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Ju-Hsi Chou

[Kao Feng-han; hao Nanfu Shanren]

(b Jiaozhou (modern Jiao xian), Shandong Province, 1683; d ?Shandong Province, 1748–9).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, Wang Qilei, also provided Gao with some formal instruction in the art of painting, beyond what he could learn from his father, an amateur painter of orchids and bamboo. Gao’s official career did not begin until 1729, when he took up an appointment as assistant magistrate of She xian, Anhui Province. In 1734 a new assignment took him to Taizhou, east of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1736, having become entangled in a legal dispute involving a chief commissioner of the salt gabelle, he was briefly imprisoned; this and his deteriorating health, which resulted in the paralysis of his right hand, inevitably led to his resignation from officialdom....


Wang Fu  

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[zi Mengduan; hao Youshi]

(b Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 1362; d Beijing, 1416).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and poet. Following early promise as a painter and poet, Wang Fu passed the provincial examinations—the second stage in the civil service examination ladder—to receive his juren degree in 1376. He went to Nanjing soon after to take up a government post, but in 1380 was banished to the northern frontier, near Datong, Shanxi Province, as the result of alleged political activity against the Ming (1368–1644) government. For the next 20 years Wang served as a frontier guard, after which he returned to the south to paint and write. From 1403 to 1412 he worked as a calligrapher in the imperial palace at Nanjing, and in 1414 he went to Beijing to join the Central Draughting Office; he died there two years later.

Accounts of Wang’s character and artistic skill have the ring of conventional formulae. It is said that he painted infrequently, while travelling and often when drunk. In spite of his reputation for eccentricity, his extant works reveal a diligent hand and serious application to his art. In his ...



Cecil H. Uyehara

(b 1265; reg 1287–98; d 1317).

Ninety-second emperor of Japan, calligrapher and poet. The second son of Emperor GoFukakusa (reg 1246–60), he abdicated in favour of his son GoFushimi (reg 1298–1301) in 1298 and later retired to a monastery. He was one of the most talented calligraphers among Japanese emperors and indeed one of the outstanding calligraphers of the Kamakura period (1185–1333). Instead of following the then popular calligraphy styles, he emulated those of the 10th-century masters, Ono no Michikaze and Fujiwara no Sari (see Fujiwara family, §1), two of the Sanseki (‘three brush traces’; Three Masters). He was regarded as a greater calligrapher than even the celebrated Fujiwara no Kōzei (see Fujiwara family, §2) of the later part of the Heian period (794–1185). Fushimi’s calligraphy eschewed strong, vigorous strokes and was instead clear, graceful and elegant. He developed a Wayō (native) style, which now bears his ...


Mark H. Sandler

[Shiroishi; Kyūkei; Shiroishi; Kyūkei; Fūrai Sanjin]

(b Shido, Sanuki Prov. [now Kagawa Prefect.], 1728; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1780).

Japanese writer, naturalist, scholar and painter. He was born into a low-ranking samurai family in the Takamatsu Domain (now in Kagawa Prefect.) on Shikoku. His interest in the natural sciences developed while working in the medicinal herb garden of his lord, Matsudaira Yoritaka. In 1752–4 he was sent to study in Nagasaki, where he encountered Western and Chinese scientific ideas and methods. After studying in Osaka with the herbalist Toda Kyokuzan (1696–1769), Gennai travelled c. 1757 to Edo, where he became a student of the government physician and naturalist Tamura Genyū (1718–76). Through Tamura he met the physician and scholar of Western learning Sugita Genpaku (1733–1817) and others interested in empirical science. This group conducted symposia, investigating the properties of a wide range of materials. Drawing on these studies, Gennai wrote his most important book, Butsurui hinshitsu (‘Classification of various materials’; 1763), which contained descriptions of some 360 specimens. It was illustrated mainly by the Nagasaki school painter ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Yeh Kung-ch’uo ; zi Yufu, Yuhu ; hao Xiaan, Juyuan ]

(b Panyu, Guangdong Province, 1881; d 1968).

Chinese calligrapher, painter, archaeologist, collector, poet and government official. He was born into a wealthy, scholarly family, received a classical education and as a youth of 16 founded a school in Guangzhou (Canton) and a publishing company in Shanghai; at 17 he enrolled in law school at the Imperial University in Beijing. His studies were interrupted two years later by the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, whereupon Ye moved to Wuchang, Hubei Province, and taught history, geography and modern languages for four years. In 1906 he began his official career as a specialist in railways and communications. After 1911, Ye held various positions in the Republican government and was instrumental in the establishment of Jiaotong University in Shanghai; he also served as director of classics for several years at Peking [Beijing] University. After the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), he gave up his government career and devoted himself to the arts and research, although he continued to serve on educational and cultural committees for the rest of his life. In particular, he became involved in the committee to organize the simplification of Chinese characters. In ...


Qingli Wan and Chu-Tsing Li

[Huang Kung-wang; zi Zijiu; hao Yifeng, Dachi, Jingxi Daoren]

(b Changshu, Jiangsu Province, 1269; d Changshu, 1354).

Chinese painter. He was designated one of the Four Masters of the Yuan, together with Ni Zan, Wu Zhen and Wang Meng. Born into a family named Lu, he was orphaned when very young. The impoverished Lu family had him adopted when he was seven or eight by a Mr Huang of Yongjia, Zhejiang Province, who was living in Changshu at the time. Since Huang was about 90 years old and without male offspring, the names Huang Gongwang and Zijiu were chosen, which together mean ‘Mr Huang has desired a son for a long time’.

Huang Gongwang received a good education, and some documents suggest that he was a child prodigy. In his youth, he served as a legal clerk in the Office of Surveillance in western Zhejiang Province and was put in charge of matters related to the collection of land taxes for helping poor peasants. In 1315, when he was working in Beijing at the Investigation Bureau of the Office of the Imperial Censor, Zhang Lu, he was imprisoned for alleged involvement in mishandling of land taxes in Zhejiang. A plan to collect taxes that Zhang proposed to the court in fact had been undermined by rich landowners and corrupt officials; later, when Zhang was cleared, Huang was released. As a result of this Huang decided to give up official life, changing his name to Yifeng (‘One Peak’)....


Jacqueline Colliss Harvey

(b London, Oct 21, 1735; d ?Enfield, Middx, Feb 20, 1809).

English antiquary, topographer and writer. He was born into an enterprising family (at the age of 11, his father, Harry, had gone to China with his uncle, the explorer Sir Richard Gough) and displayed prodigious talents, learning Latin from Samuel Dyer, a friend of Dr Samuel Johnson, and at 11 himself began a History of the Bible Translated from the French, printed privately by James Waugh in 1747. On his father’s death in 1751 he inherited the family estates in Hertfordshire. From 1752 to 1756 he attended Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he was a conscientious, if solitary, student, but left without a degree. He then began the first of his extensive tours around England, and his notes and descriptions from these journeys formed most of his writings. In 1762 he was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and served as Director, from 1771 to 1776. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society between ...



Joan Stanley-Baker

[Kuan-hsiu; original family name Jiang; zi Deyin; hao Chanyue

(b Lanxi, Zhejiang Province, ad 832; d Chengdu, Sichuan Province, 912).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, poet and Buddhist monk. During the reign (ad 901–3) of the Tang emperor Zhaozong (reg ad 888–904), he visited Sichuan Province and was honoured by the King of Shu, who bestowed on him the title of Master. At that time, Daoism and Buddhism flourished in Sichuan, prompting many temple-building projects and giving an unprecedented impetus to the liturgical arts and figurative painting. Of the 50 or more painters recorded as then working in Sichuan, most were producing Daoist and Buddhist figure paintings.

According to contemporary sources, Guanxiu deviated from current fashions in depicting the Buddhist luohan (Skt arhats; enlightened beings) in his paintings with Tatar features and Indian faces. Like those of his predecessor, Yan Liben, these ascetics had long, trailing eyebrows, enormous, deep-set eyes, huge ears and bulbous noses. Guanxiu said that his inspiration ‘came from dreams’. Although he is said to have used only ink wash, his dexterity in that medium produced the effect of a full-colour spectrum. He reputedly sat in meditation in a room perfumed by incense and, when a genuine vision of the Buddha came to him, leapt up and rapidly depicted two or three ...


Roger Goepper

[Sun Kuo-t’ing; zi Qianli]

(fl c. ad 687).

Chinese calligrapher, theorist and scholar–official. The only reliable source about his life is a memorial text by his friend, the poet Chen Zi’ang (ad 656–95), which reports that Sun lived in poor circumstances and died young. It is known that he served in minor positions at the court of the Tang empress Wu (reg ad 684–705). His Treatise on Calligraphy (Shupu) was the first systematic text on the art of Chinese calligraphy. Its preface survives as a copy, probably executed hastily by Sun from his original, consisting of 351 lines of cursive script (caoshu) in handscroll format (ad 687; Taipei, N. Pal. Mus.). The preface establishes grades of artistic rank to which calligraphers are appointed and places Wang Xizhi (see Wang family, §1) at the peak of a tradition originating in the 4th century ad. Sun treats the relationship between artistic form and expressive content, emphasizing the personality of the artist and establishing calligraphy as a creative activity. He discusses the advantages of different calligraphic styles and makes critical remarks about famous works. He also formulates four basic technical modes of calligraphy (...


Stephen Addiss

[Uragami Hitsu; Ki Tasuku; Gyokudō, Ryosai]

(b Ikeda, Bizen Province [now Okayama Prefect.], 1745; d Kyoto, 1820).

Japanese Musician, painter, poet and calligrapher. Although he was more famous in his lifetime as a musician and little appreciated as an artist, Gyokudō has come to be considered one of Japan’s great painters in the literati painting tradition (Jap. Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and his rough, bold works are among Japan’s most powerful and individualistic artistic expressions. He belonged to the third generation of Japanese literati artists, who returned to painting in a more Sinophile, orthodox manner in contrast to the more unorthodox, Japanese approach of second-generation masters such as Ike Taiga and Yosa Buson.

He was born to a samurai-official family, and in 1752, a year after his father died, he took up the Ikeda clan duties. He received a Confucian-style education and as a youth studied the Chinese zither (qin). He was skilled both as a player and composer on this subtle instrument. The creative processes that he developed for composition, particularly with respect to asymmetry and repetition, were transferred to the calligraphy and painting of his later years. He took his art name (...


Karen M. Gerhart

[Kasetsudō, Chōudō]

(b Kii Prov. [now Wakayama Prefect.], 1746; d 1799).

Japanese painter, art critic and theorist. His family was descended from a tea master and samurai vassal of warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi, but by the time of Gyokushū’s birth the Kuwayama had given up Samurai status and become well-to-do shipping merchants. His highly influential essay on literati art (Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), Kaiji higen (‘Humble words on painting’), was published posthumously in 1800 by the patron, collector and painter Kimura Kenkadō. In 1790 Gyokushū published Gyokushū gashū (‘Collected works of Gyokushū’), which explains the importance to Japanese artists of the theories of Dong Qichang, a Chinese artist and theorist of the Ming period (1368–1644). Both treatises attest to Gyokushū’s understanding of literati aesthetics.

Gyokushū’s earlier paintings show meticulous brushwork in the service of descriptive naturalism. This was the style of the new Nagasaki School based on Chinese models (see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (c)...


Mitsuhiko Hasebe

(b Kanagawa, Dec 9, 1894; d Tochigi, Jan 5, 1978).

Japanese potter and museum official. In 1916 he graduated from the department of ceramics at the Tokyo Technical College. He then entered the Kyoto Municipal Institute of Ceramics, where he worked with Kanjirō Kawai, who was his senior there. In 1920 he went to England with Bernard Leach, who had been staying in Japan, and together they set up the Leach Pottery studio in St Ives, Cornwall. Hamada worked there until 1924, when he returned to Japan. He settled in Mashiko in Tochigi Prefecture, where he continued to produce ceramics using reddish brown iron glaze and black-and-white devitrified glazes and clay from the surrounding region. He absorbed traditional technical methods and emulated the organic beauty of various forms of Korean ceramics and of the folk crafts of Japan, and in particular Okinawa. In 1926 with Muneyoshi Yanagi and others he promoted the Mingei (‘folk crafts’) movement. In his later years he established a simple, bold style working with such techniques as salt glazing (e.g. ...


Yasuyoshi Saito

(b Yamaguchi Prefect., Sept 6, 1906; d San Francisco, CA, March 11, 1957).

Japanese painter and writer. In 1929 he graduated from Tokyo Imperial University, where he researched Tōyō Sesshū for his thesis. In 1930 he went to Paris where his work was selected for the Salon d’Automne; on returning two years later to Japan, he exhibited in the 19th Nika Ten (Second Division Society exhibition). In 1948 he exhibited At the Lake (1948; Kobe, Kōnan Senior High Sch.) in the 12th Jiyū Bijutsuka Kyōkai Ten (Society of Independent Artists exhibition) at the Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum. In 1951 he corresponded with Franz Kline, exchanging views on Eastern and Western cultures. He exhibited Rhapsody: At the Fishing Village (frottage on paper mounted on four-fold screen, 1952; Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.) at the Nihon Gendai Bijutsu Ten (Exhibition of Contemporary Japanese Art), organized by the Tokyo Reader’s Digest in 1952. A year later he had a one-man exhibition at the New Gallery, New York and was a founder-member of the Nihon Abusutorakuto Āto Kurabu (...


Xie He  

Keith Pratt

[ Hsieh Ho ]

( fl c. 500–535 ad ).

Chinese painter and writer . A portrait painter at the court of the Southern Qi dynasty in Nanjing, he is renowned as the author of the earliest extant Chinese text on the theory of painting and one of the most influential. His work Gu huapin lu (‘Classification of painters’) comprises an essay on the principles of art and a classification of 27 earlier painters into six categories. The former contains his famous ‘Six Laws’ (...


Ho, Tao  

(b Shanghai, July 17, 1936).

Hong Kong architect, designer, teacher and writer of Chinese birth. After leaving China for Hong Kong in 1949 he received his further education in the USA, where he studied art history at Williams College, Williamstown, MA (1956–60), and subsequently architecture at the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, under Sigfried Giedion and Josep Lluís Sert. After receiving his diploma in 1964 he briefly joined various American offices, among them Walter Gropius’s TAC (The Architects Collaborative). After returning to Hong Kong, Ho worked for local architects before setting up his own practice, TAOHO Design, in 1968.

Ho worked in many fields of design, such as interior and graphic design, as well as architecture. His exhibition buildings, which formed the major part of his early career, include the Olivetti Pavilion for the C.M.A. exhibition, Hong Kong, in 1968 and the Hong Kong Government Pavilion for the C.M.A. exhibition, Hong Kong, in ...


Richard L. Wilson

[Sakai Tadanao; Ukean]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1761; d Edo, 1828).

Japanese painter, printmaker and antiquarian. He was the second son of Sakai Tadamochi (1735–67), lord of Harima, and the main instigator of the revival of interest in the early 19th century in the Rinpa school of decorative painting (see Japan, §VI, 4, (v)). Hōitsu created a distinctive Edo style of Rinpa out of the tradition created by Ogata Kōrin (see Ogata family, §1) in the early 18th century by adding new subject-matter and changing the handling of detail, which became more profuse, sharper and less artificial. This new sense of naturalism was characteristic of the arts of the latter part of the Edo period (1600–1868), as was the pleasure Hōitsu took in witty contrivances. Two early paintings, Matsukaze and Murasame (1785) and Beauty Hunting Fireflies (1788; both priv. col., see Yamane, nos 77–8), reflect the style of Utagawa Toyoharu (...


Anne Burkus-Chasson

[Ch’en Hung-shou; zi Zhanghou; hao Lianzi, Laolian, after 1646 Huichi, Huiseng, Laochi]

(b Zhuji, Zhejiang Province, 1598 or 1599; d ?Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province, 1652).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and designer of woodblock-prints. Chen’s innovative renditions of the human figure, in particular of gentlemen and women at leisure, were celebrated during his lifetime for their unusual, startling effect (see also China, People’s Republic of §V 3., (vii), (d)). Distorted features and exaggerated draperies, each precisely delineated and often artfully modeled with color, exemplify Chen’s interest in juxtaposing incongruent pictorial styles and genres. Yet the oddity of Chen’s mature work is variously interpreted. Some scholars point to the derivation of his style from forged, archaistic paintings, which flooded the art market during the 17th century; others, stressing the intersection between his painting and contemporary printed illustration, present Chen instead as an artist engaged in the media revolution of his time, who reinvented narrative and figural painting in the context of 17th-century habits of seeing. Besides human figures, Chen also painted bird-and-flower subjects and, to a lesser extent, landscapes. His contemporaries further acknowledged his skills as a poet and calligrapher....


Katsuyoshi Arai

(b Gifu Prefect., Jan 6, 1895; d 1983).

Japanese architect and writer. He studied ancient Japanese architecture under Chūta Itō at Tokyo Imperial University; he graduated in 1920 and in that year he founded the Japan Secession Group together with other students from the university including Mamoru Yamada. This was the first movement in support of modern architecture in Japan and its members were greatly influenced by Expressionism. In 1922 he obtained a master’s degree with a study of modern Western architecture and from 1923 to 1924 he travelled in Europe. Many of the works he produced after his return, for instance the Kikkawa House (1930) and the Wakasa House (1940), both in Tokyo, are statements of Rationalist architecture: white cubic designs accentuated by the horizontal lines of the eaves, they reflected his position at the leading edge of architectural theory in Japan. During this period he also taught at the Imperial Art Institute in Tokyo (...


Mayching Kao

revised by Fang-mei Chou

[Pu Xinyu; ming Ru; hao Xishan Yishi; studio name Hanyutang]

(b Beijing, Jul 24, 1896; d Taipei, Nov 18, 1963).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and poet. P’u was a descendant of the Qing imperial line (1644–1911), and his life was adversely affected by the fall of the dynasty—a situation attested by one of his favorite seals, jiuwangsun (former prince). He started practicing calligraphy at the age of 4 and received a classical education at the age of 6. His calligraphy modeled the upright regular script of the Tang-era monk Guifeng’s Stele, and after the age of 17, during a retreat to the Jietai Temple outside Beijing, he befriended an older monk, Monk Yongguang (or Haiyin, 1861–1924), whose calligraphy style P’u appreciated and studied in order to loosen up his own. Eventually, he mastered all kinds of calligraphy styles. Meanwhile, he copied paintings of ancient masters in the family collection, starting with the works of the Four Wangs (early Qing), then works from the 10th-century Dong-Ju tradition, then the 13th-century artists Ma Yuan, Xia Gui, and Liu Songnian, and the 16th-century Wu School masters. His prose style emulated Six Dynasties–era prose, which placed emphasis on parallelism, ornateness, tonal and grammatical balance, rhyme, and abundant literary allusions....


Cecil H. Uyehara

(b 1834; d 1905).

Japanese calligrapher and poet. From childhood he was absorbed and fascinated with calligraphy. He studied under Nakazawa Setsujō (1810–66), mastered the style developed by Maki Ryōko of the late Edo period (1600–1868) and absorbed the work of Zhao family, §1, a Chinese calligrapher of the Southern Song period (1127–1279), who had a substantial influence on early Meiji period (1868–1912) Japanese calligraphy. At the age of 16, however, following family tradition, Ichiroku had gone to Tokyo to study medicine and later duly became a doctor in the Mizoguchi domain (now in Shiga Prefect.). In 1868 Ichiroku joined the fledgling Meiji government, rising in his 20-year career to high office and ultimately an imperial appointment to the House of Peers for his dedicated service. In 1881 he met Yang Shoujing, adviser to the Chinese ambassador to Japan and also a geographer, calligrapher and scholar who had brought to Japan thousands of rubbings of funerary inscriptions from China, particularly from the Six Dynasties period (...