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Article

Maxime Préaud

French family of engravers, print-sellers and print-publishers. Nicolas de Larmessin I (bapt Paris, 17 Oct 1632; d Paris, 23 July 1694) was the son of the bookseller Nicolas de Larmessin. In 1647 he was apprenticed to the engraver Jean Mathieu (fl 1618–46), and in 1654 he married the daughter of the print-publisher and print-seller Pierre Bertrand (d c. 1678). Larmessin first worked for his father-in-law, particularly on the execution of series of portraits and almanacs, such as that of Anne of Austria (1663; see Weigert, no. 16). After Bertrand’s death and that of his widow (c. 1685), Larmessin took over their publishing business in the Rue St Jacques at the sign of the Golden Apple.

Nicolas de Larmessin II (b Paris, c. 1645; d Paris, 18 Dec 1725) was the brother of Nicolas I, with whose works his own are often confused; he engraved almanacs but is known particularly for his series of prints depicting grotesque costumes [...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(fl 1425–67).

German manuscript illuminator. Lauber had a workshop in Hagenau (now French Haguenau) in Alsace, 15 km north-east of Strasbourg. His workshop is known to have produced more than 50 manuscripts (in both German and Latin) between 1425 and 1467.

NDB

L. von Wilckens: ‘A Note on an Embroidery with the Joys of Mary’ [15th century linen embroidery from Alsace], ...

Article

Juliann Wolfgram

[Baiō]

(b 1686; d 1764).

Japanese print designer, painter, book illustrator and publisher. Although Masanobu’s artistic career spanned six decades, Edo-period (1600–1868) documents reveal little about his life. However, his prolific artistic output and technical innovations make him one of the leading figures of the early history of Japanese woodblock printing and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’, see Japan §X 2., (iii)). He began his career in 1701 with a copy of an album of courtesans known as Keisei ehon (‘Yoshiwara picture book’; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.) by Torii Kiyonobu I (see Torii family, §1). His earliest sumizurie (‘black-and-white pictures’) were based on the subject-matter and style of the Torii school and were published in sets of 12 large prints (ōban) or in illustrated books (ehon). Masanobu illustrated no less than 19 novelettes and produced over 30 ehon (see Japan §X 2.). During the formative stage of his career, Masanobu also wrote popular fiction, which led him to develop a pictorial means of conveying literary wit and humour. Through the production of visual parodies of classical themes, known as ...

Article

Peter Stansky

(b Walthamstow [now in London], March 24, 1834; d London, Oct 3, 1896).

English designer, writer and activist. His importance as both a designer and propagandist for the arts cannot easily be overestimated, and his influence has continued to be felt throughout the 20th century. He was a committed Socialist whose aim was that, as in the Middle Ages, art should be for the people and by the people, a view expressed in several of his writings. After abandoning his training as an architect, he studied painting among members of the Pre-Raphaelites. In 1861 he founded his own firm, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (from 1875 Morris & Co.), which produced stained glass, furniture, wallpaper and fabrics (see §3 below). Morris’s interests constantly led him into new activities such as his last enterprise, the Kelmscott Press (see §5 below). In 1950 his home at Walthamstow became the William Morris Gallery. The William Morris Society was founded in 1956, and it publishes a biannual journal and quarterly newsletter....

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Numeister]

(b c. 1430–40; d 1512).

German printer. Neumeister may have been a pupil of Johann Gutenberg in Mainz. He worked from 1470 to 1474 in Foligno (near Assisi), where he published the first edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy (1472; see Dante Alighieri). He subsequently worked in Mainz (1479) and then moved to France, first living in Albi, north-east of Toulouse (...

Article

Howard Caygill

(b Berlin, March 18, 1733; d Berlin, Jan 8, 1811).

German writer and publisher. As an apprentice bookseller in Frankfurt an der Oder in the late 1740s, he attended Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s lectures on aesthetics. His first and only important critical work, Briefe über den jetzigen Zustand der schönen Wissenschaften in Deutschland (Berlin, 1755), earned him the friendship of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Moses Mendelssohn for its irenic posture in the controversy over aesthetics between Joachim Christoph Gottsched and the Zurich School. However, Nicolai is significant less for his own writings than for publishing some of the most influential critical journals of the German Enlightenment. The Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften und freien Künste (1757–62), Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffdend (1759–65) and Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek (1765–1806) printed the aesthetic and critical writings of Lessing and Mendelssohn, among other leading philosophers and critics. Nicolai’s own chief contributions to art history are his pioneering texts on art and artists in Berlin. The ...

Article

Paolo Costantini

(b Venice, July 18, 1842; d St Moritz, Aug 21, 1911).

Italian publisher. He was first an employee and later the manager of the Münster bookshop in the Piazza San Marco, Venice. From 1877 he was involved in an extraordinary series of 43 publications about Venetian art history, which made liberal use of photography. In these works he employed, and was among the very first to do so in Italy, the new ...

Article

(b Basle, Jan 25, 1507; d Basle, July 6, 1568).

Swiss humanist printer. He studied Greek in Strasbourg and then returned to Basle as a teacher of Greek and as an editor for the publisher Johann Froben. He eventually established his own press, specializing in editions of scientific works and Classical authors. His press published a Latin translation of the ...

Article

Laura Suffield

[Christopher]

(b ?nr Tours, c. 1520; d Antwerp, July 1, 1589).

Flemish printer, publisher and bookbinder of French origin. He was apprenticed c. 1545–6 as a bookbinder to the bookseller and bookbinder Robert Macé II (fl 1522–46) in Caen, where he also married. He moved briefly to Paris and in 1549 travelled to Antwerp, where he became a citizen the following year and worked as a bookbinder until an accident to his arm in 1555 prevented him from practising his trade. He was granted a privilege to work as a printer in February 1555, the year in which his first book appeared, Giovanni Michele Bruto’s L’Institution d’une fille de noble maison, printed for Joannes Bellerus. An edition of Seneca’s Flores (1555) was the first to incorporate Plantin’s famous colophon of a pair of compasses. Between 1555 and 1562 his press produced 169 editions; however, the discovery of a Calvinistic text at his press in 1562 resulted in the seizure and sale of all his goods and his removal to Paris. He returned in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Normandy c. 1449; d London 1529/30).

Anglo-Norman printer. Pynson became a printer in London, initially as an assistant to William Caxton. In the early 1490s he succeeded William de Machlinia as the principal printer of law books in London; his press also printed an illustrated edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. On the accession of King Henry VIII in ...

Article

(b Worbis, Saxony, April 23, 1819; d London, Dec 17, 1899).

British bookseller and publisher of German birth. He was apprenticed to a bookseller in Nordhausen from 1834 to 1839 and afterwards spent three years working for a publishing house in Berlin. Quaritch came to England in 1842 and five years later became a naturalized British subject. In 1847 he established his own second-hand bookshop near Leicester Square, London, and in 1860 moved to premises on Piccadilly. His shop became a centre of interest for all the great bibliophiles around the world. He became known for his ability to find rare books, manuscripts, historic bindings and incunabula, and for the excellence of the catalogues that he issued at regular intervals throughout his career. From 1862 he employed Michael Kerney (1838–1901) as his chief cataloguer and literary adviser. The catalogues were comprehensive, with extensive indexes, notes and scholarly descriptions. One of the most valuable was the Bibliotheca Xylographica, Typographica et Palaeographica: Catalogue of Block Books and of Early Productions of the Printing Press in all Countries, and a Supplement of Manuscripts...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Augsburg, 1447; d Augsburg, 1527–8).

German printer. While still a child he moved to Mainz, where he trained as a printer, probably in the workshop of Johann Gutenberg . In the 1470s and early 1480s he worked as a printer in Venice, and in 1486 he accepted an invitation to return to his native Augsburg, where his workshop became the most important producer of colour printing in Germany. Ratdolt’s many innovations include the first title-page, the first type-face catalogue, the first texts of geometry and astronomy to be illustrated with diagrams and the first books with illustrations in three colours. He first printed music in ...

Article

Vera Leuschner

(b Greifswald, Aug 27, 1776; d Berlin, April 26, 1842).

German publisher and collector. He started as an apprentice in the bookshop of Gottlieb August Lange (d 1796) in Greifswald in 1790 and moved to the branch in Berlin in 1795. In 1801 he took over the bookshop of the Realschule there. The ‘publisher of the Romantics’ (including among others the Grimm brothers, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Novalis and Heinrich von Kleist), Reimer prospered and in 1822 purchased Weidmann’s bookshop in Leipzig. His friends included the writer and philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834) and the writer Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769–1860). He started building up his collection in 1814. He possessed 31 paintings by his compatriot and childhood friend Caspar David Friedrich, including Ruined Monastery of Eldena (c. 1825) and Oak Tree in the Snow (c. 1829; both Berlin, Tiergarten, N. G.). Among the drawings in Reimer’s collection were designs (Frankfurt am Main, Städel Kstinst.) for a ...

Article

Jürgen Zimmer

(b c. 1532; d c. 1592–3).

German draughtsman, publisher, wood-engraver and painter. In 1548 he published a textbook of writing instruction and in 1551 one on arithmetic. In 1560–63 he made a model of Augsburg (Augsburg, Maximilianmus.) and in 1563 a map of the city, which was used in simplified form in the monumental Civitates orbis terrarum (1572–1618) by Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg (fl c. 1560–c. 1590/94). His Augsburger Meilenscheibe (c. 1565, frequently reissued), a disc with a plan of Augsburg at the centre, with lists of towns and distances radiating from it, was a practical instrument for travellers from and to the most important trade and cultural centre of 16th-century central Europe and is to be seen in close conjunction with the Reissbüchlein (Augsburg, 1563) by Jörg Gail.

Rogel reproduced the works of several artists in woodcuts, for example the Geometria et perspectiva (Augsburg, 1567...

Article

Véronique Meyer

(b Paris, 1610; d Paris, July 15, 1686).

French engraver and print-publisher. He was the son of a Parisian bookseller and first worked as an engraver for the print-publishers Jean Leblond (i) and Pierre Mariette (i); from 1650, however, he published all his prints himself. He worked for the Imprimerie Royale from 1642 until 1647; he was admitted (reçu) to the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in 1663 and exhibited in the Salons of 1664 and 1673. As a Graveur du Roi, he was granted lodgings at the Gobelins and given the task of reproducing 14 of the paintings in the French royal collection, including Guido Reni’s Labours of Hercules, Raphael’s St Michael, the Evangelists by Valentin de Boullogne and the Finding of Moses by Nicolas Poussin. From 1678 Rousselet suffered from eye trouble; he died blind. His oeuvre comprises more than 400 prints, including religious subjects, allegories, portraits, frontispieces for books and coats of arms. Beginning by engraving after drawings by ...

Article

Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe

(Martínez [Martini; Martino] de)

(b ?Salamanca, Spain, 1478; d Rome, 5 July, 1562).

Spanish book and print publisher, active in Italy. Salamanca was in Rome by 1519 when he published Amadis de Gaula. Subsequently he published Ordo perpetuus divini officii secundu[m] Romana[m] Curia[m] (1520; printed by Antonio Blado), Esplandian (1525), La Celestina (c. 1525; with Jacopo Giunta), Antonio de Guevara’s Libro aureo de Marco Aurelio (1531), a Quignon Breviary (1535; with Giunta and Blado), Hernando da Salazar’s Las yglesias & indulgentias de Roma (1539), Las obras de Boscan (1547), a writing manual (1548; printed by the Dorico brothers) and Juan de Valverde’s Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano (1556; with Antoine Lafréry). In 1538 he began also to publish prints. His address, often abbreviated (Ant. Sal. exc.), appears on the second or later state of over 250 prints. Of this number, at least 150 are by ...

Article

(b Augsburg, c. 1455; d Augsburg, Feb 25, 1521).

German printer. Schönsperger was appointed imperial court printer to Habsburg, House of family §I, (3) , for whom he published a magnificent prayer book (1513) set in a specially-designed Gothic type and printed in ten copies on vellum. He also published the Emperor’s Theuerdank (1517). His son, Johann Schönsperger the younger (...

Article

Judith K. Golden

Anonymous collection of in-depth typologies, based on the idea that every event in the New Testament was presaged by an event in the Old Testament ( see Typological cycles ). The Speculum humanae salvationis appeared first in manuscript form, then as Block-book s and later as incunabula. Chief among possible sources for the text is Ludolphus of Saxony (c. 1300–77), with Conradus of Altzheim, Vincent of Beauvais, Henricus Suso and Nicholas of Lyra among others also suggested authors. Like copies of the earlier Biblia pauperum, tituli and captions identify events and figures, however the Speculum humanae salvationis augments these pictures with a text that explains the illustrations. Between the early 14th century and the end of the 15th, several hundred copies, nearly all illustrated, were produced and translated from the original Latin into German, French, English, Dutch and Czech.

Typically the manuscripts include a Prologue and Prohemium, of text only; followed by forty-two chapters with four miniatures atop four text columns each of twenty-five lines; closing with three chapters with eight miniatures devoted to the Seven Stations of the Passion, the Seven Sorrows and the Seven Joys of Mary, these last three chapters not being typological. Some manuscripts omit opening texts or the final three chapters. Each opening provides a meditative, typological diptych of four images and clarifying text, for example Christ and the Last Supper as the first image, followed by Moses and the Miracle of Manna; Moses and Passover; Abraham blessed by Melchisedek. The first image contains gospel citations; the last three have captions indicating their relationship to the first....

Article

David Alexander

English family of engravers, illustrators and publishers. Isaac Taylor (i) (b Worcester, 13 Dec 1730; d Edmonton, 17 Oct 1807) worked initially for the London map publisher Thomas Jeffreys (fl 1732; d 1771). He engraved some plates of Old Master pictures for John Boydell and exhibited at the Society of Artists in 1765–80. He was a capable artist, much in demand for book illustrations, which he both designed and engraved, for example a vignette (1765) retained for many editions of Oliver Goldsmith’s Deserted Village and frontispieces (1780) for each of the seven volumes of Samuel Richardson’s Sir Charles Grandison. He also engraved architectural plates and in the 1770s he took over the business of Henry Webley of Holborn, the leading publisher of architectural books. From about 1775 he traded as I. & J. Taylor, at first with his brother James Taylor (...

Article

Marianne Grivel

(b Bourges, 1480; d Paris, 1533).

French printer, publisher, book designer and bookseller. He left Bourges in 1503 to study in Rome and Bologna. After returning to France in 1507, he published Classical works and taught at the Collège du Plessis in Paris (1508–11) and then, from 1512, at the Collège de Bourgogne (Paris), before a second stay in Italy from about 1516 to 1518. In 1518 he was admitted to the Paris booksellers’ guild. He worked under the sign of the Pot-Cassé, first on the Petit-Pont adjoining the Hôtel-Dieu (1512–23) and then on the Rue St Jacques; finally he settled on the Rue de la Juiverie from 1532 to 1533.

From 1529 Tory was active as a printer. Influenced by Classical art and by Italy, he adopted a new approach to the aesthetics of book production in France, concerning himself with a correct balance between text and illustration. From his first book, ...