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Helena Bussers

[ Ludovicus ]

(bapt Antwerp, Oct 7, 1630; bur Antwerp, Oct 12, 1702).

Flemish sculptor . He probably trained with Artus Quellinus (i), with whom he may have collaborated on the marble reliefs of the Stadhuis (built 1648–65), now the Royal Palace, Amsterdam. He became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp relatively late, in 1661 or 1662. He may have held the post of sculptor to William III, Prince of Orange. His high contemporary reputation is attested by the remarks on the excellent quality of his work in the travel diary for 1687 of the Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin (ii).

Many of Willemssens’s works, both religious and secular, are untraced. Among those that survive is a pulpit (1673–5; in situ) supported by four allegorical statues for the St Jacobskerk in Antwerp. The statue of Theology is imbued with a refined elegance of a late Baroque character, while the figure of Truth recalls the classicizing style of François Du Quesnoy’s ...


Adam White

( fl 1608; bur London, April 5, 1654).

English sculptor . He was a tomb sculptor who appears to have trained as a haberdasher. He lived and worked at Charing Cross, Westminster, London, where he is first recorded in 1607–8. His artistic career began in partnership with the obscure John Key, with whom in 1608 he made the memorial to Sir William Paston (North Walsham, Norfolk, St Nicholas), a work that followed convention in its reliance on height and architectural display for effect. Wright continued to work in this manner, with some idiosyncrasies and refinements of detail, when commemorating Edward Talbot, 8th Earl of Shrewsbury (c. 1619; London, Westminster Abbey), Sir Robert Gardener (c. 1620; Elmswell, Suffolk, St John the Baptist) and Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, and his Family (c. 1621; Salisbury Cathedral). Later, however, he adopted the fashion for shrouded effigies, revealing a talent for figure sculpture in the tombs of Anne, Lady Deane...


Jeffrey Chipps Smith

[Wolff ; Wolf]

German family of sculptors . They were among the most talented German sculptors of the late 16th century and early 17th. Ebert Wulff (i) (b ?Hildesheim, c. 1535–40; d Hildesheim, 1606/7) was active in Hildesheim as early as 1568, where he carved the statue of Hildesia (signed and dated 1581) in the Rathaus, the roughly contemporary allegorical carvings in the Ratsapothek and the coat of arms of the Brewers’ guild (1591), among other works. His double wall-tomb of Clamor von Münchhausen (d 1561) and Elisabeth von Landsberg (d 1581) of the early 1580s (Loccum, Klosterkirche) and the monument of Canon Ernst von Wrisberg (d 1590) of 1585–90 in the choir of Hildesheim Cathedral reveal his adoption of Cornelis Floris’s ornamental motifs. Ebert (i), and later his sons, repeatedly used Netherlandish prints as models for decorations and figural compositional sculptures.

His son ...


Cynthia Lawrence

(b Antwerp, c. 1647; d ?Antwerp, after 1674).

Flemish sculptor . He left Antwerp in 1670 for Leiden, where he enrolled as a student of mathematics at the university. He may have been a colleague of Rombout Verhulst. However, Xavery’s work shows a greater inclination towards genre and picturesque caricature than Verhulst’s. This is particularly marked in his exuberant, small terracotta figures with their oversized heads and prominent facial features, such as Two Laughing Jesters, Lady with a Lapdog, Two Madmen and Lady Portrayed as Flora (all 1673; Amsterdam, Rijksmus., all signed). Small-scale works in other media include his signed and dated ivory Adam and Eve (1671; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) and his bronze Peasant Boy and Girl (both c. 1675; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). His terracotta relief of the Flagellation of Christ (1667; Bruges, Gruuthusemus.) is a rare example of a religious subject. Xavery also worked on some monumental works, including stone figures for the pediment and gable decoration (...


A. Gerhardt

(b Regensburg, 1581; d Dresden, Dec 28, 1620).

German ivory-carver . His father, Pankraz Zeller, worked as a turner at the Saxon court in Dresden from 1583. In 1610 Jakob Zeller was appointed court turner and teacher of the art of turning to Christian II, Elector of Saxony, and to John-George I in 1613. Among his numerous ivory pieces for the royal art collection—in 1618 he cited 22 works that he had produced since 1613—were ceremonial goblets, for example an ornate goblet (1610; Stockholm, Kun. Slottet) with Andromeda as the stem and crowned by a group of Perseus on horseback fighting the monster. The use of such sculptural ornamentation as mascarons is typical of his work. He also made numerous counterfeit spheres. One example (1611; Dresden, Grünes Gewölbe) is a large globe with four round openings, through which can be seen a smaller, similar broken globe bearing a medallion with the portraits of Christian II, his wife and their respective coats of arms. On the top of the globe there is a figurine of a boy with a skull; at the foot there is a figure of a Roman warrior....


Barbara Kahle

German family of ivory-turners . The family originated in Nuremberg, where various members were occupied with artistic turnery, particularly in ivory, from the late 16th to the 18th century. Indeed, it was principally the work of the Zick family that made Nuremberg one of the three main centres (along with Regensburg and Dresden) of ivory-turning for the manufacture of objets d’art. The family workshop achieved extraordinary skill in overcoming the greatest technical difficulties. Although little is known of the careers of individual family members, such contemporary sources as Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1730) and Johann Michael Teuber (1740) provide important points of reference. The artistic dynasty is thought to begin with Peter Zick I (1571–1629), who was at some period turnery master to Emperor Rudolf II at his court in Prague. Peter Zick I was famous for his ivory drinking vessels (e.g. in Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.), and an ivory nef (Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.) may also be attributable to him; it bears an imperial coat of arms, perhaps a reference to his stay at the court in Prague. His son ...


R. W. Lightbown

( Giulio )

(b Syracuse, 1656; d Paris, Dec 22, 1701).

Italian sculptor, active also in France . He was born of a noble family named Zummo (he changed the spelling to Zumbo in Paris) and educated for the church. Zumbo was a wax sculptor and anatomical modeller and, like many late 16th- and 17th-century amateurs who practised the art of wax modelling, was probably self-taught, although he may have learnt something of the technique in Sicily, where wax imagery was popular. Before 1691 he went to Naples and visited Rome and other cities in Italy. He was an enthusiastic collector of Old Master drawings and engravings. In Naples he may have invented a new method of colouring wax for sculpture ( see Wax §II 1., (i) ), which attracted sufficient notice for him to be summoned to Florence in 1691 by Cosimo de’ Medici III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who paid him a monthly pension. As a sample of his skill he may have brought with him a scene with wax figures, the ...


Jorge Luján-Muñoz and Liliana Herrera

(b c. 1615; d Santiago de Guatemala [now Antigua], ?Jan 14, 1687).

Guatemalan sculptor. His work as a master sculptor (Maestro) began around 1640 in Santiago de Guatemala (now Antigua). In 1654 he made the famous Baroque processional statue of Jesús Nazareno for the church of La Merced (in situ), which was finely carved and brought him renown. The tinting and painting of the figure was by Joseph de la Cerda. A statue made for the church of Candelaria, known as Jesús Nazareno de Candelaria (now in the church of the Candelaria, Guatemala City) has also been attributed to him, but on insufficient grounds. In 1660, as the leading sculptor in Guatemala, Zúñiga received important commissions that included retables for the convents of La Concepción and of S Catalina. In 1666 he was responsible for the construction of the catafalque for the funerary honours for Philip IV (d 1665). In the contract he described himself as Maestro of sculpture and architecture. In ...


Jeffrey Chipps Smith

German family of sculptors. They were among the most important and productive families of sculptors in southern Germany in the 17th century. Hans Zürn the elder (1555/60–after 1631) had six sons, all of whom became sculptors. No documented work of his has survived, but on the basis of his presumed contribution to the high altar in Überlingen Minster (see §1 below), an attractive Crucifix (Wangen, Kapelle am Isnyer Tor) and a bust of St Jacob (Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.) have been attributed to him. These wooden figures, with their slender, elongated bodies and gaunt, introspective faces, have a precious yet frail quality when compared with the work of his sons, with whom he frequently collaborated. The most prominent of these, all of whom started their careers in the Bodensee region, was (1) Jörg Zürn of Überlingen, whose masterpiece was the five-storey Mannerist high altar in Überlingen Minster. ...