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John Steer

Italian family of painters. Descended from a family of glassworkers active in Murano, (1) Antonio Vivarini became prominent in Venetian painting c. 1440, producing many joint works with his brother-in-law Giovanni d’Alemagna . Antonio also often collaborated with his younger brother (2) Bartolomeo Vivarini, and the family dynasty remained important until the death of Antonio’s son (3) Alvise Vivarini.

Giovanni d’Alemagna must, as his various signatures show, have been of German origin, but he was completely integrated into the family workshop, and attempts by earlier art historians to attribute to him supposedly German elements in his joint works with Antonio seem misjudged. The question of northern influence on the works is not resolved. Giovanni’s name often appears before that of Antonio in documents and signatures and his role in the workshop was surely an important one.

A major part of the workshop’s production was of tiered polyptychs in elaborately carved Gothic frames made by a number of different wood-carvers but of similar design. Developed by Antonio and Giovanni, these were, in the 1440s, very fashionable in Venice, but the market for them continued in various provincial centres under Venetian influence—the Marches, Puglia and to a lesser extent Istria—until the 1470s, and in these areas the Vivarini workshop enjoyed a virtual monopoly, producing a large number of works, many of low quality and probably entirely by studio assistants. In the late 1480s and the 1490s ...

Article

George S. Keyes

(b Rotterdam, c. 1600–01; d Weesp, March 1653).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, etcher and stained-glass designer. He was one of the leading marine and landscape artists of the Dutch school and decisively influenced the direction of Dutch marine art during the 1630s and 1640s. His late works anticipated the shift from the monochrome or tonal phase of Dutch marine art to the more classical style of Jan van de Cappelle and Willem van de Velde the younger ( see Marine painting ). Although de Vlieger’s reputation rests chiefly on his marine paintings, he was also a notable draughtsman and etcher.

De Vlieger moved from his native Rotterdam, where he married Anna Gerridts van Willige on 10 January 1627, to Delft in early 1634 and became a member of the Guild of St Luke there on 18 October that same year. In December 1637 he bought a house in Rotterdam from the painter Cryn Hendricksz. Volmaryn (1604–45) for 900 guilders; as part of this transaction, de Vlieger agreed to deliver each month for a stipulated period paintings with a total value of 31 guilders. He was still living in Delft on ...

Article

(b Lucerne, Aug 16, 1586; d c. 1656).

Swiss stained-glass maker. He probably trained with his father, the painter and stained-glass artist Hans Heinrich Wägmann (1557–c. 1628), who had moved to Lucerne from Zurich in 1582. Jakob Wägmann worked mainly for the Lucerne town council, producing numerous stained-glass pictures, mainly church windows but also such secular works as discs as collector’s items for private individuals. His first known work is a disc (1610) with the coat of arms of Ritter W. Am Ryn. His other works included a cycle of glass panels for Rathausen monastery (after 1612; two in Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.), a sequence of 29 scenes from the Life of the Virgin and the Passion for the convent of St Anna in Bruch (1619–24; now Gerlisberg, Convent of St Anna) and a series of 19 stained-glass pictures (1654–5; Lucerne, Hofkirche St Leodegard) for the pilgrimage chapel in the Hergiswald. Wägmann is regarded as Lucerne’s last great representative of the art of stained glass....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1920).

German glassmaker. He worked in the industrial glass industry until 1975, when, at the age of 55, he established a studio in Darmstadt to produce art glass. He produced lamp-blown glass, which is characterized by bold shapes and bright colours, often in coloured cane.

Glas vor der Lampe geblasen (Darmstadt, 1980)...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Mairead Dunlevy

Irish city and centre of glass production. The earliest Waterford glass factory was established in Gurteens, near Waterford, during the 1720s, and production included lead-glass drinking vessels with pedestal stems, garden glasses, vials, bottles and other green glassware. The factory was closed about 1739.

In 1783 the Waterford Glass House was established by the merchants George Penrose and William Penrose, who employed John Hill and other glassmakers from Stourbridge, England. In 1799 the factory was taken over by three partners, James Ramsey (d c. 1810), Jonathan Gatchell (1752–1823) and Ambrose Barcroft, who in 1802 extended the works and installed new machinery. In 1823 George Gatchell became manager, and the works remained in the family until it closed. The factory produced cut, engraved and moulded glass of excellent quality, and c. 1832 steam power was installed in the factory, which allowed an increase in production.

The outstanding qualities of Waterford glass are its clarity and the precise cutting. The typical early Waterford decanter is barrel-shaped, has three or four neck rings and a wide, flat, pouring lip. Stoppers of Waterford production are almost invariably mushroom-shaped with a rounded knop below the stopper neck. From the cut patterns on marked Waterford decanters it would seem that popular designs included the pillar and arch embellished with fine diamonds. The numerous drawings of Waterford designs (Dublin, N. Mus.) made between ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English glass that was made from potash derived from wood like German Waldglas and French Verre de fougère , During the 13th century French glassmakers came to the Weald area of Surrey, Sussex and Kent, which remained the most important centre of glassmaking production in England until the end of the 16th century. The industry was dominated by the production of window glass and simple, utilitarian vessels. The forests were exhausted by the 1580s, and the glassmakers moved north to Shropshire, Staffordshire and Cheshire....

Article

K. Somervell

English glass company, near Stourbridge, W. Midlands. In 1835 Thomas Webb (1802–69) inherited the White House glassworks from his father, John Webb (1774–1835). The following year he withdrew from the partnership of Webb & Richardson, which operated the Wordsley Flint glassworks near Stourbridge, to devote his attention to the White House glassworks. He then withdrew from Thomas Webb & Co., which operated the White House glassworks, to set up his own firm Thomas Webb & Sons, which operated the Platts glasshouse from 1837 to 1856 and then the Dennis glassworks, built in 1855 at Dennis Hall, Amblecote, near Stourbridge. In 1863 Thomas Webb retired and was succeeded by his sons Thomas Wilkes Webb (1837–91) and Charles Webb. During the 1860s the firm played an important role in the development of English glass. Their Artistic Director James O’Fallon was an engraver who excelled in Celtic-style ornament. The most distinguished engraver at the ...

Article

Leif Østby

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Oct 7, 1859; d Lillehammer, Feb 10, 1927).

Norwegian painter . He was descended from a Bohemian family of glassmakers who settled in Norway c. 1750. He studied at Knud Bergslien’s art school (1879–81) and at the same time at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, and in 1883 he was a pupil of Frits Thaulow, who introduced him to plein-air painting. Wentzel paid a short visit to Paris that same year and stayed there again in 1884 as a pupil of William-Adolphe Bouguereau at the Académie Julian. In 1888–9 he studied with Alfred Roll and Léon Bonnat at the Académie Colarossi. During this period he painted mainly interiors with figures, the urban middle-class and artisans in their homes, and also artists’ studios. His earliest paintings, for example Breakfast I (1882; Oslo, N.G.), render detail with a meticulousness unsurpassed in Norwegian Naturalism. Wentzel’s work gradually adopted an influence from contemporary French painting, including a more subtle observation of the effects of light and atmosphere on local colour, as in the ...

Article

Peter Cormack

( Whitworth )

(b Thurning, Northants, April 16, 1849; d London, Dec 23, 1924).

English stained-glass artist and teacher . He received his artistic education at the Royal Academy Schools, London (1868–74), and later in Italy, where he made copies of 15th-century paintings. Returning to London in 1879 he was commissioned to design some stained-glass windows, but it was not until the late 1880s that he devoted himself almost exclusively to the craft. He worked for a time for the glass manufacturers James Powell & Sons as a freelance designer while teaching himself the technical processes of stained glass and in 1887 set up his own studio–workshop near Dorking, Surrey. In 1890 the architect J. D. Sedding asked Whall to design and make a window for St Mary’s, Stamford, Lincs. It was the first of many collaborations with leading architects who, like Whall, were active in the Art Workers’ Guild and the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. In 1896 Whall was appointed the first teacher of stained glass at the newly founded Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, and later taught at the Royal College of Art, London. His teaching methods and aesthetic philosophy are contained in his influential book ...

Article

(b Jan 19, 1921; d Oxford, Dec 12, 2000).

English poet and glass-engraver. He began to engrave glass in 1935, and thereafter specialized in diamond-point and drill-engraved glass (e.g. ‘Flourish the Chalk’, bowl, 1982; London, V&A), often with engravings of country houses; his presentation pieces are mostly goblets but also include caskets. His work for Queen Elizabeth (later the Queen Mother) included a casket that she gave to her husband George VI and a glass triptych which she used for 50 years to hold her daily schedule; both are now in the Royal Collection. He also engraved glass windows, famously those of the church of St Nicholas at Moreton (Dorset), the only church in the world in which all the windows are engraved. Whistler was the younger brother of the society painter Rex Whistler , in whose memory he made the rotating Steuben Glass Works memorial in Salisbury Cathedral.

Pictures on Glass Engraved by Laurence Whistler (exh. cat., London, Greater London Council, 1973)...

Article

Richard Apperly

(b London, Oct 12, 1882; d Sydney, Sept 20, 1973).

English architect and teacher, active in Australia . He was apprenticed in 1900 to C. E. Kempe, a stained-glass designer, and later that year to the architect J. S. Gibson. Wilkinson studied architecture at the Royal Academy, London, from 1902 to 1906, winning the Academy’s Silver and Gold Medals and subsequently travelling in England, France, Italy and Spain. He joined the staff of the School of Architecture, University College, London, serving as an assistant professor from 1910 to 1918. He held a commission from 1914 to 1918 in the London University Officer Training Corps, and in 1918 he was appointed as Australia’s first Professor of Architecture, at the University of Sydney. Dean of the Faculty of Architecture there from 1920 to 1947, he was a witty, erudite and influential teacher, discouraging ‘fads’ and stressing the importance of correct orientation for buildings and rooms. He designed various buildings on the university campus, the Physics Building (...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass-cutting shop formed in 1880 by Thomas Gibbons Hawkes (b Surmount, Ireland, 1846; d Corning, NY, 1913). Hawkes was born into a glass-cutting family in Surmount. He arrived in the USA in 1863 and first worked at the Brooklyn Flint Glass Works, which moved to Corning, NY, in 1868; in 1871 he became supervisor of the Corning Glass Works. Hawkes’s glass-cutting shop was founded in 1880, and he purchased blanks, which are plain, unadorned objects for cutting from the Corning Glass Works. After 1904 his craftsmen used blanks from the newly established Steuben Glass Works, which Hawkes had formed in partnership with members of his family and Frederick Carder. In addition to blanks Carder also provided designs for Hawkes’s cutters. After Steuben became a subsidiary of the Corning Glass Works in 1918, Hawkes’s blanks came from the Libbey Glass Co.

T. G. Hawkes & Co. is perhaps best known for its ‘Russian’ pattern, a heavy, rich-cut design that decorated a service ordered for the ...

Article

Michelle Yun

[ James, Christopher Mallory ]

(b Vineburg, CA, June 11, 1943; d New York, NY, Nov 17, 1987).

American sculptor. Born Christopher Mallory James, Wilmarth moved to New York in 1960 to attend the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. He took a year off in 1962 after the suicide of his brother but returned, receiving a BA in 1965. There he met and later married fellow artist Susan Rabineau. Wilmarth worked briefly as a studio assistant for Tony Smith from 1967 to 1969. He was appointed an adjunct instructor of art at Cooper Union in 1969, where he taught until 1980.

Wilmarth’s Minimalist sculptures composed of glass and metal are meditations on light and space. A critical turning point occurred when he first introduced glass into his sculptures in 1967. These early constructions made from highly polished birch and sheets of tempered glass were inspired by his work as a cabinetmaker. The atmospheric translucence of glass achieved by etching the surface with hydrofluoric acid captivated the artist and by ...

Article

Window  

Walter Smith

Opening in a wall to admit light and air, mostly covered with glass, but also with paper or wood. The term derives from the Old Norse word vindauge, meaning ‘eye of the wind’. Historically, windows have taken on numerous diverse forms and functions. In cases where defensive considerations were paramount, windows were small, inconspicuous and confined to the upper levels of buildings (e.g. Catal Hüyük, Turkey, c. 6000 bc; Himeji Castle, Japan, ad 1568–1600). To reduce light and heat, stone buildings in ancient Egypt often had no windows on the outside walls at all; instead, narrow slits were carved into the ceiling (e.g. Temple of Hathor, Dendara, begun 80 bc). The function of a window can be almost completely aesthetic or symbolic, as when serving as a frame for the presentation of royalty to an audience. One example was the Egyptian ‘window of appearance’, which first appeared in the Amarna period (e.g. ...

Article

Margaret Graves

Architectural opening to admit light and air that may be covered with a screen, grille, glass or shutters, or left without covering depending on the surrounding environment and climate. Windows in Islamic architecture frequently, although certainly not always, take the form of an Arches in Islamic architecture ; such arch forms come in a dizzying varieties of types.

The use of marble or alabaster window grilles was adopted by Islamic architects from the Byzantine building tradition (see Islamic art §II, 3, (ii) ), and has become a distinctive and often spectacular feature of Islamic architecture: for example, the stone window grilles of the Great Mosque of Damascus (705–15; see Damascus §3 ) and those in the Friday Mosque in Ahmadabad , India (1424). Wooden window grilles made up of pieces of turned wood arranged in intricate geometric patterns (Arab. mashrabiyya) became a characteristic of windows in many parts of the Islamic world, especially Egypt. Metal examples also exist, for example in the 15th-century madrasa and mausoleum of Amir Mahmud al-Ustadar in Cairo, although these tend to be less intricate. Panels of carved stucco were also used as ornate window grilles. Such stucco screens were carved away from the building site and then fitted to the window; they could consist of an outer unglazed screen and an inner layer containing colored glass, or of a single stucco panel ornately carved, such as those seen in the Mosque of Sunqur Sa‛di in Cairo (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German family of glass engravers. Friedrich Winter (d 1711), a hardstone cutter and glass engraver, had a privileged position working for Graf Christoph Leopold von Schaffgotsch in the valley of Jelenia Góra near the glassworks of Sklarzska Poreba, in Silesia (then part of Bohemia); he specialized in Hochschnitt...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Hanko, Finland, June 2, 1915; d Helsinki, May 19, 1985).

Finnish designer and craftsman. He is best known for his glassware and furniture, but also produced distinguished designs for silver (notably for Christofle) which achieved international recognition for Finnish metalwork, and designed refined wooden bowls whose sculptural qualities were to be widely influential. He was artistic director of the Iittala Glasshouse...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Hilspach [now Hilsbach], Germany, Feb 1696; d Philadelphia, PA, ?April 1752).

American glass manufacturer of German birth. He moved to Philadelphia in 1717 and learnt to make brass buttons, for which he quickly became famous and from which he earned an ample income. Wistar was the first person to make glass profitably in America. He bought 2000 acres of land on Alloways Creek in Salem Co., NJ, and brought four German glass blowers to his ‘Wistarburgh’ factory, which opened in 1739.

The major products of the factory were window glass, a wide variety of bottles and vials, and such scientific equipment as electrical tubes and globes used to generate static electricity in experiments in the 1740s and 1750s. Table wares in colourless, bottle-green and pale blue glass were produced regularly, though sparingly. Free-blown covered bowls, small buckets or baskets, tapersticks, candlesticks, mugs and tumblers, some made with part-size moulds, have been attributed to Wistar through historical association and through laboratory analysis. Decoration, using certain ...

Article

Ilja M. Veldman

(b Ghent, c. 1503; d Ghent, after Feb 4, 1578).

Flemish painter and designer of stained glass and book illustrations. His dates can be deduced from several amendments to his will. Archives reveal that he was fined during the heretics’ trial of 1528 because of his Reformist sympathies. In 1538–9 he was paid for painting the blazon of the Ghent rhetoricians’ chamber ‘De Fonteyne’ for the rhetoricians’ festival of 1539. Van Mander called him a good painter, particularly skilled in the depiction of architecture and perspective, and he mentioned a painting of the Woman Taken in Adultery (untraced) and designs for windows in St Bavo’s, Ghent. De Witte’s work is now known only through his designs for book illustrations. The most important publication is Willem van Branteghem’s Iesu Christi vita (Antwerp, 1537) published by Matthias Crom, also in a Dutch and French version. The book contains a Latin acrostic on levinus de vvitte gandensis, written by Joris Cassander, which awards special praise to de Witte. It includes 186 woodcuts and numerous vignettes, in a highly characteristic style, full of picturesque and narrative detail. The woodcuts were reprinted and copied many times as illustrations to the Bible, and they also influenced the work of other artists such as Maarten van Heemskerck. De Witte also designed book illustrations for the Ghent printer ...