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Lars Olof Larsson

(b The Hague, c. 1545; d Prague, bur Dec 15, 1626).

Dutch sculptor and draughtsman, active in Italy and central Europe. He is particularly associated with the court of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, in Prague, to which he carried the sophisticated Florentine Mannerist court style of Giambologna. Baldinucci recorded de Vries as a collaborator with Giambologna in Florence. There is documentary evidence of his presence there in 1581 and 1585; from 1586 until 1588 he worked with Pompeo Leoni in Milan on the high altarpiece for the Escorial; in 1588 there is mention of him as a court sculptor in Turin. However, his first documented independent work is the over life-size bronze group of Mercury and Psyche (1593; Paris, Louvre) produced for Rudolf II, a work that owes much in composition and style to similar two-figure groups by Giambologna.

From 1595 to 1602 de Vries worked in Augsburg, where he produced the works for which, apart from the Mercury and Psyche...


Vincent Mayr

(d 1516–20).

German sculptor. In 1492 he worked for St George’s Church, Haguenau, Alsace, and in 1495 he became a citizen of Strasbourg. The large quantities of wood and stone sculptures that were produced suggest that he had a large workshop.

Little of Wagner’s documented work survives, but his style can be seen in the unpainted limewood reliefs of SS Peter and Maternus from the high altar of St-Pierre-le-Vieux, Strasbourg (1.91×1.58 m, destr. 1749; ex-church of the Confession d’Augsbourg, parish of St Pierre-le-Vieux). According to the contract recorded by Bebel in 1669, the altar was finished in 1500–01. It was 3.2 m high and unpainted. An early 18th-century description states that the shrine (central panel) contained the Coronation of the Virgin with Saints.

The main characteristic of Wagner’s style is the combination of the Late Gothic tradition in landscape, drapery, pose, and gesture with the new demands of the early 16th century, so that the generally balanced type of figure favoured by the previous generation of artists is offset by individualized heads with strongly introspective facial expressions....


Martin Raumschüssel


German family of sculptors. They were originally from Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland), and there were many branches of the family in Silesia and Saxony. The most important members over four generations exerted a decisive influence on sculpture in Dresden between the Late Gothic and the Baroque. The first member referred to in documents is Hans Walther I ( fl 1487–1511; d Steinmetz), who concluded an inheritance settlement with his brothers in 1497 in Breslau and signed a sandstone figure of St Christopher (1511) in the parish church of Neurode in Silesia (now Nowa Ruda, Poland). Of his two sons, (1) Christoph Walther I was the first member of the family to settle in Dresden; this branch of the family was continued by his son, Hans Walther II (1526–86). After Christoph’s death in 1546, Hans II took over his workshop and received many commissions when, from 1548...


Hannelore Hägele

[Claus ]

(b 1450/55; d after 1526).

German sculptor. His name appears several times in the roll book of burghers of Ulm between 1481 and 1526. In 1490 he was commissioned to produce a high altarpiece for St Martin’s church, Biberach, similar in construction and appearance to those at Sterzingen and Blaubeuren. This, his major work, was destroyed during the iconoclasm of 1531. Its eight painted Passion scenes were once thought to be by Martin Schongauer.

The Ulmer Museum, Ulm, has three relief panels by Weckmann: St Catherine of Alexandria (c. 1510) may have formerly belonged to the cloister of Heggbach, while two other high reliefs, a Nativity and an Adoration of the Magi, were once wing panels of the high altar (c. 1515) at Attenhofen parish church, where the predella showing the Twelve Apostles and additional paintings can still be seen. The altars at Biberach and Attenhofen were carved in limewood and originally polychromed. The two Nativity scenes have retained some of their former colour, while the ...


Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth and Kristin Lohse Belkin

[Weyditz; Widitz; Wyditz; Wydytz; Wydyz]

German family of artists, active in the Upper Rhine region from the mid-15th century to the mid-16th. The sculptor Bartholomäus Wyditz (d after 1477) from Meissen in Saxony married the daughter of the painter Marx Doiger (d 1477) in Strasbourg in 1469 and took up residence there. His son (1) Hans Weiditz (i) was probably the father of (2) Hans Weiditz (ii) and was also the father of (3) Christof Weiditz (i). (4) Christof Weiditz (ii) was the son of the latter.

Thieme–Becker; LK

Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

(b ?Strasbourg, ?c. 1475; d Strasbourg, ?1516).

Sculptor. He was probably trained in his father’s workshop but he worked as a master in Freiburg im Breisgau between 1497 and 1514. Until 1508 he is described as a Bildhower (sculptor) in the lists of the painters’ guild. The parish account books for 1510 record a payment for carved wooden rosettes for keystones in the chancel of Freiburg Cathedral (originals now Freiburg im Breisgau, Augustinmus.). Between ...


Silvia Glaser and Klaus Pechstein



Iris Kockelbergh

(de) [Tabachetti; Tabaguet; Vespinis]

Flemish family of artists . The most extensively documented member is the sculptor Jean [Giovanni] de Wespin (b Dinant, c. 1569; d ?Varallo, Valsesia, 1615), whose father was a marble merchant. Having received some training at either Namur or Dinant, Jean travelled in 1587 to Italy to work at the court of Vincenzo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. Except for a visit to Dinant in 1588, he remained in Italy for the rest of his life. He is principally remembered for his statues at the Sacromonte at Varallo in the Valsesia. These life-size terracotta figures are grouped together within chapels in tableaux representing scenes from sacred history. He probably became associated with the Varallo sacromonte in 1587, at the beginning of the second phase of works at this sanctuary. A contract of 1590 states that he was to be responsible for the chapel of St Orso (destr.), the Paradise Chapel and the Calvary Chapel; of Jean de Wespin’s work there, some forty human figures and nine horses now remain. The ...



Marianne Grivel

(b Neufchâteau, Vosges, 1532; d Damblain, Haute-Marne, 1599).

French goldsmith, painter, sculptor, medallist and engraver . He followed his father and grandfather in working as a goldsmith until c. 1555, after which he was primarily active as an engraver. In that year he received two privileges for the Pinax iconicus (Adhémar, 6), published in 1556, and the Livre d’anneaux d’orfèvrerie (Adhémar, 19), published in 1561 with a dedication to the poet Barthélemy Aneau. Around 1556 he executed three engravings with historical or mythological subject-matter, the Bull of Phalaris, Hasdrubal’s Wife Throwing Herself on the Pyre and Phocas Led Captive before Heraclius (Adhémar, 21–3). It was previously thought that Woeiriot went to Italy after 1550 and settled in Lyon on his return in 1554, but it now seems that he did not leave for Rome until c. 1559–60. At the end of 1561 he was in Nancy; he continued to make frequent visits to Lyon until 1571. On 1 December 1561...


Jeffrey Chipps Smith

[Wolff ; Wolf]

German family of sculptors . They were among the most talented German sculptors of the late 16th century and early 17th. Ebert Wulff (i) (b ?Hildesheim, c. 1535–40; d Hildesheim, 1606/7) was active in Hildesheim as early as 1568, where he carved the statue of Hildesia (signed and dated 1581) in the Rathaus, the roughly contemporary allegorical carvings in the Ratsapothek and the coat of arms of the Brewers’ guild (1591), among other works. His double wall-tomb of Clamor von Münchhausen (d 1561) and Elisabeth von Landsberg (d 1581) of the early 1580s (Loccum, Klosterkirche) and the monument of Canon Ernst von Wrisberg (d 1590) of 1585–90 in the choir of Hildesheim Cathedral reveal his adoption of Cornelis Floris’s ornamental motifs. Ebert (i), and later his sons, repeatedly used Netherlandish prints as models for decorations and figural compositional sculptures.

His son ...


( fl c. 1514–17).

South Netherlandish sculptor . He was from Mechelen, but he is known only for work done for the town halls at Middelburg and neighbouring Veere in Holland, to which members of the Keldermans family from Mechelen also contributed. In 1514–18 Ywyns was paid for a series of 25 sandstone statues for the façade of the Stadhuis in Middelburg. The statues, which represent the counts and countesses of Holland, were placed in ten pairs beneath canopies set between the first-floor windows of the main façade, with a further figure on each of the five sides of the adjoining corner tower. Restoration work of 1838 was so extensive that little of the original style of the figures can be determined. Ywyns may possibly be identified with the sculptor IJssewijn, who was paid for an Annunciation (untraced) and a statue of ‘Heer Hendrick’ for the Stadhuis of Veere. The project was similar to the Middelburg scheme: seven sandstone statues, set between the first-floor windows, survive, representing the patron ...


Stephen K. Scher

(b Bologna or Volterra, 1512–15; d ?Rome, c. 1565).

Italian medallist and sculptor . Son of the sculptor Zaccaria Zacchi (1473–1544) of Volterra, he spent almost his entire career in Bologna, working primarily for the Farnese family. One of his earliest and best-known medals (e.g. Florence, Bargello; see Pollard, p. 1292) was modelled in 1536 and shows the 82-year-old Venetian Doge Andrea Gritti. It is signed IO. zacchus. f. on the reverse, which has a figure of Fortune holding a cornucopia and a tiller and standing on a globe encircled by a three-headed serpent. On only one other medal, that of Fantino Cornaro of Episcopia (Turin, Mus. Civ. A. Ant.), does Zacchi give this full signature.

Other medals, signed either IO. f. or simply IO, are attributed to the artist on stylistic grounds, but such attributions make sense both chronologically and geographically. One of these, signed IO. f. (e.g. Florence, Bargello; see Pollard, p. 1293), is of ...


(b Florence or Rome; d Vilnius, Lithuania, 1541).

Italian architect and sculptor, active in Poland and Lithuania . Until 1529 he served as an assistant to the architect and sculptor Bartolomeo Berrecci in his work on the Sigismund Chapel, Kraków Cathedral. In about 1531 he founded an architectural–sculptural partnership with Giovan Battista Cini (d 1565) and Filippo da Fiesole (d 1540), also former collaborators of Berrecci. Their main achievement was the cathedral in Płock (1532–41): a basilica with a nave in three bays, aisles, transept with apse and a dome (raised in height, 1901–3), it was the only imitation north of the Alps of Renaissance basilicas of the type built in Rome by Florentine architects in the last quarter of the 15th century, e.g. S Agostino (1479–83) and S Maria del Popolo (1472–80). In July 1534 Zanobi and his associates entered into a contract to rebuild the cathedral in Vilnius (begun ...


Marjorie Trusted

( fl Ávila, 1499 d Ávila, 1524).

Spanish sculptor and architect . He may have trained in Italy, whence he introduced Italian Renaissance forms to New Castile, particularly in Ávila. In 1499 he established himself at Ávila as a carver in alabaster. He was also active as an architect, and in 1508 he was involved with the reconstruction of the cloisters in Ávila Cathedral. He carved the wall tomb (c. 1515) of Archbishop Alonso Carrillo de Albornoz in the chapel of S Ildefonso, Toledo Cathedral, a work with a strong Italianate influence perhaps partly due to the presence of Domenico Fancelli in Ávila. The monument is in the form of a triumphal arch, but all surfaces are carved with a profusion of decorative motifs reminiscent of the Lombard school. In 1518 de la Zarza completed the monument to Bishop Alonso de Madrigal, known as El Tostado, in the trasaltar mayor (the area behind the altar) of Ávila Cathedral. The seated figure of the bishop writing at a lectern is dramatically posed, and the work displays virtuoso carving of the drapery. In ...


Barbara Kahle

German family of ivory-turners . The family originated in Nuremberg, where various members were occupied with artistic turnery, particularly in ivory, from the late 16th to the 18th century. Indeed, it was principally the work of the Zick family that made Nuremberg one of the three main centres (along with Regensburg and Dresden) of ivory-turning for the manufacture of objets d’art. The family workshop achieved extraordinary skill in overcoming the greatest technical difficulties. Although little is known of the careers of individual family members, such contemporary sources as Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1730) and Johann Michael Teuber (1740) provide important points of reference. The artistic dynasty is thought to begin with Peter Zick I (1571–1629), who was at some period turnery master to Emperor Rudolf II at his court in Prague. Peter Zick I was famous for his ivory drinking vessels (e.g. in Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.), and an ivory nef (Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.) may also be attributable to him; it bears an imperial coat of arms, perhaps a reference to his stay at the court in Prague. His son ...