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(b Mechelen, 1637; d Mechelen, 1709).

Flemish sculptor. He was a pupil of Maximilaan Labbé (fl c. 1629) and Lucas Faydherbe and became a master sculptor of the Mechelen Guild of St Luke in 1662. He worked almost entirely in wood and, unusually, coloured his own figures, which perhaps accounts for their exceptional synthesis and unity. He is best known for his confessionals, including those in SS Pieter en Pauwelkerk (1683–4), St Janskerk (1692) and St Katelijnekerk, all in Mechelen, and for his many refined yet powerful depictions of Christ as a Man of Sorrows in both stone (e.g. c. 1688; Mechelen Cathedral) and oak (e.g. early 1690s; Antwerp, Klooster van de Zusters Apostelinnen). His small ivory crucifixes with elegant elongated figures of Christ in attenuated poses recall those by Faydherbe. He is documented as the teacher of Cornelis van der Veken (c. 1657–1740; presumably a relation) in 1671...


Pedro Dias

(b Lamarosa, nr Tentúgal, c. 1550; d Tentúgal, 1632).

Portuguese architect and sculptor. He moved c. 1570 to Coimbra, where he joined the group of sculptors working around João de Ruão, who then dominated Portuguese sculpture. It was there that Velho first encountered architectural forms based on classical models and a decorative style, originating in northern Europe, in which Mannerist ornament was superimposed on classical structures.

Numerous extant documents refer to the activities of Tomé Velho and to his civic life. His first important assignment was in 1576, when he worked in collaboration with João de Ruão on the construction of the church of Bouças, Matosinhos, near Oporto. João de Ruão was then old and unable to travel to the north of the country, and he left his assistant to complete the work. In 1582 Tomé Velho was in charge of the construction, decoration and sculpture of the chapel of S Teotónio in the chapter room of the Augustinian monastery of Santa Cruz, Coimbra. While adopting a hybrid architectural style, he remained faithful to the northern taste for minutely detailed decoration and the use of Flemish strapwork in a version of the Renaissance style of decoration as practised by João de Ruão after ...


Antonia Boström

(b Camerino, 1555; d ?Loreto, April 7, 1610).

Italian sculptor. He may have been trained as a bronze sculptor in Recanati at the Fonderia Recanatese and is first recorded in 1572 as an assistant of Girolamo Lombardo in Loreto. In 1576 he was paid for work on the frames and reliefs of the four bronze doors of the Santa Casa in the basilica of S Maria in Loreto. He assisted Antonio Calcagni in 1582 in casting bronzes for the Massilla–Rogati Chapel in the same church and collaborated with Antonio Lombardo II (c. 1564–between 1608 and 1610) in 1583 on the group of the Virgin and Child for the basilica’s façade. In 1585 he was commissioned by the Camerino town council to execute a bronze seated statue of Sixtus V (completed 1589; Camerino, Piazza Cavour). The dull characterization of the Pope is relieved by Vergelli’s attention to ornamental detail in the throne and the reliefs of female allegories decorating the base....


Cynthia Lawrence

(b Mechelen, Jan 15, 1624; d The Hague, bur Nov 27, 1698).

Flemish sculptor, active in the Netherlands. He studied in Mechelen with Rombout Verstappen (d 1636) and Frans van Loo (fl 1607–35) and perhaps also with Lucas Faydherbe. In 1646 he moved to Amsterdam, where he later worked under Artus Quellinus (i) (e.g. portrait bust, Artus Quellinus, Utrecht, Cent. Mus.) on the decoration of the Amsterdam Stadhuis (now Royal Palace); at some point between 1646 and 1654 he may have made a trip to Italy. For the Stadhuis, Verhulst executed the figure of Venus and reliefs of Fidelity and Silence (before 1658) for its galleries and produced terracotta studies (c. 1655; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) for the griffiersstoel (bench of the court clerk) and bronze doors of the Vierschaar (tribunal). In 1658 Verhulst was living in Leiden, where he was involved in decorative projects for Pieter Post’s Waag (Weighhouse), including the marble relief The Butter-seller (1662...


(b Kalkar, c. 1540; d Kassel, 1607).

German architect and sculptor. From 1559 he worked, at first with his father Heinrich Oych (Verneyken), on the relief ornament of fireplaces at the new Schloss Horst, Gelsenkirchen; after 1564 he worked there independently as a plasterer in the ornamentation of windows and dormers, using an Early Renaissance strapwork style.

From 1569 to 1573 Vernucken directed the building of the Doxal, a new entrance porch for the Cologne Rathaus, for which Cornelis Floris, Lambert Sudermann and Hendrik van Hasselt had submitted designs. The Council decided in favour of a ‘medium-scale’ (i.e. cheaper) plan, which they commissioned Vernucken to build. It is an open, two-storey hall, five bays wide and two bays deep, in a High Renaissance style; the arches of the lower arcade are rounded, but those of the upper storey are slightly pointed. The central and outer bays project slightly, the projecting entablature being supported by Corinthian columns. The profuse ornamentation of plinths, balustrades and spandrels shows Netherlandish influence. The entrance porch was altered in ...


Klaus Herding

(b Trets, June 25, 1637; d Toulon, June 10, 1689).

French sculptor and stuccoist. He was the most prominent member of a large family of sculptors and architects active in Provence in the second half of the 17th century; the most notable other members were his brothers Louis I (c. 1629–after 1697), François (1634–1707) and Joseph (1641–77); among the later generations were Louis I’s son Thomas (1658–1736), architect of the Carmelite church at Aix-en-Provence (begun 1693), and François’s son Lazare V (1659–after 1710), the probable sculptor of the delicate marble relief of the Raising of Lazarus on the high altar of Aix Cathedral.

Christophe Veyrier is referred to in 1663 in documents in Genoa as a maître esculpteur; he was trained in Rome in 1668–9 and from 1670 worked for the Eglise des Minimes in Toulon. Four years later he married a niece of the sculptor Pierre Puget. In ...


Marjorie Trusted

(b Argul, Asturias, 1663; d Madrid, after 1728).

Spanish sculptor. He moved to Madrid in 1686 and probably worked initially with Pedro Alonso de los Rios ( fl late 17th century). By 1687, however, he had set up his own workshop. His first known work is the polychromed wooden head of St Paul, signed and dated 1707 (Valladolid, Mus. N. Escul.). The accomplished realism of this piece, in particular the swirling carving of the beard, is characteristic of Villabrille’s style. Other documented works are the wooden statue of St John the Baptist (c. 1717) in Badajoz Cathedral, two stone statues on the Toledo Bridge in Madrid, St Isidore and St Mary de la Cabeza, an official commission of 1723 and the stone statue of St Ferdinand (1726) in the portal of the Madrid Hospice of St Ferdinand (now Madrid, Mus. Mun.). Luis Salvador Carmona, who was at this time apprenticed to Villabrille, assisted him on the three stone pieces. Other works attributed to Villabrille on the basis of style include a figure group of the ...


Oreste Ferrari

(b Massalubrense, Naples, March 13, 1625; d Naples, ?July 1695).

Italian sculptor, silversmith and architect. He was a pupil and collaborator of Dionisio Lazzari. His independent activity in and around Naples dates from 1661, when he carved the wooden choir-stalls in the church of S Pietro ad Aram, Naples. His first sculptures are the bronze statue of St Francis Xavier (1664; Naples Cathedral, Cappella del Tesoro) and the silver Christ (1670; Naples, Santa Trinità dei Pellegrini), which reveal a relative freedom from the Baroque tradition. Like other Neapolitan artists, Vinaccia retained an ambiguity between traditional and archaic forms and more modern stylistic elements.

Vinaccia is better known for his decorative stucco work in the vault of the oratory of Nobili, near the Gesù Nuovo (1682), and in the Congregazione dell’Immacolata, near the Gesù Vecchio (1691). He also produced silver liturgical objects such as crucifixes, candelabra, reliquaries and frames for altar-cards. The large silver antependium for the altar of the Cappella del Tesoro in Naples Cathedral is his most important work, and the representation of the ...


Wilhelmina Halsema-Kubes

(b Spaarndam, c. 1604; d Amsterdam, after Aug 20, 1664, before Feb 12, 1665).

Dutch sculptor. He was probably apprenticed to his father, Jan Albertsz. Vinckenbrinck, a cabinetmaker. Most of his surviving works are small objects in box-wood, though he is said also to have worked in mother-of-pearl and ivory. His most famous work is the richly decorated oak pulpit (c. 1646–9) in the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam. The high reliefs on the six sides of the pulpit represent the Acts of Mercy: these panels are flanked by personifications of the Virtues. The pulpit is signed and dated in a number of places. For the Oude Doolhof (Old Labyrinth) in Amsterdam he produced a David and Goliath with Shield-bearer (c. 1648; Amsterdam, Hist. Mus.) and a fountain with the figure of Bacchus; the latter is known only from a print by Pieter Holsteyn II (c. 1614–83).

Vinckenbrinck’s small pieces in box-wood include Adam and Eve (Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.); the ...


(d 1651).

Italian sculptor. He headed a Milanese family that produced two generations of sculptors and painters, including his sons, Domenico Vismara ( fl 1640–45) and Francesco Vismara. He came under the influence of Gian Andrea Biffi, one of the many sculptors engaged in decorating Milan Cathedral. By 1610 Vismara was listed among them and he continued to work there for most of his life. His marble sculptures and his bas-reliefs of saints and other religious figures may be found throughout the cathedral, all executed in the late Mannerist style favoured by Biffi and many other 17th-century Milanese sculptors. Examples include his statues of St Peter and St Paul (1612). He carved a group of angels for the ornamentation of the chapel of the Madonna dell’Albero, in collaboration with his brother Giuseppe Vismara, Gian Pietro Lasagna (d 1658) and Marc’Antonio Prestinari (d 1621). A brief hiatus in Gaspare’s career occurred after ...


(b Antwerp, Jan 3, 1667; d Antwerp, Dec 6, 1737).

Flemish sculptor. He was possibly an apprentice of Jan Cosyns but later moved to the studio of Pieter Scheemakers the elder and became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1690. Between 1690 and 1693 he travelled in Italy, visiting Rome and Naples. In 1700 he married Elisabeth Verberckt (aunt of the sculptor Jacques Verberckt), and they had five children, one of whom, Michiel van der Voort II (1704–after 1777), was also a sculptor and painter. The majority of his commissions were for religious works, generally church furnishings in various materials. His memorial statues were classical and simple, and he drew on the knowledge he had acquired in Rome of Hellenistic statues. Other influences were Michelangelo and Rubens. The memorial to Humbert Guillielmus de Precipiano, Bishop of Mechelen (1709; Mechelen Cathedral) is traditional in design, but the marble figure of the Bishop is a penetrating portrait. The tomb of the Bishop’s brother, ...


Lars Olof Larsson

(b The Hague, c. 1545; d Prague, bur Dec 15, 1626).

Dutch sculptor and draughtsman, active in Italy and central Europe. He is particularly associated with the court of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, in Prague, to which he carried the sophisticated Florentine Mannerist court style of Giambologna. Baldinucci recorded de Vries as a collaborator with Giambologna in Florence. There is documentary evidence of his presence there in 1581 and 1585; from 1586 until 1588 he worked with Pompeo Leoni in Milan on the high altarpiece for the Escorial; in 1588 there is mention of him as a court sculptor in Turin. However, his first documented independent work is the over life-size bronze group of Mercury and Psyche (1593; Paris, Louvre) produced for Rudolf II, a work that owes much in composition and style to similar two-figure groups by Giambologna.

From 1595 to 1602 de Vries worked in Augsburg, where he produced the works for which, apart from the Mercury and Psyche...


Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b Liège, bapt Feb 6, 1607; d Paris, Aug 26, 1672).

French sculptor, medallist and painter. He was one of the most eminent French medallists and a sculptor of considerable reputation during the first half of the 17th century. He trained in the Liège workshop of his father, the medallist and chaser Jean Warin. By 1615 the family had left Liège, perhaps for Sedan, and by 1625 Warin was in Paris, where in 1629, having renounced his Protestantism, he took part charge of the Monnaie du Moulin during the minority of the heirs of the Olivier family, its hereditary owners. Having secured his position by marrying their widowed mother, he took charge of the studio of the Lyon mint around 1642–3, and in 1646 he was appointed Tailleur Général des Monnaies de France, to which in the following year he added the office of Contrôleur Général des Poinçons et Effigies des Monnaies de France. He became a member of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in ...


[ Jan ]

(b Giessen, Hessen; fl Sweden, 1641 d Stockholm, 1669/70).

German sculptor, active in Sweden . He arrived in Sweden in 1641, at the invitation of Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, Dowager Queen of Sweden (1599–1655), and was first a member of Jost Henne’s workshop (1642–5). From 1646 he worked for the city of Stockholm, and from 1648 he was court sculptor. Among his surviving works are: the portal and decorative gable of the house at Stortorget 20 (1650) and the portal of Själagårdsgatan 2 (1659–60) in Stockholm; the fine Ionic columns with entablatures in the main portico (c. 1655–6) of Skokloster Slott, Uppland; the portals (c. 1654) of the parish church of Vadsbro, Södermanland; and the sculptural work of the mortuary chapels of Eric Ryning (1592–1654), with his burial monument (1656) at Vadsbro, and of Nils Ryning (d 1631), with a tomb monument (...


Silvia Glaser and Klaus Pechstein



Hermann Maué

(b Altenburg, Dec 16, 1661; d Gotha, Dec 3, 1739).

German medallist . He trained in Dresden as a die-cutter with Ernst Caspar Dürr ( fl 1683–92) and as an engraver with a man named Pieler. In 1686 he became a die-cutter at the Mint of the House of Schwarzburg in Sondershausen, becoming Court Medallist to the House of Saxe-Gotha in 1688. He refused the post of die-cutter in Berlin offered to him in 1703. Although he remained in Gotha, he received the title of Royal Prussian Court Medallist. In 1699 he received an Imperial privilege that permitted him to strike medals in his own house and was intended to protect his work against unauthorized imitation. In his workshop he trained numerous apprentices, including his three sons and his eldest daughter, as expert die-cutters. More than 1300 medals were produced in this workshop, among them a series of 214 portraits of Roman and Holy Roman Emperors, about 100 satirical medals, numerous pieces for members of the European royal families (e.g. ...


Torbjörn Fulton

German family of artists, active in Sweden . Johan Werner the elder (b Jägerndorf, c. 1600; d Vadstena, 10 March 1656) was working in Sweden, probably by 1619, as a decorator, possibly in the castle at Vadstena, Östergötland. From 1637 he was employed as court painter by Count Per Brahe the younger (1602–80). His main work was the sculptured and painted decoration (1637–1660s) of the Brahe Church on the island of Visingsö in Lake Vättern. He was also asked to execute paintings and sculptures (1650s) in the castle at Läckö, but much of this work probably remained unfinished. In addition, he executed a rather naive panoramic equestrian portrait of the Count (1649; Bålsta, Skoklosters Slott), depicting him in a vast landscape in which three of his residences can be seen. Johan Werner the younger (b c. 1630; bur Gränna, 10 Nov 1691), the son of Johan Werner the elder, also worked for the ...


Iris Kockelbergh

(de) [Tabachetti; Tabaguet; Vespinis]

Flemish family of artists . The most extensively documented member is the sculptor Jean [Giovanni] de Wespin (b Dinant, c. 1569; d ?Varallo, Valsesia, 1615), whose father was a marble merchant. Having received some training at either Namur or Dinant, Jean travelled in 1587 to Italy to work at the court of Vincenzo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. Except for a visit to Dinant in 1588, he remained in Italy for the rest of his life. He is principally remembered for his statues at the Sacromonte at Varallo in the Valsesia. These life-size terracotta figures are grouped together within chapels in tableaux representing scenes from sacred history. He probably became associated with the Varallo sacromonte in 1587, at the beginning of the second phase of works at this sanctuary. A contract of 1590 states that he was to be responsible for the chapel of St Orso (destr.), the Paradise Chapel and the Calvary Chapel; of Jean de Wespin’s work there, some forty human figures and nine horses now remain. The ...


Torbjörn Fulton

(b c. 1585; d Stockholm, April 3, 1652).

German sculptor and architect, also active in Sweden . From c. 1620 he lived in Hamburg, where he executed works in marble and alabaster. He was a so-called Free Master, which makes it certain that he was highly valued by his patrons. Although he was probably very productive during his Hamburg period, no traces of his work are left there; nor does the single, documented work by him in Germany survive, a large altarpiece in the Nicolaikirche in Elmshorn, executed c. 1640 but destroyed already in 1657 and now known from a contemproary description. One other German work has been attributed to Wilhelm on stylistic grounds: a big wall epitaph (1637) for Johan Schönbach in Schleswig Cathedral.

In 1635 the Swedish Lord High Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna (1583–1654), invited him to Sweden to work on the Palace of the Nobility in Stockholm. After the death of its architect, Simon De La Vallée, in ...