory processes but in his mature period concentrated on conventional printing. His experience as a painter was reflected in his photography, for example Ayvazovsky’s Cliff on the Black Sea (1920), with its enigmatic light and soft transitions. In the 1920s and 1930s Yeryomin worked on several major photographic cycles including Crimea and Central Asia, and his series Old Moscow and Palaces and Estates in the Moscow Area recorded numerous architectural monuments. He exhibited in the USSR and abroad, winning awards for his work. He also illustrated books on the art of photography. In the mid-1930s he tried his hand at photojournalism, but landscape and architecture, photographed with a soft-focus lens, remained his favourite subjects....


A. N. Lavrentiev

( Anatol’yevich )

(b Tashkent, 1906; d Moscow, 1984).

Russian photographer of Uzbek birth. He moved to Moscow in 1921. After training as a photographer, he worked in the Proletkino film studio and then as an apprentice photographer at the Russfoto agency (1923–4). His early photographs include pictures of old Moscow and a toy factory at Zagorsk. Russfoto sent Zel’ma to Tashkent as a correspondent. His photographs of life in the Central Asian republics began to appear in the national press and were included in 10 let Uzbekistana (‘10 years of Uzbekistan’, 1934), an album of photographs designed by Aleksandr Rodchenko and Varvara Stepanova. Zel’ma was one of the leading photojournalists in the USSR. In the 1930s he worked for the newspapers Izvestiya and Krasnaya Zvezda. Together with Maks Al’pert he photographed a number of subjects for the magazine USSR in Construction, including pictures of collective farms and aerial views of the USSR as well as a series on the building of the Beryoznikovsk and Solikamsk chemical complexes. He also produced expressive photographs on the theme of aviation (e.g. ...


James Crump

( Semyonovich )

(b Simbirsk, 1870; d Leningrad [St Petersburg], 1942).

Russian photographer . He is known for the portraits of literary, artistic and political leaders that he produced during the first two decades of the 20th century, including Anton Chekhov, Lev Tolstoy, Tchaikovsky and perhaps the most acclaimed portrait ever executed of Lenin. After an apprenticeship with the photographer Konstantin Shapiro, Zhukov opened his own studio in St Petersburg, with the support of the St Petersburg Academy of Arts. After the 1917 October Revolution, he became the chief military photographer for the Petrograd (St Petersburg) military zone, and he documented the civil war in that region and the activities of the Red Army. Sent to Moscow in 1920, he continued portraying Soviet political leaders and the upper ranks of the Red Army. In the 1930s his interests turned to photojournalism, and he returned to Leningrad.

S. Morozov and others, eds: Soviet Photography, 1917–1940 (London, 1984) G. Chudakov: 20 sowjetische Photographen, 1917–1940...


(b Radeburg, nr Dresden, Jan 10, 1858; d Berlin, Aug 9, 1929).

German draughtsman, printmaker, photographer and film maker. He attended evening classes at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Berlin, while serving a lithography apprenticeship (1872–5). He subsequently worked for an art printing company, where he learned the techniques of etching and aquatint. His first drawings were exhibited at the Berlin Secession in 1901, where he exhibited regularly thereafter. His work also appeared in Jugend: Illustrierte Wochenschrift für Kunst und Leben and Lustige Blätter. Zille’s sympathetic depictions of impoverished workers, children and prostitutes in Berlin are in a humourous vein but with serious undertones, and carry captions in Berlin slang; his photographs of Berlin street scenes also provide rare documents of everyday life. In 1926 he made the film Die da Unten

Zille, Heinrich Kinder der Strasse (Berlin, 1908) L. Fischer: Heinrich Zille in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1979) W. G. Oschilewski: Heinrich Zille Bibliographie (Hannover, 1979)...


(b May 28, 1952).

British performance artist, sculptor, photographer and writer. She studied Russian and Arabic at Leeds University (1970–72), and completed her foundation studies at Croydon College of Art (1972–3). She then studied fine art at Goldsmith’s College, London (1973–6), where the progressive approach to contemporary art led her to design her own course of study, which focused on all aspects of performance art. Influences upon her work include Yves Klein and Bruce McLean. Her ability to deflate the pretentious and absurd in daily life was demonstrated in unrehearsed, highly skilled displays of intuitive stagecraft. These are extended monologues that engage the audience with a mesmerising mixture of mimicry, metaphors, verbal and visual clichés and that explore the conventions of suburban existence and the domestic role of women (e.g. Rubbergloverama-Drama; 1980, London, ICA). Although known primarily as a performance artist, she also made sculptural works and ‘costume constructions’ initially created in connection with a performance, but which later existed as autonomous objects. Ziranek also took photographs, wrote (e.g. ...