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Renate Baumgärtel-Fleischmann

(b c. 1430–35; d Bamberg, late 1508).

German painter, draughtsman and designer. He ran a painting and woodcarving workshop in Bamberg from 1465, his main patrons being the town of Bamberg and the bishop’s court. Although he was generally commissioned to supply objects for everyday use, these have not survived; nor have the stained-glass windows for which he made preliminary drawings. Extant works based on his designs include a carved stone coat of arms (1494) on the Alte Hofhaltung in Bamberg, made by a Nuremberg master, and the tomb plaque of Bishop Georg Marschalk von Ebneth (d 1505) in Bamberg Cathedral, cast by Peter Vischer I in Nuremberg. However, both works are more expressive of the masters who executed them than of the designer. Thus the only basis for judging Katzheimer’s style lies in the 22 woodcuts for the Halsgerichtsordnung (Bamberg, 1507), printed by Johann Pfeyll, for which he supplied the preliminary drawings. The compositions are simple, with the figures lined up horizontally, diagonally or in tiers (the traditional way of suggesting depth), and the interior spaces are usually represented in outline only. Two reliefs relating to the ...


Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

[Kellerdahler; Kellerdaller; Kolertal]

German family of goldsmiths, medallists, engravers, draughtsmen and painters. Three generations are documented in Dresden between 1554 and 1662. Johann Kellerthaler I (b c. 1530), a master in Dresden in 1554, was formerly assigned various engravings of Martin Luther, Charles V etc, now known to be the work of Jobst Kammerer (fl 1552–8). His brother Christoph Kellerthaler I (c. 1535–1592/1612), a master by 1573 and an elder of the goldsmiths’ guild in 1579, did various works for the Electors Augustus, Christian I and Christian II of Saxony: in the Dresden Frauenkirche, some chains (1572), silver cutlery sets (1584), cups (1588) and a chalice (1598) can tentatively be assigned to him. Christoph took on his three sons as apprentices between 1576 and 1589; these were (1) Johann Kellerthaler II, Christoph Kellerthaler II (fl 1587–1639...


Jürgen Zimmer

(b Zurich, c. ?1550; d c. 1611).

Swiss wood-carver and engraver. He is recorded c. 1600 as a gentleman-at-arms at the court of Rudolf II in Prague. His most famous and frequently reprinted work is Architectura von den funf Seulen sambt iren Ornamenten und Zierden (Prague, 1600; Hollstein, nos 1–28), based on Hans Blum’s Quinque columnarum exacta descriptio … (Zurich, 1550). In 1603 Krammer executed a copper-engraving that he described as an ‘actual account of the five columns, as they were used by Marcus Vitruvius and other Roman masters as well as by all artistic masters’. He also produced a sequence of engravings entitled the Schweiff-Buechlein (Prague, 1600–02; Cologne, 1610–12).

Krammer was a follower of Hans Blum, whose own work strongly influenced, among others, the work of Rutger Kassmann and served during the entire 17th century as a model for carpenters, wood-turners, architects and stonemasons. The work of the group of so-called carpenter-architects of this period, which included not only Krammer and Kassmann but also Hans Jakob Ebelmann, Georg Caspar and Johann Georg Erasmus, Jakob Guckeisen, Friedrich Unteutsch and Heinrich Vogtherr, remains insufficiently documented: thus an appropriate evaluation of Krammer’s role is at present hardly possible....


Jane S. Peters

(b ?Bamberg, c. 1520; d Vienna, between 1564 and Jan 6, 1566).

German printmaker, draughtsman and medallist. Often erroneously referred to as Hans Sebald Lautensack, he was the son of Paul Lautensack (1478–1558), a painter and organist from Bamberg. In 1527 his family moved from Bamberg to Nuremberg, where he probably, like his brother Heinrich Lautensack (1522–68), trained as a goldsmith. Although he referred to himself as ‘pictor’, no paintings by him are known. His artistic reputation lies with his etched oeuvre, which consists primarily of historical or biblical subjects, portraits (Hollstein, nos 48–76) and pure landscapes (Hollstein, nos 7–34). He has also been credited with several drawings and carved moulds for six portrait medals.

Lautensack’s artistic career can be divided into two periods: the earlier in Nuremberg, from his first ascribed etchings in 1544; the second in Vienna from 1554 until his death. The portraiture and figural work from his Nuremberg years reflect the influence of the Nuremberg ...


Marianne Grivel

(fl 1545–57).

French medallist and engraver. He is first recorded in 1545 and was working as an assistant to the medallist Marc Béchot (c. 1520–57) in 1547. His prints are unsigned and were for a long time attributed to René Boyvin, who was his pupil in 1549–50. He has been identified with the copper-plate engraver Pierre de La Cuffle, who is mentioned by Karel van Mander I. He was often in debt and was several times obliged to pledge his plates to his creditors, who included François Clouet. He remained in close contact with Boyvin, who in 1553 finished two plates begun by Milan. They worked together on the inventory drawn up on the death of Luca Penni in 1557. Zerner attributed seven engravings to him, including Dance of the Dryads (see Zerner, no. 1) after Rosso Fiorentino, Jupiter and Callisto (z 4) after Francesco Primaticcio and Clelia Escaping from the Camp of Porsena...


Marianne Grivel

(fl 1521–80).

French painter, sculptor and engraver. Born at Gray or Pesmes (both in Haute-Saône), he began work in Dijon, on ephemeral decorations for the ceremonial entry of Francis I in 1521. He probably also produced some stained-glass windows with coats of arms at Gray in 1530. Two engravings in the Flemish style, Roman Charity and Venus, are signed with his full name and dated 1546. Pierre-Jean Mariette ascribed to him a series of prints (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.; 4, after Polidoro da Caravaggio, of terms and 12 of architectural details) engraved in Italy, probably in Rome, between 1535 and 1538, bearing the monogram p.s., although Michel de Marolles, writing in 1666, thought this referred to a certain Perjeconter, otherwise unknown. Although they are very different in style to Prévost’s other works, these works may be by him. If he went to Italy, he was back in France before 1550, when he painted the retables of the high altars at Dôle and Gray for ...


Françoise Jestaz

(b Sebenico [Sibenik], Dalmatia, c. 1520; d Vienna, 1583).

Croatian engraver, painter and sculptor. ‘The last disciple of Marcantonio Raimondi’ (Kristeller), he engraved after the latter the series of Christ and the Twelve Apostles (b. 16). He made no original engravings but transcribed on copper, by etching or with the burin, the works of Luca Penni, Raphael and Michelangelo. His most famous work is a very reduced copy of the Last Judgement (b. 28–1) by Michelangelo. In 1558 he settled in Venice, where, in the absence of Cornelis Cort, Titian entrusted him with the reproduction of several of his paintings. In the same city he also worked after Cornelis Cort and Federico Zuccaro and discovered the work of Dürer, after whom he copied the scenes of the Little Passion (b. 26). In 1568 he left for Vienna, where he apparently worked as a painter and sculptor. His oeuvre comprises c. 120 prints, of which more than half are portraits....


[Barthollomeus; Bartholomaeus; Bartholomeus]

(b Antwerp, March 21, 1546; d Prague, before Sept 27, 1611).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, etcher and sculptor, active in Italy, Austria and Bohemia. With Hans von Aachen and Joseph Heintz (i), he was one of the most important artists at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II. He had a unique ability to combine the Netherlandish tradition and Italian influences, particularly the Roman brand of Mannerism, so as to achieve a style of his own that had a lasting influence on other artists in Prague. His sensually elegant yet intellectual paintings embody an ideal of beauty distinctive to the Rudolfine court.

The son of a merchant, he was apprenticed (1557) to Jan Mandijn, then spent a short time with Frans Mostaert (fl 1554–60) and must have studied (1563–4) with Cornelis van Dalem I—all three landscape painters. He also taught himself by copying engravings after Frans Floris and Parmigianino. On 1 March 1565 he left Antwerp for Paris, where he worked for six weeks in the studio of ...


[Feyt; Veydt; Vit; Wit]

(b Horb am Neckar, c. 1445–50; d Nuremberg, c. Sept 20, 1533).

German sculptor, engraver, and painter. His work covers the period overlapping the Late Gothic and the Northern Renaissance. He is one of the best-documented and most significant German limewood sculptors of his time. Stoss developed a uniquely expressive and personal style in this material, while also achieving considerable success working in other woods and stone. It is likely that he came from an artistic family as he had at least one brother, Matthias Stoss (b Horb, 1482; d Kraków, 1540), who was a goldsmith, and six of his sons also worked as artists: Florian Stoss (c. 1480/85–c. 1543) was a goldsmith working in Görlitz; Stanislas Stoss (d Kraków, 1527–8), Veit Stoss the younger (b Nuremberg; d Kronstadt, before 1531), and Willibald Stoss (d Schweinfurt, 1573) were sculptors; Johannes Stoss earned his living as a painter and sculptor in Schässburg; while ...


Margarita Estella

(b Pelayos, Salamanca, c. 1510; d Llerena, Badajoz, June 12, 1588).

Spanish sculptor and engraver. The elegant Mannerism and refinement of his works, and the anatomical correctness of the figures, indicate that he may have trained in Italy. He had a workshop in Ávila until 1554, when he settled in Toledo. While there he executed carvings for the cathedral and worked on the wooden altarpiece of the parish church of Almonacid de Zorita (1554–6; partly destr. 1936; remains, Torrelaguna, collegiate church, and Oropesa, convent of the Oblates) and on that of S Maria la Blanca, Toledo (1556), among others.

In 1561 Vázquez was called to Seville to complete an altarpiece started by Isidro Villoldo for the Cartuja de las Cuevas, Seville. He was also asked to complete the altarpiece started by Nufro Ortega (1516–75) in 1559 in the church of the Asunción, Carmona, but this was not finished until 1569. Among the many works Vázquez executed in Seville were the wooden ...


Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth and Kristin Lohse Belkin

[Weyditz; Widitz; Wyditz; Wydytz; Wydyz]

German family of artists, active in the Upper Rhine region from the mid-15th century to the mid-16th. The sculptor Bartholomäus Wyditz (d after 1477) from Meissen in Saxony married the daughter of the painter Marx Doiger (d 1477) in Strasbourg in 1469 and took up residence there. His son (1) Hans Weiditz (i) was probably the father of (2) Hans Weiditz (ii) and was also the father of (3) Christof Weiditz (i). (4) Christof Weiditz (ii) was the son of the latter.

Thieme–Becker; LK

Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

(b ?Strasbourg, ?c. 1475; d Strasbourg, ?1516).

Sculptor. He was probably trained in his father’s workshop but he worked as a master in Freiburg im Breisgau between 1497 and 1514. Until 1508 he is described as a Bildhower (sculptor) in the lists of the painters’ guild. The parish account books for 1510 record a payment for carved wooden rosettes for keystones in the chancel of Freiburg Cathedral (originals now Freiburg im Breisgau, Augustinmus.). Between ...


Marianne Grivel

(b Neufchâteau, Vosges, 1532; d Damblain, Haute-Marne, 1599).

French goldsmith, painter, sculptor, medallist and engraver . He followed his father and grandfather in working as a goldsmith until c. 1555, after which he was primarily active as an engraver. In that year he received two privileges for the Pinax iconicus (Adhémar, 6), published in 1556, and the Livre d’anneaux d’orfèvrerie (Adhémar, 19), published in 1561 with a dedication to the poet Barthélemy Aneau. Around 1556 he executed three engravings with historical or mythological subject-matter, the Bull of Phalaris, Hasdrubal’s Wife Throwing Herself on the Pyre and Phocas Led Captive before Heraclius (Adhémar, 21–3). It was previously thought that Woeiriot went to Italy after 1550 and settled in Lyon on his return in 1554, but it now seems that he did not leave for Rome until c. 1559–60. At the end of 1561 he was in Nancy; he continued to make frequent visits to Lyon until 1571. On 1 December 1561...