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Article

John Steen

(b Leerdam, Jan 11, 1901; d Wassenaar, Dec 19, 1991).

Dutch glass designer. He worked at the glass factory in Leerdam, where his father was head of the etching and decoration department, and designed a large amount of consumer glass (1914–70). He began there as a draughtsman. Between 1920 and 1925 he was taught by Jacob Jongert (1883–1942) at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Rotterdam. During 1920–21 he made his first glass designs. His Smeerwortel service won him the silver prize for industrial design at the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes in Paris in 1925. In 1927 he had his first one-man exhibition at the Landesgewerbemuseum in Stuttgart. He met the architects of the Weissenhofsiedlung and started to design geometric abstract shapes, such as bulbs, cylinders and cubes. His bulb vases and cactus pots in red, yellow and blue graniver are particularly well known. Copier continually experimented with new materials and techniques. In ...

Article

Jane Shadel Spillman

American glass manufactory in Corning, NY. In 1851 Amory Houghton (1813–82), a Boston businessman, became a director of a glass company in Cambridge, MA, and subsequently owner of his own glass factory. Later he sold his Massachusetts glass interests and bought the idle Brooklyn Flint Glass Works in New York. Transportation and labour difficulties caused him to move the equipment and some employees to Corning in 1868. The factory’s chief product was blanks for glasscutting, and Houghton persuaded John Hoare (1822–96) to establish a branch of his successful Brooklyn cutting shop in Corning. This was the first of many cutting shops in the region, which became noted for the production of heavily cut glass. By about 1900 more than 500 glasscutters were employed in the Corning area.

In the 1870s Amory Houghton jr (1837–1909) of the renamed Corning Glass Works developed an exceptionally visible and stable red glass for railway signal lanterns, which later became a railway standard, and in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(Albin Filip)

(b 1894; d 1950).

Swedish decorative artist who specialized in intarsia and in glass-engraving. He designed and built fine intarsia furniture but is best known for his intarsia panels in public buildings, notably the Stockholm City Hall (1923), the Stockholm Concert Hall (1926) and the Göteborg Concert Hall (1935...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1848; d 1926).

French potter, glass-maker and sculptor. He was the son of a porcelain modeller at Sèvres, where Albert-Louis was eventually to have his own studio, where he became an exponent of the Pâte-sur-pâte technique of ceramic decoration. His early work is maiolica designed under Italian influence, but from the early 1880s he turned to stoneware designed under Japanese influence. He designed for other manufacturers, notably the ...

Article

Claire Brisby

French family of glassmakers. In 1878 Jean Daum (b Bischwiller, 1825; d Nancy, 1885), from Alsace, acquired a glass factory, which he renamed Verrerie de Nancy, and there began to produce traditional tableware. His eldest son, Auguste Daum (1853–1909), joined the factory in 1879 and was followed by Antonin Daum (1864–1930), who managed the business from 1887. To save the company from financial ruin, the brothers enlarged the range of coloured glassware in the 1890s, producing etched, moulded and cameo glass with naturalistic motifs in the Art Nouveau style inspired by the work of their fellow townsman Emile Gallé. Painters and decorators, chief among them being Henri Bergé, provided designs executed by numerous skilled craftsmen under the supervision of Auguste. The originality of Daum glass lies in the diversity of such decorative techniques as enamelling, etching and casing developed for large-scale production, rather than in the quality of decoration. All pieces made after ...

Article

Joellen Secondo

(b Peckham Rye, London, Jan 29, 1845; d London, April 18, 1910).

English designer and writer. He was educated in France and Germany, but his interest in design was provided by visits to the South Kensington Museum, London (now the Victoria & Albert Museum). In 1865 he entered the office of Lavers & Barraud, glass painters and designers. Some time later he became keeper of cartoons at Clayton & Bell and by 1870 had joined Heaton, Butler & Bayne, for whom he worked on the decoration of Eaton Hall, Ches. In late 1880 Day started his own business designing textiles, wallpapers, stained glass, embroidery, carpets, tiles, pottery, furniture, silver, jewellery and book covers. He designed tiles for Maw & Co. and Pilkington’s Tile and Pottery Co., stained glass and wallpaper for W. B. Simpson & Co., wallpapers for Jeffrey & Co. and textiles for Turnbull & Stockdale where he was made Art Director in 1881.

Day was a founder-member and Secretary of the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1880; d 1971).

French glassmaker who established a studio at Conches, where he was an early exponent of Pâte de verre, which he used from c. 1900 to produce small glass sculptures and figures, initially in an Art Nouveau style and later in a more austere idiom. By 1904 Décorchemont had developed a method of colouring glass to make it resemble translucent stones....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English ceramics factory in Denby, Derbys; the successor of Bourne, Joseph, & Son & Son. In the 19th century the company was a manufacturer of stoneware bottles, but in the late 19th century the competition from cheaper glass bottles forced the company to diversify. It chose in the first instance to concentrate on decorative and kitchen wares with richly coloured glazes. Its decorative and giftware products (vases, bowls, tobacco jars) were stamped ‘Danesby Ware’. In the 1930s the company introduced the bright ‘Electric Blue’ and the matt blue–brown ‘Orient ware’ giftware lines, and in the same period introduced kitchenware in ‘Cottage Blue’, ‘Manor Green’ and ‘Homestead Brown’, all of which continued in production till the early 1980s.

In the 1950s giftware production was reduced and Denby introduced new lines of tableware, especially dinner services. ‘Echo’ and ‘Ode’ were introduced in the early 1950s, followed by ‘Greenwheat’ (1956), ‘Studio’ (...

Article

Allan Doig

(b Utrecht, Aug 30, 1883; d Davos, Switzerland, March 7, 1931).

Dutch painter, architect, designer and writer. He was officially registered as the son of Wilhelm Küpper and Henrietta Catharina Margadant, but he was so convinced that his mother’s second husband, Theodorus Doesburg, was his father that he took his name. Little is known of his early life, but he began painting naturalistic subjects c. 1899. In 1903 he began his military service, and around the same time he met his first wife, Agnita Feis, a Theosophist and poet. Between about 1908 and 1910, much influenced by the work of Honoré Daumier, he produced caricatures, some of which were later published in his first book De maskers af! (1916). Also during this period he painted some Impressionist-inspired landscapes and portraits in the manner of George Hendrik Breitner. Between 1914 and 1915 the influence of Kandinsky became clear in such drawings as Streetmusic I and Streetmusic II (The Hague, Rijksdienst Beeld. Kst) and other abstract works....

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Alsace, March 16, 1828; d White Mills, PA, 1915).

American glass manufacturer of French birth. He was apprenticed to his uncle at the age of ten to learn glassmaking at the Compagnie des Verreries et Cristalleries de St Louis in eastern France and in 1846 moved to the USA with his family. He first worked in a small glasshouse in Philadelphia. Between 1852 and 1860 Dorflinger built three glasshouses in Brooklyn, NY, each larger than the one before, for the manufacture of lamps, of glass tubes for table lamps and later of blanks for other factories. In his third factory, the Greenpoint Glass Works, he produced blown, cut and engraved tableware of such superior quality that in 1861 it was chosen for use in the White House, Washington, DC, by Mrs Mary Todd Lincoln (1818–82).

In 1863 Dorflinger moved to a farm in White Mills, PA, where in 1865 he built a small glasshouse. Experienced glass workers from Greenpoint taught local farm boys their craft, and French glass artists from St Louis were invited to work there. About ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Ehden, Lebanon, Sept 14, 1912; d 1994).

American painter and stained-glass artist, of Lebanese birth. After an apprenticeship with the Lebanese painter Habib Srour (1860–1938) in Beirut, he studied from 1932 to 1936 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. In 1934 he received the top award for drawing at the school and later exhibited his work at the Salon des Artistes Français. After graduating in 1936, he returned to Lebanon, opening a studio in Beirut, and becoming well known in the early 1940s for his frescoes in the Maronite church at Diman. At the same time his paintings of Lebanese life and the countryside came to public notice when he exhibited at the gallery of the Hotel St–Georges, Beirut, though by the late 1940s he had begun to simplify the style of his work. In 1950 he moved to New York, where his paintings became increasingly abstract, consisting of flat forms of brilliant colour with hard straight edges. Although he was influenced by the artistic life around him, and by his acquaintance with Rothko, Hans Hofmann and Ad Reinhardt, he did not join any group or movement. He became an American citizen in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1876; d 1955).

French designer of furniture, glass, metal, ceramics and interiors. He was a pioneering exponent of Art Deco and a detractor of Art Nouveau, which in practice meant that he aspired to a style that was neither historical nor mannered. Dufrène was a founder-member in 1901 of the Société des Artistes-Décorateurs (SAD). He inaugurated a range of furniture in very dark native wood and defended functionalism and the use of mechanical processes and mass production. In ...

Article

Franz Müller

(b Solothurn, Dec 9, 1930; d Berne, July 12, 2000).

Swiss sculptor, painter, printmaker and jewellery designer. From 1946 to 1951 he was apprenticed to a maker of stained glass while at the same time attending the Kunstgewerbeschule in Berne. He then studied at the painting school, also in Berne, run by Max von Mühlenen (1903–71). In 1955 Eggenschwiler, Peter Meier (b 1928), Konrad Vetter (b 1922) and Robert Wälti (b 1937) formed the Berner Arbeitsgemeinschaft, which operated until 1971.

Until the mid-1960s Eggenschwiler’s work was essentially Constructivist, although until 1968 he was still regarded as a stained-glass maker. His prints and paintings, as well as his sculptures, were dominated by basic geometric forms, especially the cube, as in the sculpture Stair Cubes (iron, 155×155×155 mm, 1968; Westphalia, priv. col., see 1985 exh. cat., p. 41). From the 1960s he worked with objets trouvés, collecting discarded objects made of metal, wood or other materials, as well as stones and other natural objects. He either worked on these ...

Article

Portuguese ceramics and glass factory. It was founded in Ílhavo, near Aveiro, in 1824 by José Ferreira Pinto Basto (1774–1839), and the licence obtained on 1 July 1824 permitted the manufacture of earthenware, porcelain and glass (see Portugal, Republic of, §VIII). Pinto Basto’s son Augusto Valério Ferreira Pinto Basto (1807–1902) was the first managing director and spent some time at the Sèvres porcelain factory, where he learnt the various processes and techniques involved in porcelain production from the director Alexandre Brongniart (1770–1847). In 1826 Pinto Basto was granted a 20-year monopoly for his enterprise. However, as only very small deposits of kaolin were available in the early stages, the factory produced creamware, stoneware and a few pieces of poor-quality porcelain. Two Neo-classical enamelled and gilded cups and saucers (1827; Lisbon, Mus. N. A. Ant.) have inscriptions indicating that they were fired in the first kiln of ware from this factory and were painted by ...

Article

Robert M. Craig

[New Formalism]

Architectural movement of the 1950s and 1960s. New Formalism was a reaction to the so-called “Miesian” aesthetic of corporate America during the 1950s; the architecture of the glass curtain wall. Rejecting the modernist generation’s abstract functionalist design based on volume and surface skin, Formalist architects instead sought a more articulate, representational, and expressive language of architecture. They reshaped building elements, both structural and formal, and reintroduced historic references and styles to the design of buildings. When fashionably adorned with a “new ornamentalism,” the more stylized Formalist buildings became Mannerist in expression.

In 1961, Nikolaus Pevsner recognized a “return to historicism” in architecture, which demonstrated that even pioneer modernists had become sources for revivalist interest and architectural form-making by the third quarter of the 20th century. Stimulated by New Formalism, a younger generation soon brought forth a “post-modern” language of design, sometimes disturbingly artificial and weak, sometimes “complex and contradictory,” but always seeking to be newly validated by history. Its best expressions constituted a “new classicism”; its worst evidenced by what Charles Jencks described as the “carnivalesque” in architecture....

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Leonfelden, Upper Austria, Nov 2, 1878; d Stockerau, nr Vienna, Nov 5, 1936).

Austrian designer, painter and illustrator. He studied from 1899 to 1902 under Kolo Moser and Karl Karger (1848–1913) at the Kunstgewerbeschule in the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie in Vienna, and in 1903 under Ludwig Herterich (1856–1932) at the Kunstakademie in Munich. He was represented at the 15th exhibition of the Vienna Secession in 1902 and produced woodcuts for Ver Sacrum in 1903. He was co-founder of the Vereinigung Wiener Kunst im Hause; he designed the poster for the exhibition of 1903–4 and showed stained-glass windows, naturalistic watercolours of peasant types, and tapestry designs. He made numerous study trips to Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and especially Italy, where he studied the work of glassmakers and mosaicists in Ravenna, Rome and Venice. From 1906 he worked intensively to revive the art of the mosaic, prepared the foundation of the Wiener Mosaik Werkstätte (trade licence 1908) and added his own glassworks in ...

Article

(b Upper Norwood, Surrey, Jan 25, 1872; d Kensington, London, March 10, 1945).

English illustrator, painter and designer. She entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, and won a prize for a mural design in 1897. She specialized in book illustration, in pen and ink and later in colour. Among her many commissions were illustrations to Tennyson’s Poems (1905) and Idylls of the King (1911) and Browning’s Pippa Passes (1908). She was particularly popular with the publishers of the lavishly illustrated gift-books fashionable in the Edwardian era. She exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and the Royal Water-Colour Society. She took up stained-glass design (windows in Bristol Cathedral), which modified her style of illustration to flat areas of colour within black outlines. She also painted plaster figurines and designed bookplates.

Fortescue-Brickdale continued the Pre-Raphaelite tradition, reworking romantic and moralizing medieval subjects in naturalistic and often strong colour and elaborate detail. Her most important oil painting is The Forerunner...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Viipuri (now Vyborg, Russia) 1911; d Santorini, Greece, 1989).

Finnish ceramic and glass designer. In 1945 he joined Arabia porcelain factory, where he dispensed with the notion of the china set in favour of mix and match tableware. His best known series was ‘Kilta’ (designed in 1948, sold from 1953 and relaunched in 1981 as ‘Teema’), which was available in several colours and was enormously practical: he dispensed with decorative rims and shaped the surfaces so that they could be easily stacked. He also worked for the Nuutajärvi glassworks, for whom he produced both functional glass and decorative pieces. In both ceramics and glass, Kaj was probably the most influential designer of the 20th century....

Article

Christine Clark

(b Brunswick, Melbourne, Oct 10, 1928).

Australian painter and designer. With encouragement from Victor Greenhalgh, he attended evening classes at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology from 1944 to 1947. He studied from 1949 to 1951 in England, Belgium and Ireland where his interest in Celtic art increased. With the aid of a travelling scholarship in 1960–61, he studied the Eastern art of Asia, and in 1965 went to the USA on the Harkness Fellowship. His travels were often responsible for his series’ themes. Literary images and social injustices were frequently used, as in Iliad (1952), Edmund Campion series (1963), the Death of a Revolution (on South America, 1974–6), and South African-inspired works in the mid-1980s. French carefully constructed his images which are based on formal patterns and shapes, for example in Death and Transfiguration (1957; Melbourne, Joseph Brown Gal.). Using simple, easily recognizable symbols, he portrayed a powerful bluntness and honesty. After studying enamelling techniques in the 1960s, French’s paintings became known for their thick glowing layers of enamel on different textual levels, at times with gold leaf added. Apart from paintings and murals, he was known for his stained glass projects, mosaics, tapestries, etchings and lithographs. He was commissioned by the ...

Article

Gottlieb Leinz

(b Stolp [now Stupsk, Poland], July 10, 1878; d Maidanek concentration camp, nr Lublin, March 9, 1943).

German painter, sculptor, stained-glass designer and writer. He studied art history (1903–4) in Berlin and Munich. After a visit to Florence (1905–6), he began to experiment with sculpture and studied with Lothar von Kunowski (b 1866) in Berlin (1907–8). He spent 1908–9 in Paris, where he met Picasso, Braque and Gris. Between 1910 and 1914 he divided his time between Paris, Berlin and Cologne: from 1910 he participated in the exhibitions of the Berlin Secession and from 1913 had contacts with the Sturm-Galerie in Berlin. His expressive early works included both sculptures and flat, geometric paintings (e.g. Composition with Figure, 1911; Pontoise, Mus. Pontoise). Having spent World War I in Cologne, from 1918 to 1924 he lived in Berlin, where he was one of the founder-members of the Novembergruppe in 1918, and contributed to the radical newspaper Die Aktion: Zeitschrift für Freiheitliche Politik und Literatur Aktion....