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Laura Suffield

(b Providence, RI, Feb 14, 1860; d Boston, MA, Dec 29, 1941).

American typographer, printer, and graphic designer. He was advertising manager and layout artist at the publishing house of Houghton, Mifflin & Co. before transferring to the firm’s printing works at the Riverside Press, where he worked until 1892. Updike’s first freelance commission, the design of a Book of Common Prayer (1892), was well received, and in 1893 he set up his own studio, initially with the idea of designing types but then as a printing press, the Merrymount Press. He commissioned a new type called Merrymount from Bertram Goodhue for use on a new Episcopalian Altar Book (Boston, 1896). Between 1893 and 1896 Updike produced c. 18 books before turning to printing them himself, assisted by John Bianchi (fl 1893–1947), his first typesetter and later his partner. The Merrymount Press undertook a wide range of work for publishers, book clubs, libraries, churches, and institutions. In ...


Christiaan Schuckman

(b Amsterdam, 1651–2; d Amsterdam, Oct 21, 1726).

Dutch mezzotint engraver and publisher. He was the son of Leendert Gerritsz. Valck, a silversmith from Amsterdam, and the pupil, brother-in-law and business partner of Abraham Blooteling, with whom he went to London in 1672. Valck’s earliest dated mezzotint, Sleeping Cupid (1677; Hollstein, no. 40), is after a painting by Guido Reni. Valck’s 67 engravings and mezzotints were mostly based on designs by other artists, for example Peter Lely, Gérard de Lairesse (Hollstein, nos 1–2 and 22–3) and Philipp Tidemann (e.g. illustrations for an unpublished Danish translation of Ovid’s Metamorphoses; Hollstein, nos 32–8); they were often published by Valck himself. In Amsterdam he worked in partnership with his brother-in-law Pieter Schenck and later with his son Leonardus Valck. Gerard Valck’s publications include atlases, separate maps and printed globes, as well as series of prints with views of houses belonging to the Orange-Nassau family, trades and professions, fountains, chimneys and birds....


(b Vicenza; fl c. 1540–c. 1550).

Italian woodcutter and printer. He signed five chiaroscuro woodcuts, each after a different artist and all undated. Probably the earliest is a two-block woodcut of Hercules and the Lion (b. 119, 17) after Giulio Romano. Cloelia (b. 96, 5) after Maturino (d ?1528) or Giulio Romano, in three blocks, is still rather crudely cut and registered, and probably the next chronologically. A very cursive, elegant line manifests itself in subsequent works, such as Ajax and Agamemnon (b. 99,9) after Polidoro da Caravaggio, the Sacra Conversazione with St Catherine (b. 64, 23) after a design attributed to Camillo Boccaccino and Christ Healing the Lepers (b. 39, 15) after Parmigianino. An unsigned Adoration of the Magi (b. 30, 3) and The Cardinal and the Doctor (b. 144,6) can also reasonably be ascribed to him.

Vicentino’s hand is doubtless one of several discernible in a large group of anonymous chiaroscuros based on designs by ...


Aída Sierra Torres

(b Veracruz, 1848; d Tacubaya, Mexico City, Feb 14, 1904).

Mexican illustrator and lithographer. He began his career in 1869, making prints for the weekly La ilustración potosina in San Luis Potosí. He collaborated with Alejandro Casarín and Jesús Alamilla on illustrations using engravings coloured with pen for the novel Ensalada de pollos by José Tomás de Cuéllar. In these the use of a schematic design accentuated the appearance of the figures portrayed. He created caricatures (1872–3) for La orquesta and other periodicals, but he established his reputation with caricatures (1874–6) of government figures for the weekly Hijo Ahuizote. Villasana was a member of the political party of President Porfirio Díaz and in 1880 published ferocious caricatures of Díaz’s opponents in El coyote emplumado. He was co-publisher in 1883, with Ireneo Paz, of La patria ilustrada and in 1888 he founded his own weekly, México y sus costumbres; in both periodicals he published his own caricatures of public figures. In ...


Blanca García Vega

(b Lyon, 1498; d ?France, c. 1552).

French printmaker. He was the son of a Lyonnais printer and an important illustrator and designer of engraved decoration. He was active throughout Spain from 1534, when his signature i. d. v. began to appear on woodcuts the style of which was still imbued with the Gothic tradition of Provence. In 1547 in Saragossa he signed a contract with the calligrapher and writer Juan de Iciar, for whom he illustrated the frontispieces of several works including Recopilación intitulada, orthographia practica (Saragossa, 1548), which contains a fine portrait of the author. They also collaborated on Arte subtilisima por la qual se enseña a escrivir perfectamente (Saragossa, 1550). From 1552 he was active in Pau in the south of France. His engravings for the borders of books, frontispieces and coats of arms were very popular and his work was widely disseminated and used in the mid–16th century. His style was Italianate rather than Germanic, but he made use of models by Holbein in his designs for initial letters....


George Gordon

(b Amsterdam, 1587; d Amsterdam, June 19, 1652).

Dutch draughtsman, printmaker and publisher. His father was a ship’s carpenter. Visscher’s master is unknown, although Constantijn Huygens the elder suggested that Jacques de Gheyn the younger taught him to etch. Visscher is recorded as an engraver in Amsterdam in 1608, and his early engravings, from 1605 onwards, consist entirely of reproductive prints after the designs of Flemish artists, in particular David Vinckboons, who settled in Amsterdam in 1602. In the second decade of the 17th century Visscher etched and published landscapes of a strong local character, of both real and imaginary views, to the designs of young Dutch draughtsmen such as Jan and Esaias van de Velde (i) and Willem Buytewech. These proved extremely popular and formed the basis of Visscher’s early success as a publisher. He became the most important Amsterdam print publisher, specializing in portraits, landscapes and maps, the elaborate borders of which were often to his own designs. He himself etched more than 200 plates....


Elizabeth Miller

[ Francis ]

(b St Jean-du-Bruel, Aveyron, July 11, 1708; d London, Nov 26, 1780).

French engraver and print publisher, active in England. He is considered to be one of the founders of the English school of landscape engraving. A Huguenot, he came to London in 1711 and learnt engraving with Joseph Wagner (1706–80). His earliest dated print is from 1739. He helped introduce the Rococo style into England as an engraver or publisher of ornament books c. 1740–60, for example his engraved plates for William De la Cour’s First Book of Ornament (1741). Many of his landscape prints were after paintings by French and Dutch Old Masters, beginning with 11 plates for Arthur Pond’s Italian Landscapes project (1741–6; London, BM), a 44-plate survey of the works of Gaspard Dughet and Claude Lorrain in British collections. Typical of his mature work is the print after Claude, Great Annual Sacrifice at the Temple of Apollo on the Island of Delos (...


Malcolm Gee

(b St-Denis, Réunion, c. 1867; d Paris, Feb 19, 1939)

French art dealer and publisher. He was the most notable contemporary art dealer of his generation in France, as well as an innovative publisher of prints and illustrated books. Brought up in Réunion, he arrived in Paris c. 1890 as a law student and soon started buying and selling prints and drawings for his own pleasure. After a period working at L’Union Artistique for Alphonse Dumas, an established dealer, he set up on his own and in 1894 opened a small gallery near the Opéra on the Rue Laffitte, then the centre of the Paris art trade.

Vollard made his first major impact as a dealer in 1895 when he organized Cézanne’s first one-man exhibition. Over the next ten years he built up, at relatively low cost, a large stock of paintings by Cézanne, which eventually provided him with enormous profits. Concurrently he acquired work by van Gogh, Gauguin, Bonnard, ...


Richard Cork

British artistic and literary movement, founded in 1914 by the editor of Blast magazine, Wyndham Lewis, and members of the Rebel Art Centre . It encompassed not only painting, drawing and printmaking but also the sculpture of Henri Gaudier-Brzeska and Jacob Epstein and the photographs of Alvin Langdon Coburn. Notable literary allies were Ezra Pound, who coined the term Vorticism early in 1914, and T. S. Eliot. T. E. Hulme’s articles in The New Age helped to create a climate favourable to the reception of Vorticist ideas.

The arrival of Vorticism was announced, with great gusto and militant defiance, in a manifesto published in the first issue of Blast magazine, which also included work by Edward Wadsworth, Frederick Etchells, William Roberts and Jacob Epstein. Dated June 1914 but issued a month later, this puce-covered journal set out to demonstrate the vigour of an audacious new movement in British art. Vorticism was seen by Lewis as an independent alternative to Cubism, Futurism and Expressionism. With the help of ...


(b ?Thaldorf, Württemburg, 1706; d Venice, 1780).

German engraver and print publisher, active in Italy. The pupil of Jacopo Amigoni, he was one of the leading mid-18th-century reproductive engravers active in Venice. As well as publishing engravings after such leading painters as Canaletto, he also worked on a two-volume set of engravings, Delle antiche statue greche e romane...


Ingrid Severin

( Georg Lewin )

(b Berlin, Sept 16, 1879; d Saratov, Russia, Oct 31, 1941).

German writer, editor and critic, active also in Russia. He attended the Königstätter Gymnasium and the Leibnizgymnasium in Berlin and studied the piano, composition and musicology under Conrad Ansorge, becoming a notable pianist. He visited Florence in 1897–8 on a Franz Liszt scholarship, subsequently working in Berlin as a pianist and composer of operas, symphonies, pantomimes, piano works and songs. His acquaintances included Arnold Schoenberg, who aroused his interest in 12-note music and the theories of the German musicologist Else Lasker-Schüler, whom Walden married. The first society founded by Walden was the Beethoven-Verein; in 1904 he founded the ‘Verein für Kunst’ in Berlin and then the society’s publishing house, which published Schoenberg. From 1908 he was co-editor of the weekly Morgen; he was also joint-editor of Der Komet and Nord und Süd in 1908, and chief editor of Der neue Weg. On 3 March 1910 the first issue of ...


Richard Lorenz

(Martin )

(b Minneapolis, MN, July 9, 1908; d Boston, MA, June 24, 1976).

American photographer and writer. He took his first photographs as a child with a Kodak Box Brownie camera and later learnt darkroom procedures as a student at the University of Minnesota. After graduating in 1933 with a degree in botany and English, he wrote poetry for five years while supporting himself with odd jobs. He moved to Portland, OR, in 1938 and became increasingly interested in photography. During 1938–9 he worked for the Works Progress Administration Federal Arts Project as a creative photographer documenting the early architecture and waterfront of Portland. In 1941 the Museum of Modern Art in New York exhibited several of his images. His first one-man show, photographs of the Grande Ronde-Wallowa Mountain area of north-eastern Oregon, opened at the Portland Art Museum in 1942.

White served in the Army Intelligence Corps from 1942 to 1945, during which time he wrote about photography but took few photographs. He visited Alfred Stieglitz in New York at his gallery, An American Place, in ...


Laura Suffield

English family of printers and publishers . Charles Whittingham (i) (b nr Coventry, 16 June 1767; d 5 Jan 1840) was apprenticed to a bookseller and printer, Richard Bird, from 1779 to 1786. In the late 1780s Whittingham set up as a printer in Fetter Lane, London. The earliest piece of printing associated with him is Edward Young’s Night Thoughts (1792). His association from 1803 with the bookseller John Sharpe resulted in several series, including the British Classics (1803), Sharpe’s British Theatre (1804) and British Poets (1805); Whittingham issued his own British Poets series in 100 volumes in 1822. From 1803 he used some of the earliest Stanhope presses and traded as the Stanhope Press until 1811, when, having moved part of his business to Chiswick, he adopted the Chiswick Press imprint. By then he was also working for almanac and book publishers and publishing books himself. In ...


Morgan Falconer

(b London, Aug 17, 1943).

English conceptual artist and sculptor. He studied at Ealing School of Art (1962–3), began editing and publishing Control Magazine in 1965 and in 1972–3 was Director of the Centre for Behavioural Art in London. Consistently interested in art as an intervention in social patterns and identities, Willats frequently grounded his work in research-based projects. His early art, however, was more object-based. Light Modulator No. 2 (1962; see 1979–80 exh. cat., p. 13), for example, was a project for an outdoor public sculpture made of moving vertical panels, perspex and painted wood, through which people would pass and interact. Willats soon developed these more phenomenological and behavioural concerns into sets of problems concerned with social interaction and cognition. Another early work, Meta Filter (1973; Lyon, Mus. St Pierre A. Contemp.), demonstrates this: a very large installation organized around a large computer, it invites two participants to seek agreement over the meanings of a set of images and statements. Throughout his career Willats continued to design similar interactive projects aimed at encapsulating problems of social conflict. Often his exhibitions evolved out of complex research-based initiatives and extensive collaboration with the public. ...



Patrick Conner



The Federal Art Project (FAP) was the visual arts branch of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), a government agency created in 1935 to find employment for people on public projects in response to the Great Depression. In December 1933 the ambitious Public Works of Art Project (PWAP) was set up to create regional offices to employ artists, with Edward Bruce of the Treasury Department as national director. The successful program employed some 3749 artists across the country, but it was phased out by the summer of 1934. (Bruce later headed other programs under the Treasury Department that employed artists.)

With the relief needs of artists, writers, musicians and theater people unresolved and with the experimental climate of the New Deal still energizing legislation, Harry Hopkins of the WPA set up Federal Project No. 1 in August 1935, which had the most far-reaching cultural impact on the country. There were four cultural projects: Art, Music, Theatre and Writers. For the art project, ...


Robert Winter

Guides to every state in the Union (and some of the major cities) that were written under the auspices of the Federal Writers Project created by the Works Progress Administration/Federal Art Project during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. The idea was part of Roosevelt’s attempt to find work for the thousands of Americans who had been left jobless by the Great Depression of the 1930s. Published between 1937 and 1942, each one began with short chapters on subjects such as political history, the arts, architecture, labor movements, economics and education. These were followed by sections on major cities and their resources. About half of each guide was devoted to a series of tours that might be taken along country roads as well as major highways. They included details of small towns that are still valuable to scholars.

The Federal Writers Project hired some important authors, but few of them wrote for the guides. They were composed by people of lesser note such as unknown college professors, amateur naturalists and architecture buffs. The great majority of the researchers were people who had no training in gathering facts but who nevertheless pursued them with care. One also suspects that the high quality of the finished products was the result of the work of capable editors....


A. Deirdre Robson

(b Charlottesville, VA, 1888; d New York, April 11, 1939).

American critic and writer . When he was 19 he became literary critic for a West Coast newspaper. In 1912 he moved to New York, first working as editor for The Smart Set, then as a newspaper editorial writer and art critic for Forum and International Studio. In these periodicals he wrote defences of modern art, attacking conservatives in the American art establishment. He also co-authored a book on aesthetic philosophy, The Creative Will (London, 1916) with his brother, the Synchromist painter Stanton Macdonald-Wright , and published a number of non-art books.

Wright’s most important critical work was Modern Painting: Its Tendency and Meaning (New York, 1915), in which he attempted to explain modern art as an evolutionary process from Eugène Delacroix, Gustave Courbet and the Impressionists to Post-Impressionism and Cubism. The idiosyncrasy of his approach was to place Synchromism as the pinnacle of modern artistic development. In 1916 Wright organized the ...


Mayching Kao

[ Yang Yingfeng ; Yang Yuyu ]

(b Yilan, Taiwan, Dec 4, 1926).

Chinese sculptor and painter . He studied architecture, sculpture and painting in Tokyo, Beijing, Taipei and Rome. In a long and productive career as art editor, teacher and artist, Yang won critical acclaim as the foremost sculptor and landscape architect in Taiwan, receiving numerous prestigious commissions for sculpture and environmental design in Taiwan and abroad. Yang’s artistic development reflected the crystallization of his personal experience in the fast-changing modern world and his study of Chinese and Western art. His art evolved from realism in the 1950s to semi-abstraction in the early 1960s, when modern art movements emerged in Taiwan. Deeply influenced by Chinese philosophical concepts of the harmony of man and nature as well as the unity of life and art, Yang turned to abstraction in the late 1960s. His monumental works in cast bronze and stainless steel attempted to capture the life force of nature and the changing relationship of solids and voids within art and its environment....