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Cornelia Bauer

(b Zurich, Sept 28, 1818; d Zurich, April 27, 1891).

Swiss architect and writer . He trained (1833–6) with Hans Rychner in Neuenburg and then attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste (1836–40), Munich. In 1841 he published an extensive guidebook to architecture for both specialist and lay readers, entitled Der Baufreund. He worked as a building administrator in Zofingen (1843–50) and as state building inspector to the Canton of Zurich (1851–65). The majority of Wolff’s works were functional public buildings of block form and classical style, such as a school (1851–4) at Wohlen, the prison (1852–4) at Winterthur and the Burghölzli sanatorium (1864–70) at Zurich. His few religious buildings were Neo-classical, such as the Calvinist church (1851–4) at Wohlen, or were in historicist styles, such as the Gothic Revival Calvinist church (1854–5) at Töss, or the In Rein parish church (1863–4) at Rüfenach, which combines various historical styles. After the fire at Glarus in ...


Temma Balducci

American journal found in 1980. Woman’s Art Journal was founded in 1980 in Knoxville, TN, by the art historian Elsa Honig Fine and has been published biannually in May and November since that time. The inspiration for the journal came in part because other journals devoted to women and women’s art that had been started in the 1970s, such as Feminist Art Journal and Womanart, had ceased publication for various reasons despite their important contributions to the feminist art movement.

In its first issue, Fine indicated Woman’s Art Journal’s dual focus on “recording a hidden heritage” and the “reinterpretation of art history from our new awareness as women.” The first several issues of the journal fully reflect these areas of concentration. For example, women artists and critics, some of whom were well known and others hardly at all, had essays devoted to their work: Josephine Hopper, Anna Jameson, Louise Nevelson, Anna Mary Robertson Moses, and Katarzyna Kobro. Essays on broader issues important to women and women artists in these early issues focused on themes such as sexuality and maternity in the late 19th century, the use of nature as image and metaphor, and domestic madness in American art and poetry. Neither did the journal avoid controversial topics, devoting part of its second issue to Judy Chicago’s ...


Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Kraków, Jan 15, 1869; d Kraków, Nov 28, 1907).

Polish painter, pastellist, decorative artist, illustrator, writer and theatre director . He was the son of the Kraków sculptor Franciszek Wyspiański (1836–1902) and studied at the Kraków School of Fine Arts, mostly under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Wyspiański and Józef Mehoffer, the school’s most talented students, were appointed to complete Matejko’s painted decorations for St Mary, Kraków, a task that prompted Wyspiański’s interest in both decorative painting and stained glass. In 1890 he travelled in Italy, Switzerland, France and Germany, and also to Prague. In 1891 he continued his training in Paris, where he remained with intervals until 1894, studying at the Académie Colarossi under Joseph Blanc, Gustave Courtois (1852–1924) and Louis Auguste Girardot (b 1858). Wyspiański also worked independently in Paris, studying paintings in the museums and fascinated by contemporary art. Through Władysław Ślewiński, he met Paul Gauguin and members of the Nabis....


(b Seoul, 1861; d Seoul, 1905).

Korean calligrapher and painter. Born into the Min household, a distinguished and influential family during the period of King Kojong (reg 1864–1907), he held a number of high-ranking government posts, reaching the position of Grand Chamberlain in 1905. However, he strongly opposed the Protection Treaty concluded with force by Japan in that year and committed suicide. As well as being an accomplished calligrapher, he excelled in painting bamboos and orchids in Chinese ink, but few of his works survive....


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

[ho Wŏnchŏng, Ch’ŏnsimchukche]

(b Seoul, 1860; d Shanghai, 1914).

Korean calligrapher and painter. He was active at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910) and was a nephew of Queen Myŏngsŏng, a member of the Min clan and wife of King Kojong (reg 1864–1907); under the Queen’s protection he played a central role among the conservatives from the age of 19 but abandoned politics to take up painting and calligraphy. In 1895, when the Queen was assassinated by the Japanese, he fled to Shanghai in China, where he spent his days as a calligrapher and painter, earning fame for his ink-orchids and ink-bamboo. Basing himself on the painting style of Kim Chŏng-hŭi, he achieved a level of excellence in his work characterized by strong, sharp brushstrokes. Idiosyncratic features in his paintings of orchids were the blunt tips and right-angled bend in the middle of the orchid leaves. Such paintings were highly regarded, even in the calligraphy and painting world of Shanghai. Fine examples of his work are two ink paintings, ...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

[ho Kuryongsanin]

(b Seoul, 1878; d Seoul, 1968).

Korean calligrapher and painter. He was born into a highly influential family at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910) and enjoyed a successful civil service career until the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, after which he concentrated on calligraphy and painting. As a child he had studied with the calligrapher and painter, Chi Un-su, and in his thirties and forties he was a prolific painter of bamboos and orchids in the style of Min Yŏng-ik. As a result of his association with the Chinese painter Fang Luo, who visited Korea in 1926, he came into contact with the style of the Shanghai school and began to paint sensuous flowering plants in a light palette. After Korean independence from Japan in 1945, his calligraphy was even more acclaimed, and he became actively involved in the Kukchŏn (National Art Exhibition; see Korea, §IV, 3) as a judge and an adviser in the calligraphy section. In calligraphy he was particularly brilliant at semicursive script reminiscent of the standard and clerical scripts of Yan Zhenqing....


Stephen B. Little

[Juan Yüan]

(b Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, Feb 21, 1764; d Yangzhou, Nov 27, 1849).

Chinese calligrapher, theorist and scholar–official (see fig.). Born into a distinguished Yangzhou family, Ruan passed the civil-service examination to gain the title of jinshi in 1790. Thereafter he held many important official posts, including compiler at the Hanlin Academy, Supervisor of Imperial Instruction (1791), Vice-President of the boards of Revenue (1799) and War (1811), Governor of Zhejiang Province, Governor-General of Hubei, Henan and Guangdong provinces and Grand Secretary (1835). Throughout his career he was interested in historical, bibliographical and epigraphical scholarship. He is said to have owned over 460 bronze ritual vessels of the Shang, Zhou and Han periods (c. 1600 bcc. ad 220). His study of ancient bronze inscriptions, the Jigu zhai zhongding yiqi kuanzhi fatie (‘Copybook of inscriptions on bronzes and sacrificial vessels from the Jigu studio’; 1804), contains reproductions of many ancient inscriptions, and it greatly influenced 19th-century calligraphy....


Sergey Kuznetsov

( Dmytriyevych ) [ Zamiraylo, Victor Dmitriyevich ]

(b Cherkasy, Kiev province, Nov 24, 1868; d Novy Petergof, Leningrad Region, Oct 2, 1939).

Ukrainian painter, printmaker and illustrator . He studied at the Kiev Drawing School (1881–6) under Mykhailo Murashko (1844–1909), who encouraged the independent development of his talents and taste without the pedantry of academicism or of the Wanderers. The influence of Gustave Doré is evident in his work of this period. From 1888 he participated in the exhibitions of the World of Art group, the Moscow Fellowship of Artists and the Union of Russian Artists. In Kiev he worked with Mikhail Vrubel’ on the restoration of the wall paintings in the church of St Cyril (1883–4) and on the decoration of the cathedral of St Vladimir (1885–90; initially on the basis of designs by Viktor Vasnetsov). In 1907–14 he produced the panels Battle at Kerzhenets and Subjugation of Kazan’ for the Kazan’ Station in Moscow to designs by Nicholas Roerich. In his easel works he used predominantly sepia, occasionally adding touches of watercolour, and he made extensive use of lamp-black. In ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Chao Chih-ch’ien ; zi Huishu ; hao Beian ]

(b Kuaiji, Zhejiang Province, Aug 8, 1829; d Nancheng, Jiangxi Province, Nov 18, 1884).

Chinese calligrapher, seal-carver, painter and scholar . After his example, it became common for artists to attempt to be competent in painting, calligraphy and seal-carving rather than to specialize in a single discipline. Zhao was one of the greatest artists of the late Qing period (1644–1911), although much of his work displays a disquiet and unbalanced awkwardness that conflicted with Chinese aesthetic values of the time.

As a painter, Zhao specialized in plant life. His early work is characterized by soft, detailed brushwork and brilliant, translucent colours. Plants of Zhejiang (1861; Tokyo N. Mus., see Tokyo kukuritsu, p. 162), a set of four hanging scrolls, is one of his early masterpieces: each scroll shows an unusual choice of plants and flowers and an immense range of colours and techniques. In one of the scrolls, the clublike arms of a prickly pear cactus are drawn in wet colour, with thistles added in ink while the paint was still wet; next to this is a complicated web of arched oleander leaves. Against this manipulation of wet colour, with its subtly vibrating edges, the pink and white oleander flowers are opaque. The fact that each composition is cut by the border of the scroll and that many elements within the paintings are interwoven gives a sense that the plants are reaching beyond their confines and enhances the vitality of the work. In contrast, the colours in Zhao’s later paintings are muted; there is an increased use of ink, and the brushwork is more exaggerated. ...


G. Jansen

(b Kralingen, June 13, 1866; d Bussum, Jan 8, 1947).

Dutch sculptor. He received his first artistic training in Amsterdam, first in the form of drawing lessons from painter and illustrator Bernard Willem Wierink (1856–1939) and later at the Quellinusschool under the direction of engineer Emmanuel Constant Edouard Colinet (1840–90) and at the School for Applied Arts. There he became friendly with, among others, Joseph Mendes da Costa; through the society Labor et Ars he met Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof, Jan Eisenlöffel, H. P. Berlage, K. P. C. de Bazel and J. L. Mathieu Lauweriks. In the company of these young artists, who disliked the traditional styles, his attention was directed particularly to ancient Egyptian and Assyrian art.

In 1893 Zijl was invited by Berlage to collaborate on his building (destr. 1964) for De Algemeene life insurance company on the Damrak, Amsterdam. For this building and particularly for the Koopmansbeurs (1898–1903), Amsterdam, also by Berlage, he developed a style that can be seen as the high point of his career. This so-called ‘architecture sculpture’ is always considered as a subsidiary to the architectural concept of the whole, therefore contributing to the ...