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K. A. Ottenheym

Dutch 18th-century garden (destr.) near Utrecht. In 1681 the Amsterdam merchant Jacob van Mollem established a silk factory on the River Vecht, near Utrecht. His son David van Mollem purchased additional land near his house, built sometime before 1693 next to the factory, and the garden that he established there became internationally famous ( see Garden §VIII 4., (v) ). From 1712 to 1736, when a neighbouring garden on the other side of the river was added to the complex, a formal, symmetrical garden was laid out. Influenced by French and particularly Italian examples that he must have known both from prints and his own observation, he incorporated into the garden an exceptional number of statues, arranged according to a specific plan and representing subjects from both Classical mythology and the Old Testament. Scattered throughout the garden were grottoes, a labyrinth, a theatre and a Turkish tent. At the centre were a large basin, and a triumphal arch backed by a hill and a dry hollow. In addition to numerous animal sculptures, the garden was also enlivened by fish ponds, a duck pond and a deer enclosure. Although the pleasure grounds no longer exist, their original appearance can still easily be reconstructed from the drawings (Utrecht, Cent. Mus.) made by ...


Alexander Koutamanis

[ Ernestos ] ( Moritz Theodor )

(b Oberlössnitz, nr Zwickau, June 22, 1837; d Athens, July 9, 1923).

German architect, designer and archaeologist, active in Greece. He studied at the Königliche Bauschule in Dresden (1855–8) and worked for Theophilus Hansen in Vienna (1858–9). Hansen brought Ziller to Greece to execute the Academy of Athens (1861–4). After an educational journey in Italy and further studies at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1864–8), Ziller settled in Greece. He eventually became a Greek national and rose to the positions of professor at the National Technical University of Athens (1872–82) and Director of Public Works (1884).

Ziller was the most active and influential architect of the reign of George I (reg 1863–1913). Following Hansen’s example, he adopted different morphological systems for different types of buildings. For public and residential buildings he used the Renaissance Revival style, as in Iliou Melathron (1878–80), the residence of Heinrich Schliemann and his most significant building; the house of Pavlos Melas (...


Christina Thon

German family of artists. (1) Johann Baptist Zimmermann and (2) Dominikus Zimmermann were the sons of Elias Zimmermann (1656–95), a stuccoworker and mason from Wessobrunn, whose work is known only from documentary sources. It is almost certain that they learnt their craft as stuccoists in the Wessobrunn school ( see Stucco and plasterwork §III 10., (i), (e) ). While Dominikus was almost exclusively associated with Bavarian and Swabian religious architecture, Johann Baptist became the leading representative of 18th-century interior decoration at the Bavarian court. Their collaboration was very influential on the development of Bavarian Rococo ( see Rococo §III ). Their extensive output required a large studio or workshop: among Johann Baptist’s assistants were his sons Johann Joseph Zimmermann (1707–43) and Franz Michael Zimmermann (1709–84), who were both painters and stuccoists and contributed to the frescoes of the pilgrimage church at Steinhausen, near Schussenried, and the stuccowork at Seligenthal Abbey, Landshut (see below). Franz Michael succeeded his father as court stuccoist to the Elector. Dominikus’s son, ...


Tabitha Barber

(b Dresden, 1683–5; d London, March 24, 1767).

German painter, active in England. He was the son of a Dresden goldsmith and trained in that profession, but he also studied with the portrait painter Heinrich-Christoph Fehling. In 1706 he moved to England on the invitation of the Swedish enamellist Charles Boit, to collaborate on a very large enamel commemorating the Battle of Blenheim, a project that was never completed. Zincke continued as Boit’s pupil but soon outstripped his master and at some time after 1714 set up on his own as a miniaturist. Promoted by Godfrey Kneller, he won himself a distinguished clientele and royal patronage, culminating in his appointment in 1732 as Cabinet Painter to Frederick, Prince of Wales. Vertue, the main source for Zincke’s life, wrote that at this time he ‘was so fully employed that for some years he has had more persons of distinction sitting to him than any other Painter living’. His prodigious output meant that not all his miniatures were of equal quality; even in his heyday he was criticized for portraits that were too much alike. Failing eyesight and a need to cut productivity caused him in ...


József Sisa

Hungarian family of architects. They were active in Pest (now Budapest) from the late 18th century to the second half of the 19th. Their exact relationship to each other is not established in all cases. The earliest known members are János I (b Pest, 8 July 1776; d Pest, 26 Oct 1824) and Mátyás I ( fl c. 1789–1803). The latter had a son, Mátyás II ( fl c. 1804–18). Like their forebears, Henrik (b Pest, 1822) and János II (b Pest, 1826; d Budapest, 1882) studied in Vienna and built mostly residential blocks in Budapest. The large Rundbogenstil synagogue (1864–71) at Kecskemet is the work of the latter. The outstanding member of the family was Mátyás Zitterbarth III (b Pest, 12 July 1803; d Pest, 14 Nov 1867), who spent some time in Vienna and probably also in Germany or Italy. He built a great number of residential blocks for the citizens of Pest in a somewhat restrained Neo-classical style. The main wing (...


Emilio Negro

(b Modena, May 23, 1681; d Rome, Feb 22, 1767).

Italian painter. He was a pupil in Modena of Francesco Stringa, a native of the city, with whom Zoboli was to work in 1708 on a number of wall paintings (destr.) in the Palazzo Ducale in Modena. After Stringa’s death in 1709, Zoboli moved to Bologna, to the workshop of Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole, where he remained until 1715, dividing his time between his apprenticeship and the creation of a number of canvases for clients in Modena. In 1714 he executed his first documented work, an altarpiece of the Virgin and Child amidst Angels Being Worshipped by SS Geminian and Antony, for the confraternity of S Maria degli Angeli at Spilamberto. In the spring of 1715 Zoboli moved to Rome, where, ten years later, he became a member of the Accademia di S Luca. In Rome he carried out a number of important commissions for the Jesuits, the King of Portugal and the Polish court, while painting several canvases for churches and private families in Modena. The paintings created during the period of Zoboli’s maturity (from the 1720s to the late 1740s) can be divided into two distinct categories. The first comprises commissions of a religious nature, including altarpieces that show clear links with the painting of Carlo Maratti and the works of Emilian artists active in Rome during the previous century, including Reni, Francesco Albani and Domenichino. The second category contains works of extraordinary modernity, which were created for a sophisticated clientele who commissioned numerous versions of the ...


(b nr Florence, 1711 or 1717; d Florence, May 1767).

Italian painter and printmaker. He began his training in Florence. The Marchese Andrea Gerini took him under his protection from an early age, sending him to Rome, Bologna, Milan and Venice to continue his studies. In Venice Zocchi saw engravings of views by Michele Marieschi and Bernardo Bellotto and painted a small oval portrait of Andrea Gerini and Antonio Maria Zanetti (1750 or 1751; Venice, Correr). Zanetti was a Venetian connoisseur and a friend of Gerini.

Zocchi is especially noted for two series of etched views of Florence and its environs: Scelta di XXIV vedute delle principali contrade, piazze, chiese e palazzi della città di Firenze and Vedute delle ville e d’altri luoghi della Toscana (Florence, 1744). Commissioned by the Marchese Gerini to provide visitors to Florence with a memento of their stay, they were both reissued in 1754, and the Vedute delle ville again in 1757. Zocchi’s preparatory drawings for both volumes have survived (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib.). ...


Jarl Kremeier

German family of architects. Johann Wilhelm von Zocha (b Gunzenhausen, 29 March 1680; d Lyon, 26 Dec 1718) succeeded Gabriel de’ Gabrieli as Director of Works at Ansbach in 1715 and continued the construction of the Residenzschloss. After his untimely death during a journey to Paris, his brother Karl Friedrich von Zocha (b Gunzenhausen, 1 July 1683; d Ansbach, 24 July 1749) was appointed to the position. Karl Friedrich had studied at the universities of Giessen, Halle and Leiden. He also spent time in Paris and was associated with the office of Robert de Cotte. He continued the Residenz and designed two façades (1726) in an understated classicism and some interiors. His most important existing work at Ansbach is the Orangery (1726–7). The south façade has 29 bays with a continuous order of pilasters and large round-headed windows similar to the Grand Trianon at Versailles. The north façade has two colonnades of nine bays between the central and corner pavilions, designed as a variation on Claude Perrault’s east façade of the Louvre. The interiors are largely by ...


Geoffrey Ashton and Lin Barton

(Joseph ) [Johannes Josephus ; John ]

(b nr Frankfurt am Main, March 13, 1733; d Strand-on-the-Green, nr Kew, London, Nov 11, 1810).

German painter, active in England. Born Johannes Josephus Zauffaly, he was the son of Anton Franz Zauffaly (1699–1771), Court Cabinetmaker and Architect in Regensburg to Alexander Ferdinand, Prince of Thurn and Taxis. After an apprenticeship in Regensburg under the painter and engraver Martin Speer (c. 1702–65), a pupil of Francesco Solimena, Zoffany left in 1750 for Rome, where he studied under the portrait painter Agostino Masucci and came into contact with Anton Raphael Mengs. By 1757 and after a second trip to Rome, Zoffany was commissioned by Clemens August, Prince-Archbishop and Elector of Trier, to produce frescoes and paintings for his new palace at Trier and the palace of Ehrenbreitstein at Koblenz. All Zoffany’s early work at Ehrenbreitstein and Trier has been destroyed, but it may have been in the German Rococo manner of Cosmas Damian Asam and Johann Baptist Zimmermann. A number of small easel paintings such as ...


Dario Succi

(b Nervesa, Treviso, Sept 24, 1700; d Venice, May 20, 1778).

Italian painter and engraver . He studied when very young with Nicolò Bambini (1651–1736), and later became a follower of Sebastiano Ricci. Before 1733 he executed a series of frescoes for S Nicolò da Tolentino, Venice, which included the Four Evangelists on the pendentives, Old Testament scenes on the drum, and, in the dome, the Holy Trinity. Of another early fresco cycle, in the church of the Servi at Gradisca, near Gorizia, only the vault fresco, the Apparition of the Blessed Virgin in Glory, survives. Zompini’s most considerable work as a history painter was a series of eight dramatic canvases, in a style reminiscent of Ricci and Giambattista Tiepolo, of scenes from Homer and Virgil, and seven monochrome overdoors representing Olympian deities, on a gold background, painted for the Palazzo Zinelli, Venice (all 1736; Moschen Castle, near Kujau, Silesia, Tiele-Winckler priv. col.)

In 1737 Zompini made drawings for the illustrations for ...


Jane Shoaf Turner

(b Amsterdam, 1641; d Amsterdam, May 18, 1724

Dutch collector, dealer and artist . He was trained by Pieter Janssen as a glass-engraver and was active as a dealer in glass until 1687, when he became one of Amsterdam’s most important saleroom brokers and appraisers and began to deal in other forms of art. By 1690 he had become one of the leading dealers in paintings, drawings and prints, counting not only Dutch collectors but also foreigners among his clientele, for instance Prince Eugene of Savoy. Long before this, from c. 1660, however, he had himself begun to collect drawings, prints and books. He owned drawings by mostly Dutch artists, such as Gerrit Berckheyde, Cornelis Bega, Jan Both, Pieter van Laer, Jan Noordt and Jacob Backer, and no less than seven volumes of drawings by Rembrandt. He seems to have applied his mark, a cartouche printed in black with the initials I.P.Z. (see Lugt), to drawings that passed through his hands as well as into his own collection. He also generally inscribed the name of the artist on each sheet, though at times he was deliberately optimistic with his attributions, especially with drawings said to be by Italian artists. He often bought prints and drawings already assembled in albums, which he then broke up and reconstituted into new ‘series’ that included individual items that were more difficult to sell. His print collection was more wide-ranging, with examples by Dutch, Flemish, Italian, French and German artists. Again, however, ...


Heidrun Zinnkann and Gordon Campbell

German term for a Neo-classical style that emerged c. 1770, corresponding to the French Louis XVI style. The term means ‘pig-tail style’, an allusion to the ancien régime. In the Zopfstil, early Neo-classical phase, traditional furniture continued to be made but with some updating of ornament. In the secrétaire, for example, serpentine Rococo forms were replaced by rectangular, more architectural designs, while marquetry decoration became confined to the centre of a drawer, door panel or fall-front. The new repertory of ornament used by cabinetmakers such as David Roentgen included such motifs as festoons, floral bands, paterae vases, metopes and triglyphs. The trend towards simplicity was firmly established by the end of the century. A favourite Zopfstil design type was the roll-top desk, which had been developed in France and eventually replaced the writing-cabinet or secrétaire. The desk cover, in the form of a quarter cylinder, retracted when the writing compartment was opened. The principled simplicity of the ...


Norihisa Mizuta


Name used by five generations of Japanese seal-carvers, active from the mid-18th century to the Meiji period (1868–1912). An ancient bronze seal (Jap. kichū) with a stem in the shape of a turtle (zōroku) was passed down from one generation of the family to the next. The founder of the Hamamura school was Zōroku I [Kitsu Mokyo] (b Edo [now Tokyo], 1735; d Edo, 1794), who worked in an Archaic seal-carving style influenced by Kō Fuyō (see Japan §XVII 20.). He was the eldest of four sons, and from an early age he was attracted by the Archaic school (Kotaiha) of Kō Fuyō. He went to Kyoto to learn the technique of seal-engraving from Fuyō and to seek out the mysteries of the art. He later returned to Edo, where he was instrumental in spreading the Archaic-school style. His style, which came close to that of Fuyō, gained him a very high reputation. In ...


Bernard Jacqué

French wallpaper manufacturing company established in 1790 in Mulhouse, Alsace. Originally the company was set up under the name of Nicolas Dolfus & Cie with Joseph-Louis Malaine (1745–1809), a designer from the Gobelins, as artistic director. In 1795 it changed its name to Hartmann, Risler & Cie, and in 1797 it moved to the commandery of Rixheim at the Mulhouse city gates. It was bought out in 1802 by Jean Zuber (1773–1852), the head of the marketing side of the business, whose name the company adopted and whose descendants remained in possession of the company until 1968.

Zuber was the driving-force behind the company. He ensured high-quality production by employing such excellent designers as Eugene Ehrmann (1804–96) and Georges Zipelius (1808–90), who designed ‘Décor chinois’ (1832; U. Manchester, Whitworth A.G.), and by perfecting new wallpaper manufacturing techniques: irisé or blended colourgrounds from ...


Sabine Heym

Italian–Swiss family of stuccoists, builders and architects active in Bavaria . The first important member of the family was Giovanni Battista Zuccalli (d 1678), a stuccoist recorded as working in Kempten (Allgäu) in 1661. His son-in-law Gaspare [Kaspar] Zuccalli (1629–78) and a cousin Domenico Christoforus Zuccalli ( fl 1651; d 1702) worked together (until c. 1666), designing and building churches and conventual buildings in Upper Bavaria and the Innviertel district. Gaspare, following his appointment (1668) as master mason to the Bavarian electoral court, brought (1) Enrico Zuccalli, son of Giovanni Battista, to Munich. Enrico, who had previously trained in Paris in the circle of Gianlorenzo Bernini, became the most important architect in the family and one of the most prominent architects in the circle of Italian-influenced builders from the Grisons. In later years he trained his young cousin Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli (...


Shearer West

(b Pitigliano, Umbria, Aug 15, 1702; d Florence, Dec 30, 1788).

Italian painter and draughtsman, active in England.

Zuccarelli’s training began in Florence, where he engraved the frescoes by Andrea del Sarto in SS Annunziata. He then studied in Rome under Paolo Anesi and learnt figure drawing from Giovanni Maria Morandi (1622–1717), although in this he never acquired any great skill. His earliest recorded paintings were Mary Magdalene and St Jerome (both untraced), which he contributed to the exhibition of the feast of St Luke in Florence in 1729. He also painted portraits. Around 1730 he moved to Venice and began painting landscapes exclusively. His interest in this field may have led to his becoming acquainted with the Welsh landscape painter Richard Wilson in 1750–51. Wilson painted a lively portrait of him (1751; London, Tate) in exchange for one of Zuccarelli’s landscapes. Zuccarelli avoided both the topographical type of Venetian view developed by Canaletto and the stormier landscapes of Marco Ricci, adopting instead a decorative landscape style of idealized Italian countryside. His subject-matter was usually unspecific rather than recognizably historical, biblical or mythological. For example, in the early 1740s he executed six paintings purporting to be scenes from the story of Jacob, but the paintings themselves bear few references to it (e.g. ...


Filippo Pedrocco

Italian family of artists . The family was based in Venice and is best known for engraving, although some members were also painters. Andrea Zucchi (b Venice, 9 Jan 1679; d Dresden, 1740), son of Giuseppe Zucchi who moved to Venice from Alano, near Bergamo, was an engraver, painter and stage designer. He studied painting with Pietro Vecchio and Andrea Celesti and engraving with Domenico Rossetti (1650–1736). In 1706 he moved to Pordenone, where he worked both as a painter and engraver, taking a leading part in the revival of engraving in the Veneto and being elected president of the Bottegha de Scultori e Stampatori in Rame di Venetia in 1719. In Pordenone he executed numerous portraits, views and costume designs, alternating between engraving, etching and mezzotint. In particular he contributed to the Gran Teatro di Venezia (Venice, 1720), published by Lovisa and, with his brother ...


Andrzej Rottermund

(b Merseburg, Saxony, Feb 20, 1733; d Warsaw, Aug 11, 1807).

German architect and landscape gardener, active in Poland . He worked in Dresden from 1747 and was appointed Clerk of Works (Kondukteur) in the Saxon Office of Works. He probably travelled to Italy in 1755 and lived in Poland from 1756, where in 1772 he was appointed Court Architect to Frederick-Augustus III, Elector and later King of Saxony (reg 1763–1827). In 1772, for Duke Casimir Poniatowski, he laid out the park at Solec. This was the first of a series of landscape gardens influenced by English models, with picturesque buildings, grottoes and artificial ruins, which he created for the Polish aristocracy. They included Mokotów (1775) for Elżbieta Lubomirska and the important park at Arkadia (from 1780) for Princess Helena Radziwiłł (1749–1821), with such features as an aqueduct, a ‘House of the High Priest’ and a temple to Diana (1783). Zug’s most important work was the Lutheran church (...


Susanne Kiefhaber

(b c. 1748; d Oberammergau, 1792).

German painter . His father, Johann Joseph Zwinck ( fl 1735–53), painted frescoes and executed decorations for the Oberammergau Passion plays, roles that Franz Seraph also undertook. An apprenticeship with Johann Jakob Zeiller and Martin Knoller has often been assumed: the influence of engravings of the Augsburg Akademie is evident in his earliest known fresco (1768), for the Echtler Haus, Oberammergau, depicting a Temptation of Christ adapted from Rubens.

Zwinck became well known as the ‘Lüftl’ or open-air painter of Oberammergau, frescoing the farmhouses of his homeland. His paintings (1780) on the Gasthaus zur Alpenrose in Mittenwald emphasize the vertical structure of the window axes by combining them with painted cartouches and figures. Beneath the gable, the sky opens and gives a clear view of the Coronation of the Virgin. This imaginary opening of the gable can already be observed in the Hornsteinhaus at Mittenwald, painted in ...