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Article

Alan Powers

Stylistic term applied to the revival in the UK in the late 19th century and the 20th of the classical Georgian style of domestic architecture and interior and furniture design from the period 1714–1830. Similar, contemporary revivals of late 18th- and early 19th-century Georgian colonial styles also took place in such countries as the USA and Australia (see Colonial Revival). Neo-Georgian was one of the most popular architectural styles in the UK between 1900 and 1930; it continued to be employed despite the advent of Modernism, and in the 1980s a new phase of popularity began, stimulated by the anti-modernist, eclectic and pluralist trends of Post-modernism.

The origins of the Neo-Georgian style can be found in the 1860s. The house (1860–62; destr.) at 2 Palace Green, Kensington, London, designed for William Makepeace Thackeray by Frederick Hering (1800–69), who drew on Thackeray’s sketches, was an early, isolated example reflecting a literary interest in the 18th century. Another precursor is ...

Article

P. Nigst

(b Vienna, Aug 24, 1876; d Vienna, Nov 15, 1945).

Austrian architect, furniture designer and urban planner. He was the son of a master carpenter and received a thorough training in this craft, later becoming known as one of the ablest furniture producers of his time; an example of his designs is a dining-room chair for the painter Josef Reich (before 1900; see Das Interieur (1900), p. 180). From 1892 to 1896 he studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Vienna, and thereafter began to practise architecture. He made an early impact with his ideas on architecture published in his article ‘Moderne Möbel’ (1900). His first projects included a series of residential buildings (1901–6) in Döbling, Vienna, and the Luithlen Sanatorium (1907–8, partially destr. 1969; see Der Architekt, xiv (1908), pl. 42) in Josefstadt, Vienna, one of his most important works; it has an unusually simple, unadorned façade for a Viennese building, above which he boldly placed two operating theatres (destr. ...

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Seifhennersdorf, Jan 19, 1874; d Berlin, Aug 17, 1968).

German architect and furniture designer. He attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Dresden (1886–94), before moving to Munich, where he studied with Paul Hoecker (1854–1910) and Wilhelm von Diez (1839–1907), and drew caricatures for the journals Jugend and Simplicissimus, as a colleague of Olaf Gulbransson and Thomas Theodor Heine. With Peter Behrens, Hermann Obrist, Bernhard Pankok, Richard Riemerschmid and others, Paul was a founder-member of the Vereinigte Werkstätten für Kunst im Handwerk in Munich, a group dedicated to the production of well-designed furniture and works of decorative art. Paul’s early furniture designs, although aligned to Jugendstil in general concept, resisted the excessive curves and tentacles favoured by contemporary French and Belgian designers. Around 1904 Paul rejected Jugendstil in favour of a rectilinear, Neo-Biedermeier manner. His interiors for a hunting-room (see Günther, pls 58–60) at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900 and for a study (see Günther, pls 75–8) at the World’s Fair (Louisiana Purchase International Exposition) in St Louis in ...

Article

Hana Myslivečková

(b Světec u Bíliny, July 31, 1873; d Dachau, June 11, 1944).

Czech printmaker, designer, illustrator, painter, and teacher, active also in the USA. From 1892 he studied at the School of Applied Industrial Art in Prague (in Friedrich Ohmann’s Decorative Architecture workshop). In 1897 he left for Paris, where in 1898 he worked for Alphonse Mucha, familiarized himself with graphic techniques, worked in applied graphics, and experimented with lettering and design, and photography. His early, Secessionist, work was influenced by Japanese art and Symbolism. After his return to Prague in 1903 he devoted himself to illustration, publishing an album, Coloured Etchings in the Graphic Art Atelier at Vinohrady, Prague (New York, 1906), and the book Barevný lept a barevná rytina [Coloured etching and coloured engraving], and founding the periodical Česká grafika. Preissig lived in the USA from 1910, gaining a reputation as an innovator in the field of book and advertising graphic design, typography, and illustration, in which fields he introduced the linocut and other special graphic techniques. He taught at art schools in New York, and from ...

Article

Jean A. Follett

(b Boston, MA, 1842; d Boston, MA, 1910).

American architect, stained-glass designer, furniture designer, and photographer. Preston was the son of Jonathan Preston (1801–88), a successful builder in Boston. William completed a year’s study at the Lawrence Scientific School in Cambridge, MA (later incorporated into Harvard University), and then went to Paris where he enrolled briefly in the Atelier Douillard. He returned to Boston in 1861 to work with his father, with whom he remained in partnership until the latter’s death. William then practised independently until his own death.

Preston was a prolific architect, designing over 740 buildings in the course of a career spanning 50 years. His early work was in the French Renaissance style, as seen in his Boston Society of Natural History building (1861–4), a tripartite structure with its floor levels arranged to equate with the proportions of the base, shaft, and capital of a Classical column. It has monumental Corinthian columns and pilasters and a central pediment flanked by a balustraded parapet. He worked in a typically eclectic manner during the 1870s and became an extremely fine designer in the Queen Anne Revival style in the 1880s and early 1890s. The varied massing, stained-glass windows, terracotta, moulded brick, and carved-wood detail of the John D. Sturtevant House (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b New York City, 1853; d Buffalo, NY, 1936).

American furniture designer . He began as a designer of cast-iron stoves, but abandoned his profession for the stage; his career as an actor in Boston was terminated as a condition of marriage imposed by his future father-in-law. Rohlfs turned to furniture design in the mid-1880s, and in 1898 opened a workshop in Buffalo, where he built oak furniture. He is rightly regarded as a leading exponent of the American Arts and Crafts Movement in that his furniture typically had solid forms and exposed joints, but his decoration was carved in an Art Nouveau idiom. His commissions included a set of chairs for Buckingham Palace....

Article

Janet Marstine

(b Woodstown, NJ, Nov 6, 1876; d New York, May 1, 1953).

American painter, illustrator, designer, playwright, and film director. He studied industrial design at the Spring Garden School in Philadelphia from 1888 to 1890. In 1893 he became an illustrator at the Philadelphia Press. Simultaneously he attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, where he met Robert Henri, John Sloan, William J. Glackens, and George Luks. Their style of urban realism prompted him to depict the bleak aspects of city life. In 1897 Shinn moved to New York and produced illustrations for several newspapers and magazines, for example Mark Twain (March 1900; see Perlman, p. 80), a frontispiece for The Critic. He also drew sketches for a novel by William Dean Howells on New York; although the novel was not published, Shinn’s drawings brought him national recognition.

Shinn’s work changed radically when, on a trip to Paris in 1901, he was inspired by the theatre scenes of Manet, Degas, and Jean-Louis Forain. He began to paint performers in action, from unusual vantage points, as in ...

Article

Ilene Susan Fort

(b Lock Haven, PA, Aug 2, 1871; d Hanover, NH, Sept 7, 1951).

American painter, printmaker and draughtsman. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts with Thomas Pollock Anshutz from 1892 to 1894 and worked as a commercial artist, first with the newspaper the Philadelphia Inquirer (1892–5) and then the Philadelphia Press (1895–1903). He first gained national recognition for his illustrations in the turn-of-the-century poster style, for example Atlantic City Beach (Philadelphia Inquirer, 19 Aug 1894). He earned his living through magazine illustrations until 1916.

Through his association with Robert Henri and the group of young Philadelphia artists around him, Sloan began c. 1897 to paint in oil and became interested in depicting city life. In 1904, he followed Henri to New York, where he stayed for the rest of his life. In 1908, he participated with seven other artists in an exhibition at the Macbeth Gallery to protest the conservative taste of the National Academy of Design. The group was dubbed ...

Article

(b Levens, Westmoreland [now Cumbria], 1872; d London, April 11, 1945).

English ceramic and metalwork designer. He trained in stone- and wood-carving at the Kendal School of Art, then studied metalwork at the Keswick School of Industrial Art, where he later taught. In 1899 he left Keswick to study in the metalwork department of the Liverpool School of Art under Richard Llewellyn Rathbone (1864–1939). He moved to London to teach at the John Cass Technical Institute (c. 1906) and at the Royal College of Art (1912–26), and participated with notable success in arts and crafts exhibitions. In 1914 he was inspired by a visit to the Deutscher Werkbund exhibition in Cologne. This led to the founding in 1915, with Ambrose Heal and others, of the Design and Industries Association (DIA), which was intended to further public awareness of excellence in design.

In 1921 Stabler helped to establish the Carter, Stabler & Adam pottery in Poole, Dorset (renamed ...

Article

(b Brussels, Aug 31, 1847; d Brussels, Sept 11, 1917).

Belgian architect, designer, engineer, writer and politician. After graduating as an engineer at the University of Ghent in 1870, he established himself in Charleroi before settling in Ghent on his marriage in 1872. Under the influence of Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune, he worked in the Belgian Gothic Revival style on architecture, furniture and wall paintings and in stained glass, gold, iron and embroidery. From 1875 to 1895 he directed the workshop for stained glass founded by Bethune. Verhaegen’s most important building is the new Beguinage (1873) of Sint Amandsberg near Ghent, which conforms to the severe Gothic Revival ideals of Bethune and anticipates some of the features of garden-city designs. His churches and conventual buildings at Ghent (Poortakker, 1874; St Macharius, 1880–82), Hekelgem (abbey, 1880; church destr.), Paris (Oeuvre des Flamands Church, c. 1875) and Rome (Everlasting Adoration, 1885–6) and châteaux at Watermaal-Bosvoorde (1880–81) and Merelbeke (...

Article

Jean Stern

(b Bentzen, Feb 20, 1865; d Laguna Beach, CA, Dec 29, 1946).

American painter of German birth. He came to the USA in 1880, settling in Chicago, where he worked in a commercial art firm. Essentially self-taught, he attended evening classes at the Art Institute of Chicago for only a brief period. Dissatisfied with figure studies, he preferred painting landscapes and quickly became an active exhibitor in various Chicago art shows, winning the Second Yerkes Prize at the Chicago Society of Artists exhibition in 1893. Wendt and Gardner Symons (1862–1930) made a number of trips to California between 1896 and 1904 and, in 1898, to the art colony at St Ives in Cornwall, England. In 1906 Wendt settled in Los Angeles with his wife, sculptor Julia Bracken. He became a leading member in the art community and was a founder-member of the California Art Club in 1909. In 1912 he moved his home and studio to the art colony at Laguna Beach, the same year that he was elected to the National Academy of Design. He was a founder-member of the Laguna Beach Art Association in ...