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Mario Buhagiar

(b 1710; d 1773).

Maltese painter . He was arguably Malta’s greatest native-born painter and one of the most gifted 18th-century artists south of Rome. He belonged to an artistically talented family, and his father, Pietro Paolo Zahra (1685–1747), was a popular stone-carver and a distinguished architect. Nothing is known of his upbringing but his surviving letters make it apparent that he received some sort of education, while his fluency in the late Baroque suggests a knowledge of the work of Francesco Solimena and a probable period of study in Naples. Another important influence was the work of Mattia Preti, to which he had easy access in Malta. The full impact of the Neapolitan Baroque is fully realized in the splendid Virgin of the Rosary (Tarxien, Parish Church) and the Miracle of St Vincent Ferrer (Valletta, Dominican Priory). His masterpiece, however, was the ceiling decoration of the chapter house of Mdina Cathedral, which he painted in oil on canvas stretched on a wooden framework. Completed in ...


Kedrun Laurie

German dynasty of rulers and patrons . From the 10th century the House of Zähringen held a leading position in Breisgau, and in 1112 Hermann of Zähringen (d 1130) was granted the title Margrave of Baden. Christopher I, Margrave of Baden (reg 1475–1527), who unified the family territories, was portrayed twice by Hans Baldung, alone (1513–15; Munich, Alte Pin.) and with his family (Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle). One of his sons, Ernest, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (reg 1527–53), founded the Protestant line of the family, with its seat at Pforzheim, Durlach (from 1565), and Karlsruhe (from 1715). The Roman Catholic line, which descended through another of Christopher’s sons, Bernard II, Margrave of Baden-Baden (reg 1527–36), had its seat first at Baden-Baden and from 1715 at Rastatt. In the early 18th century (1) Frances Sibyl Augusta, Margravine of Baden-Baden, wife of Ludwig-William, Margrave of Baden-Baden (...


Sergio Claut

(b Forno di Canale [now Canale d’Agordo], nr Belluno, March 22, 1709; d Treviso, Dec 29, 1781).

Italian painter . He may have served an apprenticeship in Belluno before moving, probably around 1725–30, to Venice, where he practised as a landscape painter for nearly 50 years. The first and most important influence on his art was that of Marco Ricci, also from Belluno, who was in Venice from 1717 until his death in 1729. Ricci’s etchings, published in 1730, provided Zais with a useful source of inspiration. From them he derived the scenographic format of his landscapes, usually framed by clumps of trees into which villages and figures of peasants were inserted, painted in a thick impasto of rich colour. The result is a pleasing, simplified style of great descriptive power. However, this attractive facility can also be seen as a limitation, for Zais never achieved Ricci’s dramatic effects. Zais’s contact with Francesco Zuccarelli in the early 1730s softened Ricci’s influence and introduced an increased refinement into his work, although sometimes at the risk of affectation....


Z. K. Pokrovskaya

[ Adrian ] ( Dmitriyevich )

(b St Petersburg, Aug 19, 1761; d St Petersburg, Sept 8, 1811).

Russian architect . He was born into the family of a member of the Admiralty Board and studied architecture at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg under Aleksandr Kokorinov and Ivan Starov. He was awarded a gold medal at the Academy, and after graduating in 1782 he went abroad with a bursary and worked in Paris with Jean-François-Thérèse Chalgrin. On returning to St Petersburg in 1786 he taught at the Academy of Arts; in 1794 he received the title of Academician, in 1797 he became a professor and in 1803 senior professor and supervisor of the architecture class. Zakharov was appointed municipal architect in Gatchina (1800), where he carried out his first practical work, and in 1803–4 he drew up the plans for rebuilding the Academy of Sciences on the Strelka, the eastern point of Vasil’yevsky Island in St Petersburg, which was important in relation to the planning of the city....


Bernard Aikema

(b Este, nr Padua, Dec 6, 1631; d Venice, April 12, 1722).

Italian painter . His first teacher was Giacomo Pedrali (d 1660), whose influence, however, is not discernible in Zanchi’s work. At an early age he travelled to Venice to study under Matteo Ponzone (1580/90–1664). The latter’s style, which was influenced by Tintoretto, played a limited role in his development; the influence of Francesco Ruschi ( fl 1643–56), originally from Rome and also active in Venice, Vicenza and Treviso, was more important during the artist’s formative years. The plasticity of the figures and the hard, almost metallic fall of the folds in the drapery that characterize his first known works, a series of etched frontispieces for opera librettos (earliest 1655: La Statira by G. F. Busenello), are certainly indebted to Ruschi. The few paintings by Zanchi that can be dated to the 1650s, such as the Entry into Jerusalem (Padua, Casa di Pena; ex-S Marta, Venice), also display similarities to Ruschi but at the same time betray a great interest in the early work of Luca Giordano and in Giovanni Battista Langetti, who had come from Genoa and worked in Venice. In the following years Zanchi adopted their stylistic traits, characterized by a strongly accentuated realism, dramatic chiaroscuro effects and a preference for violent subjects. He soon became a prominent representative of the ...



S. J. Vernoit

Dynasty that ruled in Iran from 1750 to 1794. The Zand tribe, a pastoral people from the Zagros foothills, became the dominant power in Iran after the death of Nadir Shah in 1747. Under Muhammad Karim Khan (reg 1750–79), who proclaimed himself regent (Pers. vakīl) for the Safavid puppet king Isma‛il III, the Zands brought stability to southern Iran, and from 1765 Karim Khan encouraged art and architecture ( see Islamic art, §II, 7(ii)(b) ) to flourish at Shiraz , his adopted capital. His first consideration was defence, and he rebuilt the city walls in 1767. Many of his other buildings, such as the citadel, palace and mosque with adjacent bath and bazaar, were grouped around a maidan to the north of the old city. Zand architecture is notable for its revetments in carved marble and overglaze-painted tiles with flowers, animals and people. Some themes were consciously revived from nearby Achaemenid and Sasanian sites such as Persepolis and Naqsh-i Rustam. Painting also flourished under Karim Khan (...


Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Fidenza, Sept 4, 1748; d Parma, Aug 12, 1821).

Italian writer . He was the author of the voluminous Enciclopedia metodica critico ragionata delle belle arti, a work that remains useful. Two editions are known: the first in eight volumes (Parma, 1794), the second in 28 (Parma, 1819–22), of which the first 19 constitute a dictionary of artists, the rest being devoted to the graphic arts. The dictionary section covers painters, sculptors, architects, draughtsmen, critics, collectors and others, each of whom is very briefly described through the use of an elaborate coding system. This gives details of nationality, dates of birth and death, scope of media and occupation, and even a ranking of merit, ranging from ‘bravissimo’ down to ‘molto mediocre’ in five stages

Enciclopedia metodica critico ragionata delle belle arti, 8 vols (Parma, 1794), rev., 28 vols (Parma, 1819–22) Bolaffi; Thieme–Becker

Italy, §XVII, 2: Historiography, 17th–20th centuries

Niello print, §2: History ...


Giovanna Perini

( Cavazzoni )

(b Paris, Oct 4, 1674; d Bologna, Sept 28, 1765).

Italian writer, painter and poet . He trained as a painter with Lorenzo Pasinelli and was active mainly in Bologna. Although his painting, as exemplified by such works as Joseph Retrieving the Silver Cup from Benjamin’s Sack (Bologna, Credito Romagnolo), was undistinguished, being a weak blend of classicist clichés and the graceful Rococo palette derived from Pasinelli, Zanotti was a friend of many outstanding men of letters and wrote widely on subjects connected with art. In 1710 he contributed a defence of Guido Reni’s works in the controversy between Domenico Bouhours and Giovan Gioseffo Orsi concerning the concepts of ‘delicateness’ and ‘weakness’ in painting. By that date he had already published a number of works, including a biography (1703) of Pasinelli, a defence (1705) of Carlo Cesare Malvasia’s Felsina pittrice (1678), which championed the late Baroque Bolognese tradition, and a revised edition (1706) of ...


W. Iain Mackay and Liliana Herrera

(b ?1710–20; d ?1773).

Peruvian painter. He was one of the last artists of the Cuzco school, whose members followed and repeated the formulae developed by Diego Quispe Tito. Though not outstandingly original, he is notable for the quantity of his production and commissions: between 1748 and 1764 he painted at least 200 works. His level of output was probably due to his use of numerous apprentices, such as Cipriano Toledo y Gutiérrez (fl 1762–73), Ignacio Chacón (fl 1763–80), and Antonio Vilca (fl 1778–?1803). During the 18th century Zapata and the other members of the Cuzco school started producing works incorporating highly formal, idealized figures based on the engravings that had long been supplied to artists by the religious orders of Cuzco. The indigenous artists consequently lost all contact with the Spanish realist school, a process to which Zapata contributed. However, while using European prints as a guide, in many of his pictures there are various non-European features: elegant creoles, black slaves, and such events as the epidemic of ...


N. A. Yevsina

( Petrovich )

(d 1727).

Russian architect and painter . He worked first in the Ukraine, and in 1701 he was invited to Moscow to enter the service of Peter I, Tsar and Emperor of Russia. He also superintended icon painting in Russia (from 1707). His principal work is the church of the Archangel Gabriel (1701–7), known as the Menshikov Tower, in Moscow. Its composition is based on the traditional ‘octagon on cube’ pattern, comprising two superimposed cubes surmounted by three octagonal stages. The building, which surpassed in height the hitherto tallest structure in the city, the bell-tower of Ivan the Great (1505–8) in the Kremlin, was topped by a dome, a gilded spire and the figure of an angel, also gilded (top storey destr. 1723). West European Baroque forms prevail in the architectural and artistic embellishment of the exterior and interior. Richly moulded decoration and sculptural motifs with angels’ heads together make up an emotionally complex, somewhat capricious picture. It is likely that Zarudny was involved in the building of the church of St John the Warrior (...


Ingeborg Schemper-Sparholz

(b Untervalpatann, Tyrol, July 5, 1746; d Vienna, March 3, 1822).

Austrian sculptor and teacher . He trained initially under the sculptor Balthasar Horer, a relation on his mother’s side, and under Josef Deutschmann in Passau. Subsequent academic tuition in Vienna, from Jakob Schletterer (1699–1774) and Wilhelm Bayer, however, was a decisive influence on him. Zauner’s first official commission in Vienna, received through his patron, Wenzel Anton, Prince Kaunitz-Rietburg, was for a sandstone fountain with the figures of The Danube and The Enns for the Ehrenhof at Schönbrunn (1775; in situ): here Zauner’s work was still strongly reminiscent of the Baroque classicism of Georg Raffael Donner. Even so, it contrasted with its counterpart at Schönbrunn by the older sculptor Johann Baptist Hagenauer, by virtue of its clearly arranged figure-composition, which Zauner directed towards one principal viewpoint. Zauner’s fuller adoption of a strict classicism occurred in Rome, where he stayed from 1776 to 1781, along with the painter, Heinrich Füger, as an Imperial–Royal pensioner. In Rome, Zauner was a member of the private academy of the Swiss sculptor ...



Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...


Franz Matsche

(b Reutte, Tyrol, July 8, 1708; d Reutte, July 8, 1783).

Austrian painter . Trained initially by his father, Paul Zeiller (1658–1738), he subsequently studied in Italy (1723–32) with Sebastiano Conca and at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome, and with Francesco Solimena in Naples, then at the Kaiserliche Akademie in Vienna. From 1733 to 1743 he was a regular collaborator on Paul Troger’s frescoes, contributing mainly architectural frameworks painted in the style of the Bolognese quadraturisti. He retained such frameworks in his own paintings throughout his life, even in south Germany where this was generally unusual. Troger’s influence on the style of Zeiller’s figures and on his iconographic repertory was such that his first independent works in Austria (after 1738–9) are difficult to distinguish from Troger’s own.

This influence persisted during Zeiller’s activity (from 1744) in Bavaria and Swabia, where he executed numerous and at times extensive frescoes in monastery chapels, convents and village churches, and occasionally altarpieces. In his principal works, the large dome fresco (...


N. A. Yevsina

( Grigor’yevich )

(b Moscow, 1686/8; d St Petersburg, Sept 28, 1743).

Russian architect, teacher and theorist . He was a pupil of Domenico Trezzini (from 1710) and then his assistant at the Ministry of Municipal Affairs in St Petersburg. He supervised the completion (1719–22), to plans by Niccolò Michetti, of the Yekaterinental Palace at Reval, where he also carried out the elaborate decoration of the White Hall and laid out the park. His Hall for Glorious Ceremonials (1725; destr.), designed to house relics of Russia’s victories in the Northern War, combined Neo-classical and Baroque features. Working in the German–Dutch style of Baltic Baroque, Zemtsov designed the church of SS Simeon and Anna (1730–34) on Mokhovaya Street and the cathedral of Prince Vladimir (1741–7; built by Pietro Trezzini, b 1710; now on Dobrolyubov Prospect). These all played an important role in the townscape of the city. While echoing the traditional Russian pattern of a church linked to a refectory and with a belfry surmounting the west entrance, Zemtsov proposed for the interiors an unusually spacious basilica with a long nave, aisles and a transept. In his design for the cathedral of the Trinity (...


Cornelia Bauer

(b Zurich, Jan 11, 1812; d Zurich, Dec 16, 1866).

Swiss architect . He served his architectural apprenticeship in Neuenburg c. 1830 and then probably went to Paris. He worked in Birmingham (1833–5) under Thomas Rickman before moving to Zurich, where most of his buildings were executed. They include the city’s first large shops, in Hechtplatz (1835), as well as the first large residential buildings, including the Escherhaüser (1836–40). The influence of English buildings, particularly St Pancras New Church (1819–22), London, by William Inwood and Henry William Inwood, is evident in Zeugheer’s church at Neumünster (1837–8), which is regarded as the most important Neo-classical church in Zurich. From the 1830s he was the most fashionable architect in Zurich, until he was superseded in the late 1850s by Gottfried Semper. In Zeugheer’s domestic work, he first produced simple Neo-classical cubic structures, such as the Villa Rosenbühl (1837), and then designed the first Renaissance Revival villas in Zurich, which were enlivened with verandahs and pergolas, such as Zur Seeburg (...


Barbara Kahle

German family of ivory-turners . The family originated in Nuremberg, where various members were occupied with artistic turnery, particularly in ivory, from the late 16th to the 18th century. Indeed, it was principally the work of the Zick family that made Nuremberg one of the three main centres (along with Regensburg and Dresden) of ivory-turning for the manufacture of objets d’art. The family workshop achieved extraordinary skill in overcoming the greatest technical difficulties. Although little is known of the careers of individual family members, such contemporary sources as Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1730) and Johann Michael Teuber (1740) provide important points of reference. The artistic dynasty is thought to begin with Peter Zick I (1571–1629), who was at some period turnery master to Emperor Rudolf II at his court in Prague. Peter Zick I was famous for his ivory drinking vessels (e.g. in Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.), and an ivory nef (Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.) may also be attributable to him; it bears an imperial coat of arms, perhaps a reference to his stay at the court in Prague. His son ...


Erich Schneider

German family of painters . They worked for over five generations in the 18th and 19th centuries in Upper Bavaria, Swabia, Franconia and the Rhineland. (1) Johann Zick and his son (2) Januarius Zick were primarily fresco painters, though the latter also did many panel paintings. Their direct descendants, Konrad Zick (b Ehrenbreitstein, 1773; d Koblenz, 1836), Gustav Zick (b Koblenz, 1809; d Koblenz, 1886) and Alexander Zick (b Koblenz, 1845; d Berlin, 1907), while relatively minor figures, all shared a gift for portrait painting.

A. Feulner: Die Zick (Munich, 1920) Johann und Januarius Zick (exh. cat., Koblenz, Mittelrhein-Mus.; Munich, Bayer. Staatsgemäldesammlungen; 1984)

(b Lachen, Jan 10, 1702; d Würzburg, March 4, 1762).

After completing his apprenticeship with Jakob Karl Stauder, probably between 1721 and 1724, he painted the Mariahilfkirche in Munich (destr. 1840). Andreas Felix Oefele, Zick’s biographer, claims this was followed by a three-year visit to Giovanni Battista Piazzetta in Venice, but this must be based on legend. In ...


Kathleen Curran

(b Regensburg, Feb 7, 1800; d Munich, July 24, 1873).

Bavarian architect and painter. After working with the stage designer Domenico Quaglio II he studied at the Königliche Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich under the Neo-classical architect Karl von Fischer. Following Fischer’s death, Ziebland completed many of his projects, including the Hof- und Nationaltheater (1811–18) in Munich. An exhibition of Ziebland’s paintings brought him to the attention of Ludwig I, King of Bavaria ( see Wittelsbach, House of family §III, (3) ). In his quest to transform Munich into a museum of architecture, Ludwig sent Ziebland to Italy to study Early Christian basilicas, so that he could design one for Munich. After two years in Italy (1827–9) Ziebland was commissioned to design an Early Christian-style basilica with an adjacent Benedictine monastery. The Bonifaziusbasilika (1835–40), Munich, is the best known of Ziebland’s works. A brick, five-aisled basilica with a sumptuous interior, St Boniface was hailed as one of Ludwig’s greatest building projects. Its monastery is attached to his exhibition building, the ...


(b Amsterdam, 1762; d The Hague, May 1, 1820).

Dutch architect. He trained as a sculptor at the Stadtstekenacademie in Amsterdam, where his father Antonz Ziesenis (1731–1801), an architect and sculptor, was one of the directors, but after a few years he decided to concentrate on architecture. Having finished his training, he visited England, where he appears to have studied work by Robert Adam, although his stay in England is extremely badly documented. In 1792 he returned to Amsterdam, where he was later appointed assistant (1797) to the City Architect Abraham van der Harte. In 1807 he joined the architects who executed works for Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland under the supervision of the royal architect Jean Thomas Thibault (1757–1826). In this capacity he remodelled the interior of Amsterdam’s town hall during its conversion into a royal palace ( see Amsterdam §V 2. ). He spared Jacob van Campen’s 17th-century interior by dividing the large Burgerzaal and adjoining galleries into small rooms with drapery and wooden panelling in a sober, Neo-classical style, thus allowing a full restoration of the original work during the 1930s. Ziesenis received some minor government commissions after the restoration of King William I in ...


Rudolf M. Bisanz

(b Copenhagen, 1716; d Hannover, March 4, 1776).

German painter of Danish birth. He trained with his father, Johann Georg Ziesenis (1681–1748); he became a German citizen in 1743 and subsequently was appointed court painter to Herzog Christian von Pfalz-Zweibrücken in Zweibrücken and, later, Mannheim. In the early 1750s he overcame his technical shortcomings by studying Flemish art, particularly the work of Rubens and van Dyck. He also introduced a new genre, the private court portrait. His portrait of Karl Philipp Theodor, Kurfürst von der Pfalz (1757; Munich, Alte Pin.) is original in its intimate view of a nobleman posed at leisure in casual dress, seated in his private study. The painting deviates from conventional Baroque court portraits by introducing a genre-like candour and reflects a shift in cultural values from paintings symbolizing official power to those descriptive of the private sphere of an educated prince and representative of ‘enlightened absolutism’.

When Ziesenis became court painter to ...