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Morgan Falconer

(b Santander, Dec 19, 1954).

Spanish painter, photographer and film maker. He studied Fine Art at the Escuela Superior de San Carlos, Valencia, between 1973 and 1977. In the second half of the 1970s he was attracted to various contemporary art forms, such as performance art and land art, and completed a series of photo-montages, Super-8 films and some paintings heavily indebted to Abstract Expressionism. In the early 1980s Uslé began to concentrate on painting, influenced by the Neo-Expressionism currrent at that time and by the concept of nomadism attached to the Transavanguardia. While he often made reference to nature, in the important 1960 series, such as 1960.Williamsburg (1987; Paris, Gal. Farideh Cadot, see 1996–7 exh. cat., p. 77) he revealed himself more as a belated symbolist than as a naturalist: such pictures are dark, lyrical and romantic, in an earthy palette and murky light. In 1987 he moved to New York, subsequently dividing his time between there and Saro, Cantabria. In ...


Patricia Strathern

(b Villequier, Seine-Maritime, 1819; d Paris, 1895).

French photographer and poet. He was a close friend and associate of Charles Hugo (see Hugo family §(2)) and followed him and the Hugo family into exile in the Channel Islands in 1852. Along with Hugo, he dispelled the boredom of life in exile by working on a literary and photographic project about the life of the Hugo family. The albums they produced—perhaps as many as 67, but of which only 2 survive (Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot., and Paris, Bib. N.)—were presented to friends as mementoes of the Hugo family. Although the photographs are technically poor, the subjects, which include family, friends, children and household pets, have all the charm of intimate snapshots of 19th-century family life....


Eugenia Parry Janis

(b Boissy-Saint-Léger, Dec 12, 1795; d Paris, May 4, 1866).

French lithographer, photographer and painter. From his début at the Salon of 1814 as a painter he regularly exhibited lithographed images of daily life, fashion, regional costumes and erotica, many done after the work of English and Dutch artists. He also published his own lithographed compositions, mostly ‘female types’. With Achille Deveria and others he contributed to the compendium of romantic erotica called Imagerie galante (Paris, 1830), which provocatively updated an erotic mode found in 18th-century engravings. The subjects were pictorial versions of stock characters from popular novels and plays.

Vallou turned to photography in 1842 after nearly 30 years of popular lithography. By 1851 he was using the paper negative exclusively. He belonged to the Société Héliographique and was a founder-member of the Société Française de Photographie. It is not known how and why he changed to the new medium, except that he may have seen its market potential in providing artists with photographic studies (...


Martha Schwendener

Dutch photographic partnership consisting of Inez van Lamsweerde (b Amsterdam, 25 Sep 1963) and Vinoodh Matadin (b Amsterdam, 29 Sep 1961). Van Lamsweerde and Matadin met in the early 1980s while Matadin was studying at the Vogue Academy of Fashion Design in Amsterdam (1981–4) and van Lamsweerde was studying photography at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie (MA, 1990). Their photographs have since straddled the worlds of fashion, art, and advertising. Van Lamsweerde’s residency at the P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center in Long Island City, New York, from 1992 to 1993 coincided with the rise of digitization, and their early work used Paintbrush software to digitally alter bodies in their photographs. It also emerged in an era of intense debate over the human body due to the AIDS crisis, Culture Wars, reproductive rights debates, and concerns about the developing field of human genetics. Works like ...


Susan Fisher Sterling

(b Rio de Janeiro, Nov 11, 1964).

Brazilian painter and photographer. Her works follow an international tendency in early 21st-century art to focus on the body and its politics. In the 1990s Varejão appropriated and remapped a large corpus of Portuguese and Dutch Baroque images and artefacts disseminated during the colonization of Brazil, in order to confront a history of violence and domination, resistance and displacement. Re-using images from old maps, Portuguese azulejos (tin-glazed tiles), Chinese import porcelains, historical scenes by European artists, portraits and early travelogues and colonial histories, Varejão linked the colonial discovery of the New World to the subjugation of indigenous people and the creation of slavery and a global trade empire. This approach reveals ‘the historical molding of the body by religion, by the violent and amorous encounters in the formational process of America, by the politics of gender in regard to women, by the lessons of anatomy from scientific knowledge and art’ (see Herkenhoff, p. 4)....


Morgan Falconer

(b Ostend, Oct 3, 1948).

Belgian sculptor and photographer. He was a poet until 1974, when he began to work with black-and-white photography. His earliest images emerged from a conceptualist framework and addressed questions about representation which surfaced in relation to self-portraiture and the nude. Both these subjects continued to be important to him: in the series Portrait of the Artist by Himself (1984; see 1993 exh. cat., pp. 5–7) he posed in front of an abstract, geometric backdrop, gesticulating obscurely and carrying a makeshift mask in front of his face, as a way of continuing the paradoxical themes of absence that he had explored in his earlier self-portraits; in the series Lucretia (1983; see 1989 exh. cat., pp. 22–35) he presented a mythological subject through a series of photographs in which a nude describes elements of the narrative by means of gestures. Vercruysse is perhaps better known for his sculpture, in which he explored similar themes of absence and lack of meaning through the use of cultural archetypes, an approach which has led to comparisons with René Magritte. The series ...


Italo Zannier

(b Milan, May 28, 1908; d Milan, Feb 25, 1998).

Italian photographer, painter and designer. He studied with the painter Carmelo Violante and the critic Raffaello Giolli (1889–1945) in 1924. At the beginning of the 1930s he was in Paris, where he frequented the atelier of Fernand Léger and was involved with avant-garde art circles, particularly the group Abstraction-Création, of which he was a member. He also followed closely the activities of the Bauhaus, especially the graphic designs and systematic colour experimentation of László Moholy-Nagy. Veronesi undertook similar explorations as part of his ongoing scientific and aesthetic research.

From his youth photography was an important part of Veronesi’s activity, beginning with the innovative abstract photograms and continuing with the conventional photography he sometimes used in graphic and publicity design. In 1932 he exhibited his first abstract works in the Galleria Il Milione in Milan; they were in stark contrast to the art of the Fascist regime then in vogue. Veronesi also worked on both experimental and scientific films. As a photographer he explored a variety of photographic techniques, including photograms, solarization and photomontage, always with a view to exploiting the creative and expressive potential of the medium. He was particularly interested in the interpenetration of forms, making rigorous geometrical compositions from single transparent elements....


Marta Gili

(b Sabadell, nr Barcelona, 1878; d Sabadell, 1954).

Spanish photographer. His eagerness to assimilate the European aesthetic currents that had not reached Barcelona led him to travel in France and Germany. In Paris he came into contact with Symbolist painting, which was to leave a profound impression on his work. On returning from his travels in 1901, he settled permanently in Sabadell, where he opened a studio that later became famous. His sophisticated nudes, the baroque quality of his compositions and his allegorical subjects make him one of the foremost representatives of Spanish Pictorialism....


Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....


Geoffrey Belknap

(b Dobrilugk [now Doberlug-Kirchhain], Brandenburg, March 26, 1834; d Berlin, Dec 17, 1898).

German photographer and chemist. Vogel was one of the most important German photographic scientists of the 19th century, which can be witnessed in his experimental research, publications, and teaching. Educated at school in Frankfurt an der Oder and the Royal Industrial School at Berlin, Vogel had training in chemical, mechanical, and geological sciences. This training came to bear on his appointment as a scientific assistant at the Mineralogische Museum of Berlin in 1858. Vogel later moved back to the Royal Industrial School where he established the school’s first photographic laboratory. From there, in the early 1870s, he produced his most important chemical investigation, which demonstrated how photographic plates could be made sensitive to colour. While the development of commercial colour photography was still many years away, Vogel’s experiments were critical in furthering the investigation of colour spectra and optics and in advancing the science of photography more generally. Vogel shared some of this research with the scientific and professional photographic communities in several widely printed books, including ...


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Basle, April 12, 1946).

Swiss photographer. He studied photography at the Gewerbeschule, Basle (1964–7). After being apprenticed to American photographer Will McBride (1931–2015) in Munich, he opened his own studio in Basle in 1970. From 1972 he worked for various magazines, such as Du, Camera, Time-Life and Playboy. His photographs were created in clearly defined phases, such as his ‘blue period’ with tinted prints (1973–5) or the ‘frame’ series (1975) of photographs in which a rectangular frame photographed inside the field of view became the parameter for a picture within a picture (e.g. Without Title, 1975; Basle, Antikenmus.). His best-known series of erotic self-presentations of women, with a wooden crate as a prop (1979–81), explored a similar principle. His photographs often implied reflections on the photograph itself, on its subject, its selection and the relationship between what was shown and what was left out....


Richard Cork

British artistic and literary movement, founded in 1914 by the editor of Blast magazine, Wyndham Lewis, and members of the Rebel Art Centre . It encompassed not only painting, drawing and printmaking but also the sculpture of Henri Gaudier-Brzeska and Jacob Epstein and the photographs of Alvin Langdon Coburn. Notable literary allies were Ezra Pound, who coined the term Vorticism early in 1914, and T. S. Eliot. T. E. Hulme’s articles in The New Age helped to create a climate favourable to the reception of Vorticist ideas.

The arrival of Vorticism was announced, with great gusto and militant defiance, in a manifesto published in the first issue of Blast magazine, which also included work by Edward Wadsworth, Frederick Etchells, William Roberts and Jacob Epstein. Dated June 1914 but issued a month later, this puce-covered journal set out to demonstrate the vigour of an audacious new movement in British art. Vorticism was seen by Lewis as an independent alternative to Cubism, Futurism and Expressionism. With the help of ...


Catherine M. Grant

(b Nieuwer Amstel, nr Amsterdam, March 12, 1959).

Dutch photographer, video artist and installation artist. She trained as a sculptor at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam between 1987 and 1990. In 1992 she began to use video and film loops, often incorporating them into larger installations, using the monitor or projections as sculptural objects within the gallery space. These looped pieces use repetition to undermine any narrative or resolution in the action, as in Handstand (1992; see 1995 exh. cat.) where a girl performs a handstand against a wall over and over again. The viewer is held in a state of anticipation by the possibility of some kind of climax, recalling the early video work of artists such as Bruce Nauman. In Warmerdam’s installation Untitled (1994; see D. Birnbaum, p. 64), a room is filled with helium balloons attached to cans of soft drink; the balloons have phrases such as ‘I Love You’ written on them, their cloying sentiment attached to the artificial sweetness of the drinks. Here the objects function in a similar way to the video loops, generating an atmosphere that is both celebratory and disturbing because of the lack of narrative. In the installation ...


Hans Christian Adam

[Johann] ( Josef )

(b Bilin, Bohemia [now Bílina, Czech Republic], Dec 20, 1848; d Vienna, 1903).

Austrian photographer of Bohemian birth. He attended the Kunstakademien in Leipzig and Munich from 1866 to 1867 and taught drawing from 1873 at the Mittelschule in Komotau [now Chomutov], Bohemia, and from 1875 in Vienna. In 1890 he took his first photographs and joined the Wiener Camera-Klub, where in 1891 he met Hugo Henneberg and in 1894 Heinrich Kühn, the three becoming closely associated. In 1894 Watzek became a member of the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the . He worked first of all with platinum, then with gum prints, and from 1896 made coloured gum prints. Finally, with Heinrich Kuehn and Hugo Henneberg, he perfected the techniques of coloured gum printing and combination printing. He exhibited with Kuehn and Henneberg under the group name of Trifolium (Das Kleeblatt) from 1897 to 1903 and travelled with them in Italy, Germany and the Netherlands. From 1898 to 1902 he corresponded with Alfred Stieglitz....


John-Paul Stonard

(b Birmingham, Dec 10, 1963).

English photographer and video artist. Wearing has described her working method as ‘editing life’. By using photography and video to record the confessions of ordinary people, her work explores the disparities between public and private life, between individual and collective experience. Wearing has cited the influence of English fly-on-the-wall documentaries, such as Michael Apted’s 7-up and the 1970s documentary The Family. Signs that Say What You Want Them to Say and Not Signs that Say What Someone Else Wants You to Say (1992–3), made shortly after her graduation from Goldsmiths’ College in 1990, was produced by approaching people on London streets, asking them to write something on a card and then photographing them as they displayed it. Private lives were given a sudden and revealingly painful exposure: a policeman holds a card reading ‘Help!’. With the introduction of video and more in-depth interviewing of her subjects, Wearing began to use devices such as adult actors lip-synching the recorded confessions of children, and subjects, solicited from advertisements placed in newpapers, making confessions while wearing masks. The introduction of actors signalled an increasingly dramatic element in her work and a shift away from the use of documentary techniques. The ...



Mary Christian

[ Fellig, Usher ; Fellig, Arthur ]

(b Złoczew, Austrian Galicia [now Ukraine], June 12, 1899; d New York, Dec 26, 1968).

American photographer of Austrian birth. He emigrated to the USA in 1910 and took numerous odd jobs, including working as an itinerant photographer and as an assistant to a commercial photographer. In 1924 he was hired as a dark-room technician by Acme Newspictures (later United Press International Photos). He left, however, in 1935 to become a freelance photographer. He worked at night and competed with the police to be first at the scene of a crime, selling his photographs to tabloids and photographic agencies. It was at this time that he earned the name Weegee (appropriated from the Ouija board) for his uncanny ability to make such early appearances at scenes of violence and catastrophe.

Weegee made only a meagre existence from his photographs, mostly shots of bloody murders, fires, the seedy Bowery district and sympathetic views of people who lived on the streets of New York at night. Weegee became a master of the sensational. Despite this fact, one of his most famous images is ...


(b Lansdown, nr Bath, c. 1860; d Elstree, 1939).

English photographer and scientist . He studied architecture but took up photography before completing his studies. John Wellington collaborated with George Eastman of the Kodak Company, Rochester, NY, in the 1880s and became the first manager of the Kodak works in Harrow, Middx (1891–3). He then moved to Elliot and Sons, Barnet, Greater London, and later, with his brother-in-law H. H. Ward, he founded the company of Wellington and Ward, manufacturers of photographic plates, films and papers, of which he was scientific and technical Director. As a photographer he made all his own cameras, printing frames and emulsions, and coated his own plates. Wellington cannot be identified with any particular school of aesthetics, since his work varied greatly from pictorial landscapes to the period between c. 1912 and 1929 when he produced sensitive studies of his young family (e.g. Mother’s Jewels) and pictorial photographs of domestic scenes of family and friends. Some of his later works could have been photographs taken for publicity purposes....


Hripsimé Visser

(b Amsterdam, Jan 26, 1942).

Dutch photographer . He studied at the Rietveld Academy in Amsterdam and then with the Dutch photographer Ata Kando, also working as a freelance press photographer in Amsterdam. From the end of the 1960s he worked as a documentary photographer in the tradition of politically engaged, concerned photography. His early work showed the influence of Ed van der Elsken with its interest in human drama, its use of a direct, lively approach and a dark printing technique; but he soon evolved a personal style, combining these elements with a strong formal approach.

Wessing made his first major photo-reportage in Paris during the student revolts in 1968, publishing it as Parijs, 1968 (Amsterdam, 1968). From the 1970s he became deeply involved with the political situation of South America, later publishing collections of these images, such as Chile, September 1973 (Amsterdam, 1974) and Van Chili tot Guatemala: Tien jaar Latijns-America (‘From Chile to Guatemala: Ten years in Latin America’; Amsterdam, ...


Geoffrey Belknap

(b Besançon, 1812; d Paris, 1882).

French photography critic and writer. After preparing for a life in engineering and business at the Ecole des Arts et Manufactures in Paris, Wey soon abandoned his studies to enter the literary world. With patronage from Charles Nodier (1783–1844), a luminary of the Parisian literary community, Wey obtained a position as an archivist, which helped to supplement his writing career. He is known to the art historians today primarily for his writings on photography published as a series of articles in the journal La Lumière throughout 1851. In this journal, Wey contributed commentaries on photographic portraiture; the art of making lithographic prints from photographs; and the relative value of different photographic methods (where he argued for the calotype process over the daguerreotype). Wey also advocated strongly for the use of photography as a tool to record, reproduce, and transport paintings, sculptures, and other three-dimensional art objects; these reproductions, he argued, would allow the study and appreciation of art objects to extend beyond the home and museum. Unlike some of his contemporaries at the British Museum, such as Roger Fenton, who argued for a similar use of the camera as recording device, Wey himself never practised photography. He nevertheless weighed in on the debate over authorial priority in photography, which was framed by the ongoing legal battle in England over William Henry Fox Talbot’s claim to the invention of the positive–negative photographic process. These writings by Wey were influenced in part by his relationship with the French Realist painter Gustave Courbet, who shared Wey’s critical engagement with the supposed verisimilitude of photography....


J. P. Ward

(b Gloucester, Feb 6, 1802; d Paris, Oct 19, 1875).

English physicist and photographic inventor . He began his career as a musical instrument maker and was professor of Experimental Physics at King’s College, London, by 1834. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1838 and was knighted in 1868. He is usually remembered for contributions to acoustics and electric telegraphy, but his interests also included optics and photography. From 1832 he established the principle of stereoscopy and constructed the first stereoscopes. In 1838 Wheatstone presented a long paper on the subject, which discussed his discovery that an illusion of a three-dimensional object could be produced from two slightly different flat pictures viewed simultaneously, one by each eye. He called the instrument that he devised to view the pictures the stereoscope. Although it was received enthusiastically, interest in the stereoscope was purely scientific until the invention of photography. Wheatstone then persuaded his close associate William Henry Fox Talbot, and later ...