441-460 of 514 results  for:

  • Photography x
Clear all

Article

Marie-Loup Sougez

(b Bordeaux, July 16, 1889; d Paris, Aug 24, 1972).

French photographer. He studied painting at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Bordeaux from 1904 to 1911, then turned to photography, which he studied in Germany and Switzerland (1911–14). He returned to France with the outbreak of World War I and when the hostilities ended he settled in Paris, where he founded the photographic department of the journal L’Illustration in 1926. In the 1930s he was a promoter of photographie pure at the same time as the Neue Sachlichkeit artists in Germany and Group f. 64 in the USA. His favourite subjects were large-scale photographs of still-lifes (e.g. Pile de torchons, 1935; see Art or Nature: 20th Century French Photography, London, 1988) and nudes (e.g. Rest, 1935; see C. Beaton and R. Buckland: The Magic Image, London, 1975). He also produced landscapes and some portraits. He illustrated art books and wrote numerous texts on the aesthetics, techniques and history of photography....

Article

Monica McTighe

(b South Woodford, Essex, June 15, 1934; d Hampstead, London, June 24, 1992).

English photographer and writer. Jo Spence began her career as a commercial photographer. She was active in the Children’s Workshops and labour organizations in London in the early 1970s where she met her future collaborator Terry Dennett at Children’s Workshop in London in 1970. Together they founded the Photography Workshop, an organization intended to critique photography, especially its use in vernacular settings. Spence was part of the generation of photographers and theorists in the 1970s that questioned the traditional history of photography using Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic theories. In the mid-1970s she and Dennett worked on the notion of ‘photo-theatre’, in which they restaged images or events in the form of photographs. Along with Dennett, she produced a group of black-and-white images that critiqued media, politics, and traditional art titled, Remodelling Photo History (1982; see 1995, p. 78–83). Drawing on her experience as a commercial portrait photographer, she produced ...

Article

(b London, April 19, 1910; d Malden, Essex, March 11, 2005).

English photographer, painter and textile designer. He studied architecture at the Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg, in Germany (1927–8) and at the Architectural Association School in London (1929–34). During his time in Germany he absorbed the influence of the Neue Sachlichkeit movement and of photographic developments in illustrated journals such as the Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung and Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung. Though largely self-taught, he did learn photographic techniques from his brother Michael Spender, an employee of the Leitz camera factory. Among other jobs he worked as a commercial and portrait photographer (1934–9), and as a staff photographer for the Daily Mirror (1936–8) and for Picture Post (1946–9). From its foundation in 1937 until 1939 he was the official photographer for the Mass Observation project, which brought together painters, poets, social scientists and film makers to record the details of everyday British life. During the project Spender worked with a concealed camera so that the scenes he captured were entirely natural, as in ...

Article

Lee Fontanella

(fl Málaga, 1865–75).

Spanish photographer. The majority of his work was realized in his Málaga studio, on the Pasaje de Larios, 3, where he made cartes-de-visite. However, his suite of large-format photographs of the new Córdoba–Málaga railway (1867; Madrid, Pal. Real) established him as one of Spain’s pre-eminent 19th-century photographers. He also produced some stunning views in 1875, destined for the Centennial International Exhibition in Philadelphia, PA, in 1876. In contrast to the reportage of his railway views, some of these photographs are symbolic, as in the case of the view of Boats in the Puerto de Palos (Austin, U. TX, Ransom Humanities Res. Cent.), where Columbus had outfitted his fleet. Spreafico’s studio work is completely overshadowed by large-format photographs like these, made from wet-collodion glass-plate negatives.

L. Fontanella: La historia de la fotografía en España: Sus monumentos y artes, su naturaleza e historia desde sus orígenes hasta 1900 (Madrid, 1981) Photography in Spain in the Nineteenth Century...

Article

Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Gelsenkirchen, Jun 18, 1906; d 1998).

German photographer, designer and painter. He trained (1921–6) as a painter of churches, after which he studied at the Folkwangschule, Essen, under Max Burchart (1887–1961). From 1929 until 1937 he worked in Zurich as a painter and graphic artist, designing for an advertising agency. During this period he began photographic experiments, making photomontages, collages and photograms. He saw photography as an important source for his graphic designs. In 1937 he moved to Stuttgart, where he designed for numerous firms. In the tradition of the Bauhaus and Soviet Constructivism, he saw no separation between fine and applied art. He was influential in many areas of photography. As early as the 1920s he took series of photographs of industrial landscapes, and in the 1940s he experimented with heated layers of gelatine silver. In the 1950s he experimented with Op art and in 1953 made his first ‘nudogram’ (a variation of the photogram), all of which complemented his design work....

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b Belfast, July 12, 1971).

British photographer. She studied in Edinburgh at Napier University (1992–5) and at the Royal College of Art, London (1996–7). Starkey’s earliest work, produced in the mid-1990s, suggested a conventional documentary approach and was often characterized by a preoccupation with the resonance of ordinary objects. In her later work she began to capture more portentous scenes, recording activities with an almost theatrical character. Untitled – March 1999 (1999; see Frieze, Sept/Oct 2000, p. 89), part of the Untitled series begun in 1997, is typical of her mature work, both in its ostensible subject of two women and in the enigmatic mood of the piece, which is set in a public lavatory with a series of mirrors multiplying perspectives. Untitled – January 2000 (2000; see 2000 exh. cat., pl. VII) also takes as its subject two women in an urban setting, this time a video store, while again a dramatic perspective is established through the architecture of the interior. Often, the young women in Starkey’s photographs seem bored and melancholic and appear to be waiting for time to pass; she has described her work as ‘explorations of everyday experiences and observations of inner city life from a female perspective’. A number of her photographs have been set out of doors, sometimes seeming to carry with them a quasi-religious symbolism or a sense of the artificiality of nature, as in ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

(b London, July 30, 1961).

English photographer. She studied Fine Art at Goldsmiths’ College, London, graduating with a BFA in 1984 and an MFA in 1991. Her sculptures in the early 1990s featured domestic objects either cast in wax or knitted in wool. She began to use herself as model in Wearing Shoes Chosen by the Curator (1997; see Jones, p. 28), where she was photographed lying face down in a gallery, naked except for a pair of high heels. This examination of the female as a fetish object was continued in a series of photographs inspired by sculptures made in 1969 by Allen Jones in the form of women as furniture. For these she posed as a table or chair in imitation of Jones’s sculptures, as in Chair (1997’8; see Jones, p. 28), with her naked body displaying obvious signs of strain and discomfort. Drawing on images of women as seen in fashion and art, Stehli played on the female ideal of the fashion model, as in ...

Article

Constance W. Glenn

[Eduard-Jean ]

(b Luxembourg, March 27, 1879; d West Redding, CT, March 25, 1973).

American photographer, painter, designer, and curator of Luxembourgeois birth. Steichen immigrated to the USA in 1881 and grew up in Hancock, MI, and Milwaukee, WI. His formal schooling ended when he was 15, but he developed an interest in art and photography. He used his self-taught photographic skills in design projects undertaken as an apprentice at a Milwaukee lithography firm. The Pool-evening (1899; New York, MOMA, see 1978 exh. cat., no. 4) reflects his early awareness of the Impressionists, especially Claude Monet, and American Symbolist photographers such as Clarence H(udson) White. While still in Milwaukee, his work came to the attention of White, who provided an introduction to Alfred Stieglitz; Stieglitz was impressed by Steichen’s work and bought three of his photographs.

Steichen studied briefly in Paris at the Académie Julian and participated in the New School of American Photography exhibition in London and Paris (1900). He was elected a member of the ...

Article

Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Saarbrücken, July 12, 1915; d Essen, March 3, 1978).

German photographer. He studied medicine from 1934 to 1939, practising until 1947, when he set up a photographic portrait studio in Saarbrücken. A self-taught photographer, he set up a course in photography at the Staatliche Schule für Kunst und Handwerk, Saarbrücken, in 1948. The following year he founded the Fotoform group with Peter Keetman, Toni Schneiders (b 1920), Ludwig Windstosser (1921–83), Wolfgang Reisewitz (b 1917), Siegfried Lauterwasser (b 1913) and Heinz Hajek-Halke (1898–1983). The concept of Subjektive Fotografie was Steinert’s but was supported by the group as a whole, who first exhibited at the Photokina exhibition in 1950. Subjektive Fotografie emphasized personal vision and experimental photography over documentary realism, and the first exhibition included a section on the work of László Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer and Man Ray. Three exhibitions with the title Subjektive Fotografie were held (1951, 1954, 1958...

Article

Hans Christian Adam

(b Grömnitz, Dec 30, 1805; d Hamburg, Oct 23, 1894).

German photographer and painter. He was educated by his foster-father, the painter Carl Gottlob Stelzner (fl 1805–31). In 1829 and in 1831–4 Stelzner visited Paris, where he studied miniature portrait painting, and also travelled in other European countries. In 1837 he settled in Hamburg, visiting Paris again in 1839, where he learnt the daguerreotype process from Daguerre. He founded his own studio in Hamburg with Hermann Biow in 1842. His partnership with Biow lasted only a year. Stelzner’s own portrait business was particularly known for its extraordinary lively arrangements and for the hand-tinted images that his first wife Anna Carolina Stelzner (1808–75) produced. He became one of the most productive and artistically assured photographers of Hamburg. From 1854 he also made paper prints of his photographs but was thwarted by failing eyesight; his business continued from 1858 to 1862, when Stelzner was almost blind, with the help of assistants. Stelzner was a member of the Künstlerverein in Hamburg....

Article

Francis Summers

(b Prague, 1955).

Czech sculptor, photographer, video artist and performance artist active in Montreal, Canada. Moving to the West in her teenage years, she attended several Canadian universities before completing her MFA at the University of Toronto in 1982. Working in a variety of media, yet almost always engaging in a dialogue between the body and its environment, she is best known for her wearable sculptures not unlike those of Rebecca Horn. Her early work Measuring Tape Cone (1979; see 1995 exh. cat., p. 50) is a photograph that shows a tightly wound measuring tape covering the artist’s hand and extending into a cone. It is an early instance of her interest in creating objects that interact with the body, offering the possibility of liberation and the threat of containment. These themes are most obviously expressed in Jacket (1992; see 1995 exh. cat., p. 136), a garment in which the arms are sewn together. ...

Article

James Crump

(b Elberfeld [now Wuppertal-Elberfeld], May 9, 1904; d Buenos Aires, Dec 24, 1999).

German photographer and designer, active in Argentina. After studying (1923–1925) graphic design at the Technische Hochschule, Stuttgart, she became active in advertising and layout design. Around 1927 she met the Bauhaus photographer Walter Peterhans (1897–1960). While studying with him in 1927–1928 and completing his Bauhaus course in 1930, her work was informed by Surrealism and Constructivism and by what László Moholy-Nagy called the “new vision” or the problems of an increasingly urban, mechanical age. In 1929 Stern established a studio in Berlin called Foto Ringl + Pit (Ringle + Pit), with fellow photographer Ellen Auerbach. It was active mainly between 1929 and 1933 and became noted for its innovative advertising work. In 1933 Stern fled Germany and opened a studio in London, where she was active until 1937. Her production during these years is marked by her portraits of Bertolt Brecht and Helene Weigel and original works for ...

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b Worcester, 1949).

English conceptual artist, photograher and collagist. He studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, London, from 1967 to 1971. Stezaker always worked with the camera, yet his art, emerging out of the conceptual art movement of the 1970s, was shaped more by questions about the politics of representation than the history of photography. His earliest work often employed found popular imagery to examine the construction of stereotypes, and the ways in which the dominant ideology is naturalized through the construction of something designated as ‘reality’. I (1974; see 1979 exh. cat., p. 3) suggests this in its juxtaposition of a car advertisement with a passage from Sigmund Freud. This early use of captions was abandoned in 1976, often in favour of collage: Enter… (Exit)… the Third Person (A Domestic Allegory) (1976; see 1978 exh. cat., pp. 53–5) is typical of the period: its fragments depict an obscure scene involving a woman and a sexually predatory man; large sections of the tableau remain blank, while some of the elements are connected by extended white lines. In the late 1980s Stezaker began to produce large silkscreened images, again with collaged elements. These seemed of a more allegorical cast than his earlier work, combining motifs such as owls, tyres, moons and ships in mysterious juztapositions, often framed by pieces of bark. His work in the 1990s suggested a return to his theoretical interests of the 1970s: ...

Article

(b Komotau [now Chomutov, Czech Republic], Aug 6, 1839; d Vienna, Aug 12, 1911).

Austrian photographer and painter, active in Japan. He was a member of an aristocratic Austrian family. Although an experienced painter, he is known chiefly as a photographer, whose studio in Yokohama was immensely successful during the last quarter of the 19th century. Information on his formal training and his formative development as a photographer is sparse. He served as an officer, diplomat and reporter for the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and it is known that his travels to Asia, notably Siam (now Thailand) and China, were the staging-grounds for his first successful efforts in photography. It is probable that in these places he began to discern an interest by Europeans in Orientalia and realized the commercial potential of photographic representations of Asian ‘types’ and genre scenes of the region. Subsequently settling in Yokohama, he purchased the studio of the well-known photographer Felice Beato in 1877, and worked almost exclusively as a studio portrait photographer, producing thousands of images of the working classes, actors in the theatre, geishas and craftsmen, primarily for tourists visiting the city. He is perhaps best known for his photographic album book ...

Article

(b Stockholm, July 22, 1918; d 2002).

Swedish photographer and teacher. In the 1930s he studied languages in Germany, before studying art, particularly painting, in Dresden and Berlin. He also lived in Rome and Paris and briefly in Spain, where he served as a courier for the Loyalists during the Civil War. In 1939 he returned to Sweden. He participated in the Finnish Winter War and worked for the Norwegian resistance movement in Stockholm during the Nazi occupation of Norway. After the war Strömholm returned to Paris, where he painted and studied graphic design and made his earliest photographic studies of form and light. After meeting Otto Steinert in the early 1950s he became a member of Fotoform, taking part in one of the Subjektive Fotografie exhibitions. Later in the 1950s he left Fotoform, rejecting its ideals of patterns and space. He became particularly interested in the Parisian neighbourhoods inhabited by the socially unaccepted such as transvestites, living among them to gain their confidence before taking many photographs of them. During this period he divided his time between Paris, where he photographed, and Stockholm, where he exhibited his work, and where he initiated Kursverksamheten’s School of Photography. He was an inspiring teacher for generations of young Swedish photographers, whom he also influenced through his exhibitions in Stockholm at the Observatorium (...

Article

Steven Skopik

(b Geldern, Niederrhein, 1954).

German photographer. Struth’s early images of urban architecture bear the influences of his Düsseldorf Kunstakademie instructors, Becher family , known for their blunt, uninflected documentary style of depicting industrial era infrastructure. Like the Bechers, Struth’s architectural work consists of large-format monochrome images. The photographs focus on densely inhabited locales but avoid the inclusion of human inhabitants. Additionally the subject-matter is recorded with a stark, shadowless illumination characteristic of Struth’s Düsseldorf School peers (see Düsseldorf School (ii) ), lending the pictures a quality of austere description. Initially focused on the representation of German history and culture through its architecture, the project ultimately encompassed urban environments around the world including, for example, Rome, New York, and Tokyo. While local stylistic vernaculars are evident, the pictures document an encroaching international modernism.

Struth’s series of family portraits considers history and heritage as forces that bear on the formation of the individual. The photographs present their subjects formally posed in their homes. Struth’s sitters are resolutely quotidian—upper middle-class men and women whose restrained expressions range from reservedly pleasant to blankly impassive. Rather than revealing overt emotion or a sense of inner essence, the photographs highlight family resemblances and the subjects’ domestic settings. The implication is that identity is shaped by a myriad of circumstantial contingencies—genetic, sociological, economic, and historical....

Article

Daniela Mrázková

(b Čermná, Aug 11, 1899; d Prague, March 21, 1942).

Czech painter, collagist and photographer. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague and was a member of the avant-garde group Devětsil (founded 1920). He collaborated with the painter Toyen and became a leading personality in the Czech Surrealist group, which emerged in 1934. At the first Surrealist exhibition in Prague in 1935 he exhibited, besides his paintings, designs and collages, two photographic series, Frog Man and Man with Blinkers. Štyrský used photography only from 1934 to 1938, and he produced ‘pictorial poems’—collages composed of photographic fragments—as well as photographs of mundane objects removed from their surroundings. In 1941 he published illegally, with the poet Jindřich Heisler, a small book, Na jehlách těchto dnů, which included photographic sequences and verse and constituted a fierce condemnation of Hitler’s dictatorship.

Štyrský, Jindřich with J. Heisler: Na jehlách těchto dnů [Living on tenterhooks] (1941) A. Moussu: Jindřich Štyrský: Fotografické dílo...

Article

Marta Gili

(b Allariz, nr Orense, 1902; d La Guardia, nr. Pontevedra, Jan 5, 1974).

Spanish photographer, active in Argentina. He studied law at the Universidad de Salamanca, where he became interested in photography. He was employed by the film company CIFESA, directing numerous documentaries on the customs and traditions of Galicia. At the end of the Spanish Civil War (1939) he went into exile in Argentina, where he continued to work as director of photography on various films and as a contributor of both articles and photographs to such newspapers as La Nación and La Prensa. The core of his work, which is full of humanism and tenderness, is centered on the themes of customs and ways of life: fishing scenes, women working, and celebrations and festivities, not only in his native Galicia but also in Argentina, Uruguay, and Japan, in whose theater and performing arts he was extremely interested.

Galicia, terra, mar, e xentes. Pontevedra, 1981.Fontcuberta, J. Idas y caos: Aspectos de las vanguardias fotograficas en España: Sus monumentos y artes, su naturaleza e historia, 1920–1945...

Article

Daniela Mrázková

(b Kolín, March 17, 1896; d Prague, Sept 15, 1976).

Czech photographer. He was educated in Kolín until 1911, then trained as a bookbinder in Prague (1911–13) and began to take photographs as an amateur. He left for the Italian front line as a conscript in 1916. His right hand was amputated in 1917, after he was wounded, and during his convalescence he took up photography again. In 1920 he became a member of the Amateur Photographers’ Club in Prague; as the club scholar he studied under Professor Karel Novák at the State School of Graphic Art (1922–4), and he acquired a masterly photographic technique. He and Jaromír Funke, who represented the Czech avant-garde in photography, became leaders of a group who opposed the old order in the amateur movement. Sudek promoted the purist views on photography of the Czech-American Drahomír Josef Růžička (1870–1960), friend of Clarence H. White, a co-founder of the Pictorial Photographers of America association. Sudek also participated with Funke in the foundation in ...

Article

(b Glasgow, Sept 17, 1960).

Scottish photographer and writer, of Ghanaian descent. In 1985 she came to prominence as one of eleven women artists exhibited in The Thin Black Line at the ICA, London, curated by Lubaina Himid. This show marked the first significant breakthrough for contemporary Black and Asian art in a British public gallery. Sulter’s subsequent presentations gained her international recognition: she was awarded the British Telecom New Contemporaries Award 1990 and the Momart Fellowship at the Tate Gallery of Liverpool in 1990. She employed a variety of media in her work, including text, photography, sound recordings and performance. A frequent traveller and a prolific writer as well as artist, she focused her activity on a critical reappraisal of received histories and an assertion of Black cultural heritage. Noted works by Sulter include Zabat (1987; London, V&A), a series of Cibachrome photographic portraits of contemporary Black artists, musicians and writers, posed as a theatre of ancient muses. In ...