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Ana Maria Rybko

(b Rome, 1538; d Rome, Oct 26, 1605).

Italian sculptor of Spanish descent. Although an accomplished artist, he has been neglected and at times categorically condemned by critics. His few surviving works reveal the influence both of Classical models, to which he was passionately devoted, and of the Florentine manner derived from Michelangelo. He studied with the Florentine Vincenzo de’ Rossi, who was in Rome between 1546 and 1560, and at first worked on restorations and adaptations of antique sculptures. Around 1572 he was listed among the members of the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon. His period of greatest creative productivity began in the last years of the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII. In 1583 he carved the Pope’s coat of arms in the two large marble escutcheons for the Collegio del Gesù, the rich curves of which are meticulously carved in the Florentine style of Bartolomeo Ammanati. In 1587–8 he worked with Pietro Paolo Olivieri to complete an ...



(b ?Regensburg, ?1448; d ?Regensburg, ?1518).

German sculptor. He was the most important Late Gothic sculptor in Salzburg, where he was granted citizenship on 18 October 1479. Despite his probable origins in Regensburg (Martin Valkenauer, his father (?), is documented in 1465 in Regensburg), he worked in a tradition of tomb sculpture found in Salzburg, Wiener Neustadt, and Vienna. The artists who influenced him most were Master E. S. and Nicolaus Gerhaert.

Valkenauer’s first tomb slab was that of Lukas Lamprechtshauser (shortly before 1480; Regensburg, St Blasius). The figures of the Virgin and saints are developed using the whole space between the background and the projecting canopy. The same is true of the figures on two epitaphs: that of Kunz Horn (c. 1502; Nuremberg, St Lorenz), where the enthroned Christ is surrounded by angels of different sizes and adored by Horn and his wife, and the Keutschach epitaph (Maria Saal, Pilgrimage Church). Similarities between the head of God the Father on both these epitaphs and the limewood reliquary bust of ...


Margarita Estella

(b Pelayos, Salamanca, c. 1510; d Llerena, Badajoz, June 12, 1588).

Spanish sculptor and engraver. The elegant Mannerism and refinement of his works, and the anatomical correctness of the figures, indicate that he may have trained in Italy. He had a workshop in Ávila until 1554, when he settled in Toledo. While there he executed carvings for the cathedral and worked on the wooden altarpiece of the parish church of Almonacid de Zorita (1554–6; partly destr. 1936; remains, Torrelaguna, collegiate church, and Oropesa, convent of the Oblates) and on that of S Maria la Blanca, Toledo (1556), among others.

In 1561 Vázquez was called to Seville to complete an altarpiece started by Isidro Villoldo for the Cartuja de las Cuevas, Seville. He was also asked to complete the altarpiece started by Nufro Ortega (1516–75) in 1559 in the church of the Asunción, Carmona, but this was not finished until 1569. Among the many works Vázquez executed in Seville were the wooden ...


Pedro Dias

(b Lamarosa, nr Tentúgal, c. 1550; d Tentúgal, 1632).

Portuguese architect and sculptor. He moved c. 1570 to Coimbra, where he joined the group of sculptors working around João de Ruão, who then dominated Portuguese sculpture. It was there that Velho first encountered architectural forms based on classical models and a decorative style, originating in northern Europe, in which Mannerist ornament was superimposed on classical structures.

Numerous extant documents refer to the activities of Tomé Velho and to his civic life. His first important assignment was in 1576, when he worked in collaboration with João de Ruão on the construction of the church of Bouças, Matosinhos, near Oporto. João de Ruão was then old and unable to travel to the north of the country, and he left his assistant to complete the work. In 1582 Tomé Velho was in charge of the construction, decoration and sculpture of the chapel of S Teotónio in the chapter room of the Augustinian monastery of Santa Cruz, Coimbra. While adopting a hybrid architectural style, he remained faithful to the northern taste for minutely detailed decoration and the use of Flemish strapwork in a version of the Renaissance style of decoration as practised by João de Ruão after ...


Vitor Serrão

(fl 1578; d ?1594).

Spanish painter, goldsmith and wood-carver, active in Portugal. According to da Costa, he was first trained as a goldsmith. He was apprenticed in Seville in the workshop of Luis de Vargas (1506-68), studying the early Roman Mannerists and being especially influenced by the work of Perino del Vaga, who had taught Vargas in Rome and Naples. It is not known exactly when Venegas went to Portugal, though it was before the annexation of the Portuguese crown in 1580, as his elegant drawing of the Last Judgement (Lisbon, Mus. N.A. Ant.) is dedicated to King Henry, which must date it to c. 1578. This drawing, in an agitated Mannerist style, contains figures that are mainly copies after Michelangelo’s fresco in the Sistine Chapel (see fig.). It is not known whether Venegas ever visited Rome or if the drawing derives from his studies in Vargas’s studio.

In 1582...


Fernando Marías

Spanish family of artists. Arnao de Vergara (c. 1490–1557) was master sculptor and glass painter for Burgos Cathedral from 1521 to 1525, then in Seville until 1538 and in Granada until 1557. Of his brothers, Arnao de Flandes (b c. 1490), a glass painter, worked with him in Seville Cathedral from 1534, and Nicolás de Vergara de Flandes (fl 1500–52), a sculptor and mason, worked at Burgos Cathedral. Arnao de Vergara had a son, (1) Nicolás de Vergara (i), who had two sons, (2) Nicolás de Vergara (ii) and Juan de Vergara (d 1588), who became a glass painter.

(b ?Toledo, c. 1517; d Toledo, Aug 11, 1574).

Sculptor, painter and architect. He worked first as a sculptor and glass painter and was a master of both these crafts for Toledo Cathedral from 1542 until his death. From 1555 he worked with ...


Antonia Boström

(b Camerino, 1555; d ?Loreto, April 7, 1610).

Italian sculptor. He may have been trained as a bronze sculptor in Recanati at the Fonderia Recanatese and is first recorded in 1572 as an assistant of Girolamo Lombardo in Loreto. In 1576 he was paid for work on the frames and reliefs of the four bronze doors of the Santa Casa in the basilica of S Maria in Loreto. He assisted Antonio Calcagni in 1582 in casting bronzes for the Massilla–Rogati Chapel in the same church and collaborated with Antonio Lombardo II (c. 1564–between 1608 and 1610) in 1583 on the group of the Virgin and Child for the basilica’s façade. In 1585 he was commissioned by the Camerino town council to execute a bronze seated statue of Sixtus V (completed 1589; Camerino, Piazza Cavour). The dull characterization of the Pope is relieved by Vergelli’s attention to ornamental detail in the throne and the reliefs of female allegories decorating the base....


(b Kalkar, c. 1540; d Kassel, 1607).

German architect and sculptor. From 1559 he worked, at first with his father Heinrich Oych (Verneyken), on the relief ornament of fireplaces at the new Schloss Horst, Gelsenkirchen; after 1564 he worked there independently as a plasterer in the ornamentation of windows and dormers, using an Early Renaissance strapwork style.

From 1569 to 1573 Vernucken directed the building of the Doxal, a new entrance porch for the Cologne Rathaus, for which Cornelis Floris, Lambert Sudermann and Hendrik van Hasselt had submitted designs. The Council decided in favour of a ‘medium-scale’ (i.e. cheaper) plan, which they commissioned Vernucken to build. It is an open, two-storey hall, five bays wide and two bays deep, in a High Renaissance style; the arches of the lower arcade are rounded, but those of the upper storey are slightly pointed. The central and outer bays project slightly, the projecting entablature being supported by Corinthian columns. The profuse ornamentation of plinths, balustrades and spandrels shows Netherlandish influence. The entrance porch was altered in ...


[Domenico di Polo]

(b Florence, c. 1480; d Florence, c. 1547).

Italian medallist and gem-engraver. Vasari stated that he was a disciple of the gem-engraver Giovanni delle Corniole (c. 1470–c. 1516), and it is known that he studied the same craft with Pier Maria Serbaldi da Pescia, whose atelier he entered in 1501. He appears to have spent his entire career as court medallist for Alessandro de’ Medici (1510–37), 1st Duke of Florence from 1531 (e.g. 1534; Pollard, nos 321–2) and Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519–74), Duke of Florence from 1537 and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1569 (e.g. Pollard, nos 327–32). None of his works is signed, but a group of medals and several cameos and gems (e.g. Head of Hercules, Florence, Uffizi) have been attributed to him, after having been separated by de la Tour from the work of Francesco dal Prato. His medal showing a figure of Florence (Pollard, nos 332–32a) and, for ...


(b diocese of Langres, c. 1475; d Toledo, Nov 10, 1542).

Burgundian sculptor and architect, active in Spain . In July 1498 he arrived in Burgos, where he produced three panel reliefs in Briviesca stone (found in the quarries in Burgos) for the retrochoir of the cathedral, including the Road to Calvary. This project is often considered the first Renaissance work in Spain because of the obvious influence of Italian art of the Quattrocento in the grouping and rigidity of the figures. With Andrés de Nájera, a local sculptor, Vigarny was also engaged to make the choir-stalls for the cathedral and to undertake other minor architectural projects there. His reputation reached Toledo, where Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, of whom he later carved a beautiful alabaster medallion (c. 1518; Madrid, U. Complutense), secured him a position working under Enrique Egas and Pedro Gumiel on the main altarpiece of Toledo Cathedral. Under their direction, and in the company of the many other Spanish artists employed on the carving and gilding of the large larchwood altarpiece (...


(b Seville, 1519; d Seville, 1596).

Spanish painter and sculptor. He became the leading painter in Seville during the 1560s and 1570s and the head of a successful workshop, which, as well as satisfying local commissions, sold a large part of its production to Spanish America. He was a learned man and a friend of the humanist and theologian Benito Arias Montano. His work was academic and, lacking a strong individuality, was dependent on Flemish, German and Italian models available through drawings and engravings as well as the paintings of such foreign masters working in Seville as Peeter de Kempeneer. In the Visitation (1566; Seville Cathedral), the central scene of his notable altarpiece, the spatial treatment, the figure grouping and the use of soft, diffuse colours show Mannerist influence. Flemish and Mannerist traits appear in the donor portraits in the predella: their strong characterization and psychological insight reveal Villegas Marmolejo to have been an excellent portrait painter. In such later paintings as the ...


Margarita Estella

(b ?Avila, c. 1500; d Seville, before May 26, 1556).

Spanish sculptor. His activity was centred on Ávila, where he established a personal Mannerist style, influenced by Alonso Berruguete, but tempered by an excellent technique and with an additional Italian influence. In 1538 Villoldo was paid for a model of the choir-stalls for Avila Cathedral and in 1544 he helped to complete them. In 1539 he was described as an ‘oficial’ of Berruguete in connection with work on the choir in Toledo Cathedral, where he also worked in 1543. Between 1546 and 1549 he carved the alabaster retable, dedicated to S Segundo, in the crossing of Ávila Cathedral. The alabaster retable in the sacristy of the same cathedral, on which he collaborated (1551–5) with Juan de Frias, has a fine Flagellation group on the central panel and a high relief of the Ecce homo framed by curtains. In 1553 Villoldo signed a contract with the Carthusian monastery of the Cuevas, Seville, for statues on their retable, which were only partly executed (fragments ...


Martin Kemp

(b Anchiano, nr Vinci, April 15, 1452; d Amboise, nr Tours, May 2, 1519).

Italian painter, sculptor, architect, designer, theorist, engineer and scientist. He was the founding father of what is called the High Renaissance style and exercised an enormous influence on contemporary and later artists. His writings on art helped establish the ideals of representation and expression that were to dominate European academies for the next 400 years. The standards he set in figure draughtsmanship, handling of space, depiction of light and shade, representation of landscape, evocation of character and techniques of narrative radically transformed the range of art. A number of his inventions in architecture and in various fields of decoration entered the general currency of 16th-century design.

Although he brought relatively few works to completion, and even fewer have survived, Leonardo was responsible for some of the most influential images in the history of art. The ‘Mona Lisa’ (Paris, Louvre) may fairly be described as the world’s most famous painting. When the extent of his writings on many branches of science became increasingly apparent during the 19th century, he appeared to epitomize the idea of the universal genius and was hailed as one of the prophets of the modern era. More recent assessments of his intellectual achievements have recognized the medieval and Classical framework on which his theories were constructed but have done nothing to detract from the awesome range and intensity of his thought....


Marco Cianchi

[Pierfrancesco di Bartolomeo di Ser Piero da Vinci]

(b Vinci, c. 1529; d Pisa, 1553).

Italian sculptor, nephew of Leonardo da Vinci. His brief life was characterized by a precocious and promising sculptural career. He began his apprenticeship in Baccio Bandinelli’s Florence workshop when he was about 12 but transferred shortly afterwards to that of Niccolò Tribolo; at the time Tribolo was working on the monumental fountains for the gardens of the Medici villa at Castello, near Florence. Pierino’s first works, which can be dated after 1544, are a series of putti so similar in style to Tribolo’s as to cause frequent misattributions. Among them are the Putto with a Mask (marble, h. 560 mm; Arezzo, Gal. & Mus. Med. & Mod.) made for a fountain; the Putti Holding a Coat of Arms (pietra serena, h. 430 mm; fragments, London, V&A); and two Putti with a Fish (terracotta, h. 650 mm; London, V&A).

Around 1545, after a brief trip to Rome, Pierino and other assistants were entrusted by Tribolo with the carving of the marble shaft of the Fountain of the Labyrinth for Castello (h. ...


Philippe Rouillard

[ Gerolamo ]

(b Laino, nr Lugano, 1467; d ?Genoa, after Feb 1522).

Italian sculptor. He spent four years working for the sculptor Antonio della Porta. From 1497 to 1501 he collaborated with Giovanni d’Aria ( fl c. 1490–c. 1508) and his brother Michele d’Aria ( fl c. 1466–c. 1502) on the marble tomb of the brothers Agostino and Giovanni Adorno in S Gerolamo in Quarto, Genoa (fragments in situ). As a result of the French occupation of Genoa (1499–1508), he received a number of important commissions from French patrons and was therefore instrumental in introducing the Italian Renaissance style into France. There is, however, no evidence that he himself ever visited France. In 1502 Louis XII commissioned a tomb in honour of his ancestors the Dukes of Orléans from Viscardi and Michele d’Aria in association with the Florentines Donato Benti and Benedetto da Rovezzano. The marble monument, now in the abbey church of Saint-Denis, was originally set up in ...


(b Pistoia, 1442; d ?Pistoia, 1522).

Italian architect and sculptor. He is first recorded as a master carpenter at Pistoia Cathedral in 1464. In 1473 he began a long association with the nunnery of S Giovanni Battista, Pistoia, where he worked until about 1485. In around 1483 the abbess founded another nunnery in Pistoia, dedicated to S Chiara, and Vitoni worked there for many years, most notably on the church. The work shows strong Florentine influences, which are combined with Vitoni’s own skills, demonstrated in the building’s attractive proportions. Owing to the restricted site, he designed an aisleless nave with a coffered ceiling and a dome at the east end; circular windows in the drum show Brunelleschi’s influence. The church was completed in 1498, and Vitoni began work on the adjacent cloisters in the same year. He returned to S Giovanni Battista at about this time, where the church itself was rebuilt after 1500. Here the central space is octagonal, and the cupola owes much to the Pazzi Chapel in Florence, traditionally attributed to Brunelleschi, even down to the detailing of the radiating ribs. The upper orders of the interior again recall Brunelleschi; they are finely worked but rather fussily detailed. The octagon is dated ...


Thomas Martin

(b Trent, ?1525; d Venice, May 27, 1608).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and architect. He was a pupil and collaborator of Jacopo Sansovino and in the second half of the 16th century became one of the most important sculptors active in Venice. He was by temperament more of a modeller than a carver, and his stuccos, bronzes and terracottas are characterized by a verve and warmth that his work in marble tends to lack. His fluent, innovative and expressive style is in many ways opposed to Sansovino’s thoughtful, classicizing, High Renaissance idiom. Vittoria’s portrait sculpture is particularly fine. In his altars and funerary monuments he gradually evolved a dynamic relationship between sculptural and architectural elements that was more fully explored by artists of the Baroque. Comparatively little is known of Vittoria’s work as an architect. Although he is known to have been active also as a painter, none of his paintings has been identified. His workshop was clearly extensive. His principal collaborators were his nephews ...


Janet Southorn

(b L’Aquila; fl 1588–90).

Italian priest, jurist and wax modeller. As a student in Rome he became proficient in modelling lifelike reliefs in coloured wax on slate. His only recorded work (1588; untraced) was a model of Michelangelo’s Last Judgement (1536–41; Rome, Vatican, Sistine Chapel), which was presented to Pope Sixtus V. According to Vivio’s published description, there were 146 images set in a frame reminiscent of the Sistine Chapel Ceiling. The work comprised Old and New Testaments scenes, with prophets, sibyls, saints and Christian heroes, including Charlemagne, Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) and Philip II, King of Spain; the central field had a portrait of Michelangelo and Vivio included a self-portrait at one end. The work was much admired in its day: it earned its inventor Roman citizenship and the Roman Senate considered buying it for display on the Capitol.

Discorso sopra la mirabil opera di basso rilievo di cera stuccata con colori scolpita in pietra negra colle storie del Vecchio e del Nuovo Testamento...


Iris Kockelbergh

[Egidio Fiammingho; Egidio da Malines; Egidio della Riviera; Gilles de Rivière]

(b ? Mechelen; d Rome, bur Sept 4, 1602).

Flemish sculptor, active in Italy. He is first recorded in Rome in 1567, when he was said to be a native of Mechelen. He was involved in the restoration of antique sculpture and collaborated on a number of monumental works with Nicolas Mostaert (d 1601–4), a sculptor from Arras. His style is typically Northern Renaissance in its heavily pleated draperies, uniform faces and interest in detail. It is best exemplified in the marble reliefs for the tomb of Charles Frederick, Duke of Cleves (with Mostaert, 1576–9) in the German church of S Maria dell’ Anima, Rome; though overloaded, these compositions gain depth from a decentralized perspective. In the same church is the funerary monument of Cardinal Andreas Habsburg (marble, c. 1600), also a collaborative work with Mostaert.

BNB; NKL; Thieme–Becker G. K. Nagler: Neues allgemeines Künstlerlexicon, 13 (Munich, 1843), p. 217 G. L. Masetti Zannini: ‘Il monumento sepolcrale del principe di Cleves in Santa Maria dell’Anima’, ...


Géza Jászai

[Jodocus] [Pelsers, Joest]

(b Vreden, c. 1473–4; d Marienburg, nr Dülmen, Dec 16, 1540).

German sculptor. In 1493 he entered the Carthusian monastery of Marienburg, becoming procurator in 1506 and prior in 1531. He presumably learnt his skills in the pottery town of Vreden, Westphalia. He produced devotional pictures and house altars as low reliefs completely in the tradition of the Utrecht ‘picture bakers’ or ‘picture makers’ using white pipeclay and fired hollow moulds ( see Netherlands, Kingdom of the §VII 1. ). He signed most of his works Judocus Vredis or F[rater] Judocus Vredis Cartus[iensis]. His subject-matter was strictly limited: the Virgin as the Queen of Heaven, the Holy Trinity, the Annunciation, the Crucifixion, the virgin martyrs—SS Catherine of Alexandria, Barbara, Margaret, and Dorothy—and also SS Anne and Mary Magdalene. He mainly worked from drawings by Master E.S. and Israhel van Meckenem (ii), elaborately decorating the figures formed in the mould and modelling them while the clay was soft using stencils, small metal stamps, and punches. He embellished the hems of robes and headgear and added attributes, inscriptions, flowers, leaves, and fruit. Most of his surviving work is in the ...