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Erich G. Ranfft

(b Perleberg-Brandenburg, June 29, 1871; d Berlin, Jan 2, 1938).

German medallist, sculptor and writer. He trained in medal arts and sculpture at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Frankfurt am Main (1891–7) and in Paris (1897–9) at the Académie Julian. He dedicated himself to making medals and assimilated the naturalistic and Impressionist styles current in French art, as in his baptismal medal Let the Child Come to Me (1898–9; Frankfurt am Main, Mus. Ksthandwk). In 1899 Bosselt began to gain considerable public recognition in Germany for his medals, which after 1901 became more stylized and decorative. By 1905 he had produced a large body of work, including medals and several plaques of, mainly commissioned, portraits and exhibition notices. In addition, he promoted the revival of medal arts in Germany through his published writings. He was also widely known as a gifted Jugendstil craftsman as a result of his stay from 1899 to 1903 at the Künstler-Kolonie in Darmstadt, where he developed a close friendship with fellow worker Peter Behrens. Bosselt’s output in Darmstadt consisted of jewellery and domestic items of decorative metalwork, which feature sculpted bronze figurines (e.g. table lamp, ...


Annette Nève

(b Brussels, Nov 16, 1852; d Brussels, Jan 4, 1942).

Belgian architect. He studied at the Ecole du Génie Civil in Ghent and then from 1873 to 1879 at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels. An important early influence was a period spent working with Henri Beyaert, with whom he collaborated closely, acquiring an astonishing virtuosity in the design of façades. The major part of his work, however, can be characterized as derived from Italian and Flemish Renaissance sources, although developed with a rationalist rigour given the limitations of party-wall construction and narrow plots of land with which he had to contend. After the early design for the Ecole Communale (1878–80), Place Anneessens, Brussels, he visited Italy and spent a few years in the early 1880s in Portugal. On his return to Brussels he specialized in designing middle-class homes, large houses for the wealthy, industrial buildings and exhibition halls. However, his outstanding work is the Hôtel Hannon (...


Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], March 28, 1864; d Oslo, June 2, 1953).

Norwegian architect and designer. He was trained as a draughtsman and technician in Christiania (1883–4) and completed his education as an architect in Berlin (1884–7). He started his own practice in Christiania in 1888, serving also as a teacher at the Royal School of Design there from 1908 and as director from 1912 to 1934. Early on he demonstrated an extraordinary ability as a draughtsman and a thorough knowledge of architectural history; he was equally interested in the traditional buildings of his own country and international contemporary trends. Bull’s first buildings in Christiania, such as the Paulus Church (1889–92) and Mogens Thorsen’s home for the elderly (1896–8; destr.), are historicist, although freely so. The high spire of the Gothic-Revival church, which is of red brick with details in glazed tiles, provides a landmark for Georg Bull’s earlier Grünerløkka development. In the National Theatre (...


Raquel Henriques da Silva

(Garcia de Aráujo)

(b Lisbon, 1863; d Lisbon, Jan 21, 1919).

Portuguese architect. He was born of a poor family but came to the notice of Alexandre Herculano (1810–77), the famous historian, who supervised his studies. Carvalheira trained at the Instituto Industrial, Lisbon, in a tradition based on Neo-classicism but was also sensitive to historicist trends, which in Portugal derived from the Manueline style of the 16th century, and to the decorative aesthetic of Art Nouveau propagated by French periodicals. In a short period up to 1910, when the Portuguese monarchy ended, Carvalheira divided his activity between commissions for private houses, outstanding among which is the chalet (1893), Monte Estoril, for the queen, Maria Pia (1847–1911), and the planning of several shops in the commercial centre of Lisbon, including Tabacaria Mónaco (1894) in the Rossio, with Art Nouveau decoration. He also designed the Sanatorióm de Sant’Ana (1901–4), Parede, one of the most important Art Nouveau complexes in Portugal, with a functional plan, skilfully designed elevations and furnishings and outstanding ...


(b Paris, June 10, 1856; d Neuilly, Hauts-de-Seine, March 3, 1909).

French sculptor, medallist and designer. After studying with the medal engraver Hubert Ponscarmé, he first exhibited at the Salon of 1879. His first significant work, exhibited in 1883, was a bas-relief, Young Woman Suckling her Child; the final version of this, in marble, was later ordered by the State (Aix-en-Provence, Mus. Granet). This work contained most elements of the artist’s aesthetic—the choice of a familiar subject from life, treated in a natural and robust style, in the manner of Aimé-Jules Dalou. From the start Charpentier had a clear mastery of bas-relief, and his best work is in modelled reliefs—medals, small portrait medallions of great warmth and integrity (e.g. Paris, Mus. d’Orsay), mural decorations and works on a monumental scale, such as the frieze of The Bakers, modelled in 1889 and executed in 1897 in enamelled bricks by the firm of Muller (Paris, Square Scipion).

Charpentier exhibited with the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and later the Salon d’Automne, both in Paris, and from ...


Elke Ostländer

[Klönne, Eduard; Colonna, Eugène]

(b Mülheim, nr Cologne, May 27, 1862; d Nice, Oct 14, 1948).

German architect and designer. He studied architecture from 1877 to 1881 in Brussels and in 1882 went to New York where he worked briefly as a designer for Tiffany’s Associated Artists. From 1884 to 1885 he worked with the New York architects Bruce Price. From 1885 onwards he produced railway wagons for Barney & Smith, Dayton, OH, and for a Canadian railway company, and he also worked in the field of interior decoration. In 1893 Colonna went to Europe, settling in Paris, where in 1898 he started work as a designer for S. Bing’s Galerie Art Nouveau. His heyday came between 1898 and 1902, when he produced designs for jewellery, textiles and furniture, including exhibits in the famous Art Nouveau Bing pavilion (destr.) at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900.

In 1902 Colonna returned to Canada, and for 20 years he worked as an interior decorator and designer there and in the USA. In ...


(b Paris, Feb 21, 1865; d 1932).

French medallist. He trained in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Augustin-Alexandre Dumont, Gabriel-Jules Thomas, Henri-Emile Allouard (1844–1929) and Hubert Ponscarme, winning the Prix de Rome for medal engraving in 1893. His Orpheus at the Entrance to the Underworld, struck for the Exposition Universelle of 1900, was immensely popular and is to this day one of the best known of French ...


Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...


Vincenzo Fontana

(b Gemona, Udine, Aug 31, 1857; d San Remo, Imperia, May 3, 1932).

Italian architect. The son of a building contractor, at 14 he was working as a mason in Graz, Austria, and attending the local Baukunde where Leopold Theyer taught neo-Gothic and neo-Renaissance architectural design. He returned to Gemona in 1874 and after voluntary military service with the military engineers in Turin, where he learned the techniques of structural work in wood, he attended the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, studying under Giacomo Franco and graduating in 1880.

After a brief period (1881) during which he taught at the Accademia di Carrara, D’Aronco’s career can be divided into three phases: in the first decade he was associated with Giuseppe Sommaruga and Ernesto Basile as one of the leading architects of the Stile Liberty (It.: Art Nouveau); the second, c. ten years either side of 1900, was when much of his work was in Turkey; and the third, after 1908...


Claire Brisby

French family of glassmakers. In 1878 Jean Daum (b Bischwiller, 1825; d Nancy, 1885), from Alsace, acquired a glass factory, which he renamed Verrerie de Nancy, and there began to produce traditional tableware. His eldest son, Auguste Daum (1853–1909), joined the factory in 1879 and was followed by Antonin Daum (1864–1930), who managed the business from 1887. To save the company from financial ruin, the brothers enlarged the range of coloured glassware in the 1890s, producing etched, moulded and cameo glass with naturalistic motifs in the Art Nouveau style inspired by the work of their fellow townsman Emile Gallé. Painters and decorators, chief among them being Henri Bergé, provided designs executed by numerous skilled craftsmen under the supervision of Auguste. The originality of Daum glass lies in the diversity of such decorative techniques as enamelling, etching and casing developed for large-scale production, rather than in the quality of decoration. All pieces made after ...


Isabella Di Resta

(b Lecce, 1859; d Naples, 1932).

Italian urban planner and architect. He was brought up in Trani, a town in the Puglie, and graduated at the Scuola d’Applicazione degli Ingegneri in Naples, the city where he was most active. He was primarily an urban planner but also designed public and private buildings. A thorough theoretical and practical knowledge underpinned his schemes, which were concerned particularly with problems associated with road networks, functional planning and economy. In 1889 he made a plan (unexecuted) for the transformation of the area surrounding the Museo Archeologico in Naples. The project was drawn up for a competition for the improvement, enlargement and beautification of the city and it was intended to resolve the road arrangement at this pivotal urban point, replacing the smaller buildings on the site. Other unexecuted schemes include those commissioned by the Comune di Trani for the Palazzo di Giustizia (1900) and the area around the port (...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1880; d 1971).

French glassmaker who established a studio at Conches, where he was an early exponent of Pâte de verre, which he used from c. 1900 to produce small glass sculptures and figures, initially in an Art Nouveau style and later in a more austere idiom. By 1904 Décorchemont had developed a method of colouring glass to make it resemble translucent stones....


(b Paris, May 26, 1860; d after 1913).

French medallist and sculptor. He studied under the French sculptors Augustin-Alexandre Dumont, Emile Thomas (1817–82), Hippolyte Moreau and Léon Delhomme (1841–95). He started exhibiting at the Salon Champs-Elysées in 1887 and was made a Sociétaire des Artistes Français in 1896. At the turn of the century be became a professor at the Ecole Supérieure Professionelle Estienne in Paris. Deschamps’s output consists mainly of relief plaques and medals depicting allegorical subjects and portraits, such as the relief plaque of a young girl ...


M. W. F. Simon Thomas

(b Zwollerkerspel, nr Zwolle, Feb 8, 1866; d Bloemendaal, nr Haarlem, June 14, 1924).

Dutch painter and designer. He studied at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague, and at the Rijkskunstnijverheidsschool and Rijksnormaalschool in Amsterdam. In 1889–1890 he travelled with T. W. Nieuwenhuis to Berlin, Vienna and Paris. His woodcut design for a diploma for the Vereniging van Boekhandels (Society of Bookshops; 1892) and his decorations for the book Kunst en Samenleving (‘Art and society’), the Dutch edition of Walter Crane’s Claims of Decorative Art (London, 1892), are some of the earliest examples of Nieuwe Kunst. Dijsselhof is thus considered to be one of the most important innovators of this movement. He also designed furniture, wallpaper, embroidery patterns and batik wall hangings. An example of his luxurious, meticulously detailed interiors can be seen in the room he designed for Dr van Hoorn in 1895, the Dijsselhofroom (The Hague, Gemeentemus.). After 1900 he occupied himself mainly with painting, usually depicting underwater scenes of fish and plants....


Gordon Campbell

(b 1851; d 1938).

French potter. From 1877 to 1905 he was employed as a designer by Sèvres Porcelain Factory, for which he created sophisticated floral and figural designs in the Art Nouveau style that he introduced to the factory. From 1892 he also had his own studio in Paris. Doat’s display pieces were often decorated with fine enamels; his individualistic medallions were made with the pâte-sur-pâte technique. His vases often took the form of gourds. From ...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1876; d 1955).

French designer of furniture, glass, metal, ceramics and interiors. He was a pioneering exponent of Art Deco and a detractor of Art Nouveau, which in practice meant that he aspired to a style that was neither historical nor mannered. Dufrène was a founder-member in 1901 of the Société des Artistes-Décorateurs (SAD). He inaugurated a range of furniture in very dark native wood and defended functionalism and the use of mechanical processes and mass production. In ...


Volker Helas

(b Breslau, Jan 1, 1859; d Dresden, Dec 21, 1942).

German architect and teacher. He first trained at the Gewerbeschule, Schweidnitz, then studied architecture (1877–9) in Hannover with Conrad Wilhelm Hase and at the Technische Hochschule, Stuttgart (1879–80). His practical training was in the largest German architectural practice of the time, Kayser & von Grossheim, Berlin, then with Brost and Grosser in Breslau, and finally with Friedrich von Thiersch in Munich (1885–6). Having set up an independent practice in Munich (1887), Dülfer began designing façades, the first being that of the Bernheimer Haus (1887–9), a Baroque-style façade above a tall ground-floor, which is broken up by windows and iron supports. In 1891 he went to London and worked with Emanuel von Seidl (1856–1919) on the decorations for a German exhibition. Although English elements began to appear in his work, he continued to use a mixture of the neo-Baroque and Louis XVI styles in many later façades, notably that of the Staats- und Stadtbibliothek (...


Laurie A. Stein

(b Hamburg, Nov 19, 1865; d Badenweiler, June 11, 1902).

German designer, illustrator and painter. He trained as a businessman before entering the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Hamburg. He studied at the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Nuremberg and from 1885 attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. His early paintings are naturalistic landscapes but around 1890 he shifted towards Symbolism (e.g. the Four Ages of Life, 1893–4; untraced). In 1894 he decided to devote himself to the decorative arts. Encouraged by Justus Brinckmann, a collector and museum director, and Friedrich Deneken (later Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld), Eckmann studied the Japanese woodcut collection at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg. Using traditional Japanese techniques, he began producing his own woodcut designs in 1895. Three Swans on Dark Water (1895; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.) reflects a general preoccupation with late 19th-century music, art and literature with swans as symbolic images, and they were a frequent motif in many of his subsequent works. Eckmann’s woodcuts, as well as ornamental borders, vignettes, bookplates and other graphic designs, were illustrated in such periodicals as ...


Gisela Moeller

(b Berlin, April 12, 1871; d Berlin, April 13, 1925).

German architect, designer, writer and teacher. After moving to Munich in 1892, he abandoned his plan to become a teacher, deciding on a career as a freelance scholar. He then studied aesthetics, psychology and philosophy, being particularly influenced by the lectures of the psychologist Theodor Lipps. He also studied German literature, art and music. In 1895 he intended to write a doctorate on the theme of ‘The Construction of Feeling’. In spring 1896 he met Hermann Obrist, who persuaded him to abandon his proposed academic career and become a self-taught artist. As well as book illustrations and decorative pieces for the art magazines Pan and Dekorative Kunst, he produced decorative designs for wall reliefs, carpets, textiles, coverings, window glass and lamps. In 1897 he designed his first furniture for his cousin, the historian Kurt Breysig. His first architectural work, the Elvira photographic studio in Munich (1896–7; destr. 1944), decorated on its street façade by a gigantic, writhing dragon, was a quintessential work of ...


(b Frankenstein nr Breslau [now Wroclaw], Dec 15, 1868; d Munich, 1940).

German painter, illustrator and interior designer. He studied at the Kunstschule in Breslau under the German painter Albrecht Bräuer (1830–97), and later at the Pinakothek in Munich, absorbing the work of the Old Masters. He continued his training in Paris at the Académie Julian (1892–4), and established a studio in Munich (1895). With other non-academic painters of the period he rejected the influence of the French Impressionists and allied with the Symbolist painters of the late 19th century. He drew inspiration from wild places and as a young man travelled to the Baltic Sea and to the Riviera and Brittany coasts. He was fascinated by Norse legends, Grimms’ fairy tales and Johann Gottfried Herder’s Stimmen der Völker, all of which had an impact on his subject-matter. His early paintings of bucolic landscapes with figures were executed in flat, calm colours with well-defined outlines, reminiscent of the work of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes. In a long, prolific career he designed costumes and stage sets, stained glass, ceramics and bookbindings....