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Krystyna Białoskórska

Cistercian abbey in Poland, dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St Florian. The abbey was founded in 1179 by Bishop Gedko of Kraków as the third daughter house of Morimond to be established in Little Poland after Jędrzejów (1140–49) and Sulejów (1177). The site, in the valley of the River Kamienna, lay on an important trade route linking Russia with the Baltic Sea; contrary to Cistercian habit, the monks settled in a densely populated area.

Excavations on the monastic site unexpectedly revealed sections of a large, late 11th-century ducal residence of stone, probably built for Prince Vladislav I Herman (1079–1102) and his wife Judyta Maria Salicka, sister of Emperor Henry IV. The residence, with the surrounding lands, was donated c. 1124 to the diocese of Kraków, which presented it to the Cistercians arriving from France in 1179. At the same time, probably at the founder’s expense, the old residence was adapted to meet the monks’ requirements. Evidence suggests that the first abbey church was built in stone on the site of the residence and made use of its building materials....

Article

Ernst Ullmann

Castle near Eisenach, Germany. It represents the claims to power and the self-assurance of the medieval landgraves of Thuringia. A centre of court culture in the 13th century—a legendary contest for the Minnesänger, or singers of courtly love, is supposed to have taken place in 1206–7—it was also the home from 1211 to 1227 of St Elizabeth , wife of the Landgrave Ludwig IV. In 1262 the castle passed to the House of Wettin, and it belonged to the Electors of Saxony from 1423 to 1547. Martin Luther lived there from 1521 to 1522, translating the New Testament into German. In 1741 the castle came into the ownership of the Dukes of Saxe-Weimar and became a symbol of German history and culture, inspiring the work of Goethe, Liszt, and Wagner. The Wartburgfest of German student fraternities took place there in 1817.

Founded by Ludwig der Springer, the castle is first mentioned in ...

Article

Dethard von Winterfeld

Former abbey church, c. 20 km north-west of Chemnitz, Germany. Count Dedo von Groitzsch (d 1190) had the church built for the Augustinian abbey of Heiligen Kreuz at Zschillen between 1160 and 1180. There was a consecration in 1168, probably only of the east part. From 1278 to 1543 the church belonged to the Teutonic Order and was rededicated to SS Maria und Johannes Evangelista. It is clear from the structure that the church was built in stages from east to west. The five-bay basilica originally had a flat ceiling supported on squat piers. The crossing arches are supported on cruciform piers and the transepts, almost square, have eastern apses; of the south apse only the arch survives. The chancel is slightly rectangular and is closed by a semicircular apse. The northern side apse is incorporated in a two-storey annexe to the chancel, presumably intended as the sacristy. The hall crypt below the chancel, which extended as far as the crossing, was demolished in ...

Article

Johannes Zahlten, S. A. Woodcock and Georg Ruppelt

[Guelph; Guelf; Brunswick]

German dynasty of rulers, patrons, and collectors. The first notable patron of the Welf dynasty was (1) Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria (reg 1142–80), who initiated an extensive building programme in Brunswick in the mid-12th century. Although deprived of his duchies in 1180 (due to conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor), he retained control of the Welf family lands of Brunswick and Lüneburg. In 1209 his second son became Holy Roman Emperor as Otto IV (c. 1174–1218), the only member of the Welf family to take this title. Under the Emperor’s patronage work was begun c. 1216 on the construction of the Cistercian monastery of Riddagshausen near Brunswick. The Emperor’s nephew Otto the Child, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg (d 1252), finished building the Stiftskirche (now the cathedral) at Brunswick, which Henry the Lion had begun in 1173. During Otto’s reign the church was richly decorated with wall paintings, and a double tomb was built (...

Article

Christine Verzar

[Wiligelmus; Guglielmo da Modena; Gulielmo da Modena]

(fl c. 1099–c. 1120).

Italian sculptor. He is considered to be the first great artistic personality in Italian sculpture, although he is known only from the epigraph on the façade of Modena Cathedral, which reads: ‘Your sculpture, Wiligelmo, now shows how much honour you are worthy of among sculptors’. The flanking figures of the prophets Enoch and Elijah are carved from the same block and have, therefore, been considered to be signed works, enabling other attributions to Wiligelmo to be made, both at Modena Cathedral and elsewhere in the immediate region.

Wiligelmo must have worked at Modena Cathedral from c. 1099 to c. 1110. Some of his sculptures were reassembled in the later 12th century by the Campionesi, and there is some dispute as to their original use, some scholars considering them to have formed part of liturgical furnishings and others insisting that they were always intended for a position on the façade (...

Article

Peter Draper

(fl 1178–86).

English architect. In the account by the monk Gervase he is recorded as directing the works at Canterbury Cathedral (see Canterbury §III 1., (i)) from 1178 to 1184 and is succinctly characterized as ‘William by name, English by nation, small in body, but in workmanship of many kinds acute and honest’. This is all that is known of him, unless he is to be identified with a William the Englishman, a chaplain, who built a church at St Jean d’Acre (now ‛Akko) in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1192, or with the William ‘Anglicanus’ who was a carpenter in the service of King John (reg 1199–1216) in 1214. Gervase gives no indication that William had previously worked at Canterbury under his predecessor, William of Sens, but the continuity of building makes it difficult to disentangle their respective contributions to the design of the east end of the ...

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Article

Nigel J. Morgan

Large two-volume Bible (now bound in four volumes, c. 580×396 mm; Winchester Cathedral Lib.), perhaps originally from the former Benedictine cathedral priory of St Swithun (now Winchester Cathedral). It may be identifiable with the Bible that was given to the charterhouse of Witham in Somerset, although it has been argued that this is probably another Bible (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Auct. E. inf. 1; see). The gift to Witham was the result of pressure from King Henry II on the monks of St Swithun, and on hearing this the prior of Witham, St Hugh of Lincoln, returned the book to Winchester. If the Bible now in Winchester was that given to Witham, its text, if not all its illumination, must have been completed before 1186, the year St Hugh became Bishop of Lincoln.

Although the script of the Winchester Bible was mainly the work of one scribe, it was decorated by several artists working in widely different styles, both figural and decorative, which could span the period ...

Article

Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens

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Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick

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Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens

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Leonie von Wilckens

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Yadava  

H. V. Trivedi

[Yādava ; Seuna]

Dynasty that ruled parts of the northern Deccan, India, from the 12th century to the 14th. The Yadavas of Devagiri were members of the last Hindu monarchy of the Deccan. They claimed descent from a mythical king, Yadu, but the first historical prince of the house was Dridhaprahara, who began as a vassal of the Rashtrakuta dynasty at Chandor, near Nasik, in the early 9th century. His son and successor, Seunachandra, is said to have named his dominions and subjects after himself. His fourth descendant, Billama II (reg c. 1000), transferred his allegiance to the Chalukyas of Kalyana ( see Chalukya §2 ), who subsequently supplanted the Rashtrakutas. A remote descendant, Billama V (reg c. 1185–93), later captured a major part of the territory of his Chalukya overlord Someshvara IV and proclaimed his independence, establishing his capital at Devagiri ( see Daulatabad ). He also led an aggressive campaign in the north against the ...

Article

[Zangī]

Islamic dynasty which ruled in northern Iraq, south-east Anatolia and Syria from 1127 to 1222. In 1127 ‛Imad al-Din Zangi, the son of a Turkish commander in the Saljuq army, was appointed governor of Mosul for the Saljuq sultan and guardian (Turk. atabeg) for his sons. The semi-independent Zangi expanded his dominion north and west and was granted Aleppo in 1129. He fought against the crusaders, most notably at Edessa in 1144. Zangi was succeeded by two independent branches of the family in Mosul and Aleppo. His son Nur al-Din (reg in Aleppo 1146–74) conquered Damascus in 1154, opposed the crusaders and sent his generals Shirkuh and Salah al-Din to Egypt, where the latter founded the Ayyubid dynasty. The Ayyubids succeeded the Zangids in Aleppo in 1183 and in Damascus in 1186.

Nur al-Din, a staunch Sunni, built many religious institutions, and fortified Aleppo, Damascus and other key sites. During his reign there was a Classical Revival in Syrian architecture as well as a wholehearted adoption of symmetrical building plans and forms, such as the iwan, typical of Abbasid architecture in Iraq. In his hospital (...

Article

[Abū Zayd ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Zayd]

(fl Kashan, 1186–1219).

Persian potter. At least 15 tiles and vessels signed by Abu Zayd are known, more signed works than are known for any other medieval Iranian potter (see fig.). He frequently added the phrase ‘in his own hand’ (bi-khāṭṭihi) after his name, so that it has been misread as Abu Zayd-i Bazi or Abu Rufaza. His earliest piece is an enamelled (Pers. mīnā’ī) bowl dated 4 Muharram 583 (26 March 1186; New York, Met.), but he is best known for his lustrewares. A fragment of a vase dated 1191 (ex-Bahrami priv. col., see Watson, pl. 53) is in the Miniature style, but most of his later pieces, such as a bowl dated 1202 (Tehran, priv. col., see Bahrami, pl. 16a) and a dish dated 1219 (The Hague, Gemeentemus.), are in the Kashan style, which he is credited with developing (see Islamic art, §V, 3(iii)...

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Zaydi  

Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...

Article

Zhong Hong

[ Chang Tse-tuan ; zi Zhengdao ]

(b Dongwu [now Zhucheng, Shandong Province], fl early 12th century).

Chinese painter . There is little historical account of Zhang Zeduan’s life. However, it is known that when young he went to the capital city Bianliang (modern Kaifeng) to study, and subsequently focused on studying painting. He became a member of the imperial Hanlin Academy in the Zhenghe (1111–17) and Xuanhe (1119–25) eras of the Northern Song period, probably serving as a court painter in the Imperial Academy of Painting. In his time he was celebrated for fine-line architectural painting, known as ‘boundary’ or ‘measured’ paintings (jiehua), especially for his boats and carts, bridges and moats, busy streets and city traffic and market places.

Although most of his paintings have not survived, he is well known for his monumental scroll Qingming shanghe tu (‘Going up the River on the Qingming Festival’; Beijing, Pal. Mus.) depicting the Northern Song capital city. This long handscroll, representing a panorama view of the vibrant, busy and noisy daily life in and around Bianliang, was painted shortly before the city was captured and burnt by the Jin army in ...

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Richard Edwards

[Hsiao Chao]

(b Huce, Shanxi Province; fl c. 1130–62).

Chinese painter. During the political disorders at the end of the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127) he found refuge in the Taihang Mountains, where he pursued a path of brigandage and captured the painter Li Tang. Startled by the discovery that his victim’s baggage contained only the tools of painting, according to Zhuang Su and Xia Wenyan he decided to abandon robbery for painting. As Li Tang’s pupil he went with him to the south and became a major figure at the reconstituted imperial Painting Academy in Lin’an (now Hangzhou, Zhejiang province), capital of the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279). He was a favourite of the emperor, Gao zong (reg 1127–62), being appointed a dai zhao (‘painter-in-attendance’) with the honorary title di gong lang (‘gentleman for meritorious achievement’).

Xiao’s early recorded achievements were a commission for wall paintings in the Xianying Temple (destr.), a Daoist shrine on the edge of West Lake, Hangzhou, dedicated to an immortal who was believed to have protected Gao zong during perilous days in the north; landscape paintings executed in a single night (aided by four flagons of wine) on the four walls of an imperial building called the Liang Hall (destr.) on the West Lake island of Gushan; and a fan painting (untraced), to which Gao zong had added a couplet, in the 13th-century collection of ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of North Africa and Spain between ad 972 and 1152. The founder of the dynasty, Ziri ibn Manad (d 972), was a Sanhaja Berber in the service of the Fatimid caliphs, who ruled from Tunisia. In 936 Ziri founded Ashir, the family seat, in the Titeri Mountains 170 km south of Algiers. His son Buluggin (reg 972–84) was appointed governor of North Africa when the Fatimids left Kairouan for Cairo. Under Buluggin, his son al-Mansur (reg 984–96), and his grandson Badis (reg 996–1016), the Zirids greatly enlarged their territory, expanding into northern Morocco, where they came in conflict with the Umayyads of Spain. By 1015 the Zirid domain had become too large to be governed from Kairouan alone: the Zirids retained control of the eastern half, while the western portion was granted to Buluggin’s son Hammad (reg 1015–28), who established his capital at the Qal‛at Bani Hammad to the east of Ashir. In ...