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Article

Gregory A. Pass

The Knights of Columbus Vatican Film Library at Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, is a research library for medieval and Renaissance manuscript studies that holds more than 37,000 manuscripts on microfilm from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. In addition, it holds microfilms of more than 2400 manuscripts from other libraries, 52,000 colour slides of manuscript illumination, and large collections of microfilmed Jesuit historical documents relating to the Order’s activities in the Americas and the Philippines. The library maintains an extensive reference collection of published manuscript catalogues and unpublished inventories for Vatican Library manuscripts, as well as manuscript catalogues for many other libraries, works on palaeography, codicology, and illumination, manuscript facsimiles, and other reference materials and periodicals to support the study of manuscripts and their texts.

The library was opened in 1953. Since 1957 it has published the journal Manuscripta: A Journal for Manuscript Research, which features articles and reviews on palaeography, codicology, illumination, library history, manuscript catalogues, text editing, and other subjects. Since ...

Article

Regina Soria

(b New York, Feb 26, 1836; d Rome, Jan 29, 1923).

American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer (see fig.). He studied under Tompkins Harrison Matteson in Shelbourne, NY, and went to Paris in March 1856. After eight months in the studio of François-Edouard Picot, he settled in Florence until the end of 1860. There he learnt drawing from Raffaello Bonaiuti, became interested in the Florentine Renaissance and attended the free Accademia Galli. A more significant artistic inspiration came from the Italian artists at the Caffè Michelangiolo: Telemaco Signorini, Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), and especially Nino Costa (1827–1902). This group sought new and untraditional pictorial solutions for their compositions and plein-air landscapes and were particularly interested in the experiences of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon painters. They became known as Macchiaioli for their use of splashes (macchia) of light and shadows and for their revolutionary (maquis) attitude to prevailing styles. Among Vedder’s most notable Florentine landscapes are ...

Article

Gretchen G. Fox

[Virginio]

(b Rome, Feb 12, 1808; d Rome, Dec 4, 1882).

Italian architect. As a young draughtsman he contributed illustrations to books popularizing Roman archaeology, such as Edward Dodwell’s I sette colli di Roma (London, 1829). Vespignani trained under Luigi Poletti and worked with him (1837–69) on the reconstruction of S Paolo fuori le mura, continuing the work on Poletti’s death. Three sides of the great quadriporticus were finished (1893) to his designs after his own death. A favourite of Pope Pius IX (reg 1846–78), he benefited from the many papal commissions generated during his reign. He applied historical revival styles to his work, for instance in his Madonna dell’Archetto Chapel (1851) in the Via di S Marcello, and the Confessio (1864) in S Maria Maggiore, both in Rome. Three early works were public monuments in Rome, including the new façade of the Porta Pia (1852–68), an eclectic work with elements borrowed from the Arch of Titus. In contrast, his Porta S Pancrazio (...

Article

Aída Sierra Torres

(b Veracruz, 1848; d Tacubaya, Mexico City, Feb 14, 1904).

Mexican illustrator and lithographer. He began his career in 1869, making prints for the weekly La ilustración potosina in San Luis Potosí. He collaborated with Alejandro Casarín and Jesús Alamilla on illustrations using engravings coloured with pen for the novel Ensalada de pollos by José Tomás de Cuéllar. In these the use of a schematic design accentuated the appearance of the figures portrayed. He created caricatures (1872–3) for La orquesta and other periodicals, but he established his reputation with caricatures (1874–6) of government figures for the weekly Hijo Ahuizote. Villasana was a member of the political party of President Porfirio Díaz and in 1880 published ferocious caricatures of Díaz’s opponents in El coyote emplumado. He was co-publisher in 1883, with Ireneo Paz, of La patria ilustrada and in 1888 he founded his own weekly, México y sus costumbres; in both periodicals he published his own caricatures of public figures. In ...

Article

Daniel Robbins

[ Duchamp, Gaston ]

(b Damville, Eure, July 31, 1875; d Puteaux, nr Paris, June 9, 1963).

French painter, printmaker and illustrator. The oldest of three brothers who became major 20th-century artists, including Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Marcel Duchamp, he learnt engraving at the age of 16 from his maternal grandfather, Emile-Frédéric Nicolle (1830–94), a ship-broker who was also a much appreciated amateur artist. In January 1894, having completed his studies at the Lycée Corneille in Rouen, he was sent to study at the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris, but within a year he was devoting most of his time to art, already contributing lithographs to Parisian illustrated newspapers such as Assiette au beurre. At this time he chose his pseudonym: Jack (subsequently Jacques) in homage to Alphonse Daudet’s novel Jack (1876) and Villon in appreciation of the 15th-century French poet François Villon; soon afterwards this new surname was combined with the family name by Raymond. Marcel Duchamp and their sister ...

Article

Malcolm Gee

(b St-Denis, Réunion, c. 1867; d Paris, Feb 19, 1939)

French art dealer and publisher. He was the most notable contemporary art dealer of his generation in France, as well as an innovative publisher of prints and illustrated books. Brought up in Réunion, he arrived in Paris c. 1890 as a law student and soon started buying and selling prints and drawings for his own pleasure. After a period working at L’Union Artistique for Alphonse Dumas, an established dealer, he set up on his own and in 1894 opened a small gallery near the Opéra on the Rue Laffitte, then the centre of the Paris art trade.

Vollard made his first major impact as a dealer in 1895 when he organized Cézanne’s first one-man exhibition. Over the next ten years he built up, at relatively low cost, a large stock of paintings by Cézanne, which eventually provided him with enormous profits. Concurrently he acquired work by van Gogh, Gauguin, Bonnard, ...

Article

Heather A. Shannon

(b La Salle, IL, April 15, 1856; d Altadena, CA, July 24, 1916).

American photographer and bookstore owner. In 1872 Vroman left home and in 1874 began working for the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad. In 1892 he acquired his first camera and began making landscape views around Rockford, IL. In the same year he married and moved to Pasadena, CA. Shortly after his wife’s death in 1894, Vroman and a business partner opened the bookstore Glasscock & Vroman; from 1901 to his death in 1916 he was the sole proprietor of Vroman’s. In addition to books, stationery, and leather goods, the store stocked Kodak products and other photography supplies. Although recognized for his California photographs of the Franciscan missions and of the sites associated with Helen Hunt Jackson’s popular 1884 novel Ramona, Vroman has become best known for his Arizona and New Mexico photography. During his first trip to the Southwest in 1895, he travelled to north-eastern Arizona to photograph the Hopi Indian Snake Dance and the Petrified Forest. From ...

Article

Leo John De Freitas

(b London, May 26, 1840; d St Fillans, Perthshire, June 4, 1875).

English painter and illustrator. He acquired his training in drawing and painting through study in the British Museum (where he copied heavily from the Antique), a short period spent in an architect’s office, life classes at Leigh’s school, a studentship at the Royal Academy and three years’ employment as a draughtsman on wood with the commercial engraver Josiah Wood Whymper (1813–1903).

Walker was one of an exceptional band of young illustrators working during the 1860s. His drawings, reproduced as wood-engravings by artists such as Joseph Swain and the Dalziel brothers, appeared in all the influential magazines of the time, notably Cornhill, Good Words, Once a Week and Punch. Swain was the source of Walker’s early and important commission for the re-drawing of Thackeray’s own illustrations to The Adventures of Philip for the Cornhill (1862). Mere copying was uncongenial to Walker, but after a short time he was allowed to use his own ideas in illustrating Thackeray’s story, and these brought him critical success....

Article

(b Teufen, April 8, 1877; d Zurich, 1943).

Swiss painter, printmaker, illustrator and theatre designer. He studied with a decorative painter in Stuttgart and briefly at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Strasbourg (1902), though he was chiefly self-taught through study trips to Belgium, France, Spain, Italy and Japan, which impressed him deeply. His freely brushed, figurative style and preoccupation with such Symbolist artists as Ferdinand Hodler and Arnold Böcklin allied him with the avant-garde of his day. He was a member of the Berlin Secession, and the connections he made through the group, together with the acknowledged clarity of his stylish book illustrations, won him many commissions. In a prolific career he also produced costume and stage designs, wall frescoes and numerous prints. Later paintings showed his admiration for the flat, all-over colour planes of Cézanne. He was the brother of the writer Robert Walser (1878–1956) and illustrated a number of his books, for example Seeland...

Article

Miles Lewis

(b Sudbury, Suffolk, Nov 26, 1821; d Melbourne, Aug 9, 1898).

Australian architect of English birth. He worked in London for the English architect and illustrator Thomas Allom (1804–72). In 1849 he emigrated to Melbourne and entered a partnership as architect and surveyor with his brother James, who was already established in business as a local builder. Their first prominent commission was St Paul’s church in the centre of Melbourne (1850), subsequently replaced by Butterfield’s Cathedral. The partnership ended in 1854, when James went to England, and Webb practised for four years in partnership with Thomas Taylor. His design for St Andrew’s church, Brighton, Melbourne (1856–7), shows unmistakable characteristics of buildings that he had sketched before leaving England. Melbourne Grammar School (1856) is the most important building of this phase, designed in the dark local bluestone, but Tudor in character. Webb’s work is difficult to characterize. It includes two important terrace rows of houses, Burlington Terrace (...

Article

( Reijmert )

(b The Hague, Jan 12, 1860; d Santpoort, June 25, 1937).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and illustrator . He first trained as a landscape gardener in Amsterdam. In 1878–9, however, he received lessons in painting from the cattle painter Dirk van Lokhorst (1818–93) and he was working in Drenthe, Gelderland and North Brabant. During that time he also received tuition from the marine painter Jacob Eduard van Heemskerck van Beest (1828–94). Wenckebach lived and worked in Utrecht from 1880 to 1886, in Amsterdam until 1898 and thereafter in Santpoort.

Wenckebach’s preference was for traditional genres such as land-, river- and townscapes; in the latter, his drawings of views of old Amsterdam in particular are well known. In his style of painting and choice of subject-matter, he showed himself to be a late follower of the Hague school . Through a number of publishers he received many commissions as an illustrator and designer of books. In this field he collaborated on, among other things, the Verkade albums, a large series devoted to the history and nature of the Netherlands, and various children’s books. He is, however, particularly well known for his work for the ...

Article

Esmé Berman

( Willem Frederick )

(b The Hague, Sept 9, 1873; d Pretoria, Jan 24, 1921).

South African painter and printmaker of Dutch birth. He was a self-taught artist and left Holland in 1905 to take up employment in the Pretoria branch of a Dutch bookselling firm. He painted and etched landscapes and still-lifes during weekends only until 1916, when a group of patrons made it possible for him to spend three months painting full-time in Cape Town. He found the misty winter climate of the Cape peninsula, being closer to the atmosphere of his homeland than the harsh, sunlit expanses of the Transvaal, suited to his temperament and style. During that and later visits he produced enough saleable work to repay his benefactors and to continue painting full-time. Unfortunately his practice of working incessantly outdoors, regardless of inclement weather, also undermined the fragile health that had originally driven him from Holland.

Although Wenning revelled in the wooded landscapes of the Cape, he eschewed the picture-postcard sentimentality typical of the work of most of his contemporaries. His formats are small, but the flat colour planes and decorative, rhythmical contours—both especially pronounced in his still-life studies—are brisk and confident, as in ...

Article

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, May 9, 1843; d Berlin, Jan 4, 1915).

German painter and illustrator . He studied at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin from 1859 and in 1862 moved to Karlsruhe, where he studied with Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, Ludwig Des Coudres (1820–78) and Adolf Schrödter. Under the influence of Karl Friedrich Lessing he became interested in history painting. He was a friend of the poet Victor von Scheffel and illustrated his works (e.g. Gaudeamus, 1867). In 1867 he was in Paris and in 1868–9 in Italy. On returning to Germany in 1870 he received his first important commissions. He specialized in detailed scenes of contemporary events, particularly those involving soldiers. His best-known work, William of Prussia Proclaimed Emperor of Germany, 18th January 1870 (1877, destr.; version, Friedrichsruh, Bismarck-Mus.), depicts the event he had witnessed at Versailles; it is a typical example of his sober, Naturalistic style and his taste for patriotic subjects. In 1874 he became a member of the Akademie der Künste in Berlin and a year later was appointed director. In ...

Article

Shearer West

English family of painters and illustrators . Richard Westall (b Hertford, 1765; d London, 4 Dec 1836) was apprenticed in 1799 to John Thompson, a heraldic engraver in London. The miniaturist John Alefounder (d 1795) advised Westall to take up painting, and in 1784 he exhibited a portrait drawing (untraced) at the Royal Academy. He became a student at the Royal Academy Schools in 1785, an ARA in 1792 and an RA in 1794. He exhibited over 300 works at the Royal Academy and 70 at the British Institution, including such large watercolours as Cassandra Prophesying the Fall of Troy (exh. London, RA 1796; London, V&A), which are painted in violent and sometimes excessive colours. Others, such as The Rosebud (1791; New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A.), tend towards a Rococo prettiness. His principal expertise was book illustration. He was employed by John Boydell, Thomas Macklin and ...

Article

(b New York, Jan 24, 1862; d Pavillon Colombe, nr Paris, Aug 11, 1937).

American writer . She was born into a wealthy New York family and was educated privately; she travelled widely, settling in France in 1907. Her first book was The Decoration of Houses (1898), written in collaboration with the Boston architect Ogden Codman (who had remodelled her home at Newport, RI, in 1893). Their aim was to raise the standard of decoration in modern houses to that of the past through a return to ‘architectural proportion’ and an avoidance of the ‘superficial application of ornament’. Each room should be furnished for comfort and according to its use and should be organically related to the rest of the house and the quality of life to be expressed. The work was successful and influential among both the public and such decorators as Elsie De Wolfe and William Odom. Wharton’s house in Lenox, MA, the Mount, built to her design from 1901...

Article

Whatnot  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Rosamond Allwood

( fl London, 1825–50).

English designer . His influential pattern books reflect styles from the late Regency period to the early Victorian. His designs were executed for a number of important clients, including Queen Victoria (at Osborne House, Isle of Wight), Brownlow Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Exeter, William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire, and Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland. Whitaker’s Designs of Cabinet and Upholstery Furniture in the Most Modern Style (London, 1825) contains 50 plates of designs for furniture and curtains. The designs are chiefly in the then current late Grecian manner, with a tendency towards rich ornament. In 1826 he published Practical Carpentry, which cites Thomas Hope as the major furniture reformer of the day, and includes a few Grecian designs. Five Etchings from the Antique (London, 1827) is a book of Classical vase designs. Whitaker’s most important work is the House Furnishing, Decorating and Embellishing Assistant (London, 1847...

Article

Laura Suffield

English family of printers and publishers . Charles Whittingham (i) (b nr Coventry, 16 June 1767; d 5 Jan 1840) was apprenticed to a bookseller and printer, Richard Bird, from 1779 to 1786. In the late 1780s Whittingham set up as a printer in Fetter Lane, London. The earliest piece of printing associated with him is Edward Young’s Night Thoughts (1792). His association from 1803 with the bookseller John Sharpe resulted in several series, including the British Classics (1803), Sharpe’s British Theatre (1804) and British Poets (1805); Whittingham issued his own British Poets series in 100 volumes in 1822. From 1803 he used some of the earliest Stanhope presses and traded as the Stanhope Press until 1811, when, having moved part of his business to Chiswick, he adopted the Chiswick Press imprint. By then he was also working for almanac and book publishers and publishing books himself. In ...

Article

Jan Jennings

(b Decatur, GA, Nov 18, 1885; d Decatur, GA, Nov 13, 1967).

American architect. Georgia’s first registered female architecture, Wilburn designed single-family houses, two-family houses and apartments in the plan book tradition. Wilburn and Emily Elizabeth Holman were the only early 20th century female architects whose published plan books have been documented. A plan book was a catalog of building designs; each design, or stock plan, was represented on a single page with an exterior perspective line drawing or exterior photograph, a descriptive paragraph and a floor plan. Home builders who chose a plan and paid a fee received construction drawings in the mail. Wilburn produced at least ten plan books. As Atlanta grew, Wilburn’s houses defined whole suburbs, a sphere of influence that can be measured on the landscape with thousands of buildings from Atlanta’s center in 1910 outward to districts built in 1965, and encompassing small towns in the region.

A drafting apprenticeship from 1906 to 1907 with the Atlanta architectural firm, B. R. Padgett and Son who designed “fine residences” influenced Wilburn’s choice of domestic architecture as a specialty. In ...

Article

Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Châlons-sur-Marne, July 31, 1857; d Paris, Feb 4, 1926).

French illustrator, printmaker and painter . After studying at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, Willette entered the studio of Alexandre Cabanel where he encountered Rodolphe Salis, the future founder in Montmartre of the Chat Noir cabaret (1881) and journal (1882). As a member of the Club des Hydropathes (1874–81), a group of writers, actors and artists who met regularly at a café in the Quartier Latin and from 1881 at the Chat Noir, Adolphe Willette became associated with the anti-establishment, humorous and satirical spirit of the avant-garde artistic community in Montmartre.

Willette was an early and regular illustrator of the Chat Noir and Courrier français (founded in 1885), the two principal (albeit tongue-in-cheek) chronicles of Montmartre. For two years from 1888 Willette and the poet Emile Goudeau published the satirical journal Le Pierrot: in 1896 and 1897 they collaborated on the sporadically issued journal ...