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Michel Sylvestre

(Charles) (de)

(b ?Bassigny, c. 1575; d Nancy, 1616).

French painter, etcher and draughtsman. His known artistic activity dates only from 1602 to 1616 and he is now familiar chiefly for his etchings and drawings, all his decorative works and most of his paintings having perished. His highly idiosyncratic style was inspired by such Italian artists as Parmigianino, by the School of Fontainebleau and by northern artists including Albrecht Dürer and Bartholomeus Spranger. His work would seem to express a private and nervous religious sensibility through a style of the greatest refinement. It is among the latest and most extreme expressions of Mannerism. He was influential on other Lorraine artists: Claude Déruet was his pupil, as, perhaps, was Georges de La Tour.

He may have had his earliest artistic training in Bassigny, the south-west part of the then independent duchy of Lorraine, or in Nancy, its capital. He may have completed it in Italy, perhaps in Florence, and/or in Paris. On ...


Jérôme de la Gorce

(b Saint-Mihiel, Lorraine, bapt June 4, 1640; d Paris, Jan 24, 1711).

French designer, ornamentalist and engraver. The Berain family moved to Paris c. 1644. Berain’s father, also called Jean Berain, and his uncle Claude Berain were master gunsmiths. In 1659 Berain published a series of designs for the decoration of arms, Diverses pièces très utiles pour les arquebuzières, reissued in 1667. In 1662 he engraved for the guild of locksmiths a series of designs by Hugues Brisville (b 1633), Diverses inventions nouvelles pour des armoiries avec leurs ornements. It would seem that by this date Berain’s skill as an engraver was well known. Around 1667 he decorated and signed a hunting gun (Stockholm, Livrustkam.; see Arms and armour §II 2., (iii)) for Louis XIV, which probably served as his introduction to the court. Through the influence and support of Charles Le Brun, in 1670 Berain was employed by the crown as an engraver. In January 1671 he received 400 livres in payment for two engravings (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.) recording the ceiling decoration by Le Brun of the Galerie d’Apollon in the Louvre, Paris, for which he also designed the painted stucco grotesques. In ...


(b Türkheim, bapt April 15, 1688; d Augsburg, April 2, 1762).

German painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. His frescoes and altarpieces and his teaching established him as the dominant figure in the art life of Augsburg in the earlier 18th century. He came from a family of well-known Swabian sculptors, cabinetmakers and painters, with whom he probably initially trained. The Bavarian Duke Maximilian Philip paid for him to study (1702–8) with the Munich court painter Johann Andreas Wolff, after which he was summoned by the Elector of the Palatinate to decorate the court church of St Hubertus in Düsseldorf (1708–9; destr.). In 1710 or 1712 Bergmüller frescoed the church of Kreuzpullach, near Wolfratshausen. In his request for permission to marry and for mastership in Augsburg in 1712, he referred to an otherwise undocumented stay in the Netherlands. He settled permanently in the Imperial Free City in 1713 and attended its Reichstädtische Kunstakademie from 1715. From this time he rose to become the most influential painter and teacher in Augsburg, with apprentices coming from beyond the city, including ...


Feliciano Benvenuti

Italian family of typographers, engravers, publishers and print dealers. Members of the family were active in Venice and Padua in the 16th century and the early 17th. Most notable among them were Luca Bertelli (fl Venice, c. 1560; fl Padua, 1594), Orazio Bertelli (fl Venice, 1562–88), who was possibly Luca’s brother, and Ferdinando (Ferrando, Ferrante) Bertelli (fl Venice, 1561–72). It is difficult to determine the extent of Luca Bertelli’s participation in the execution of the prints he published; they were mainly historical, religious and mythological. Orazio Bertelli probably encouraged Agostino Carracci’s visit to Venice in 1582. Orazio’s engravings included the works of Federico Barocci, Domenico Tibaldi and Paolo Veronese, notably a Pietà (De Grazia, p. 125, no. 102). Ferdinando Bertelli was best known for his publication of a vast number of maps, by both Italian and foreign cartographers.

DBI; Thieme–Becker D. De Grazia: Le stampe dei Carracci...


Torbjörn Fulton


(b Cologne, c. 1500; d Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], c. 1569).

German painter, engraver and designer, active in Denmark and Sweden. While he worked as a court painter in Denmark c. 1530–50, he also served the Swedish court temporarily (1541–2) under Gustav Vasa, of whom he executed a portrait: this is untraced but is known through an old copy (Uppsala, U. Kstsaml.). Binck’s picture, according to the copy, belonged to the so-called South German portrait school, showing the King half-figure against a neutral background. It is dominated more by the mass of the body and costume than by the impassive, three-quarter-profile face. Binck’s picture has long since been widely distributed, represented on Swedish banknotes. A similar bust portrait of Christian III was engraved by Binck in 1535 Later, when he returned to Denmark from Sweden, he was influenced by the Dutch art of portraiture, with its more penetrating depiction of character. This can be seen in the portrait of the Danish chancellor ...



(fl c. 1471/4–1513).

Italian illuminator and engraver. In 1894 he was tentatively associated with his principal work, the Hours of Bona Sforza (London, BL, Add. MSS 34294, 45722 and 62997), and became known as the Master of the Sforza Book of Hours or the Pseudo-Antonio da Monza; in 1956 he was conclusively identified by his signature psbr io petr biragvs ft on the frontispiece of a copy (Warsaw, N. Lib., Inc. F. 1347) of Giovanni Simonetta’s life of Francesco Sforza, the Sforziada, published first in Latin and then in Italian translation at Milan in 1490.

Three choir-books from Brescia Cathedral dated c. 1471–4 (Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio-Martinengo, nos 22, 23 and 25) are the earliest known works signed by Birago. It has been suggested that he was active in Venice during the 1480s. Miniatures attributed to him appear in a Breviary of the Venetian Barozzo family, printed on parchment by Nicolas Jenson at Venice in ...


Federica Lamera

(b Genoa, bapt April 14, 1629; d Genoa, 1657).

Italian painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was taught by his father, Giovanni Andrea Biscaino, a mediocre landscape painter, and entered the workshop of Valerio Castello (ii), probably at the end of the 1640s. The chronology of his oeuvre, truncated by his early death in a plague, is hard to reconstruct. Only two paintings bear early documentation: St Ferrando Imploring the Virgin (Genoa, Pal. Bianco) and an untraced Flaying of Marsyas (see Manzitti, 1971, pl. 31). However, his graphic work had a continuing reputation: he was called a ‘great draughtsman’ by Pellegrino Orlandi in his Abecedario pittorico (1704), and his etchings, of which over 40 are catalogued in Bartsch, were ‘very favourably received’, according to Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville (1762). About half the etchings are signed or initialled, and two are dated (Nativity, 1655, b. 22; St Mary Magdalene in the Desert, 1656, b. 38). From them it is possible to attribute further works, mostly small canvases, to Biscaino, and to characterize his development....


Lucie Galactéros-de Boissier

(b ?Paris, 1614; d Lyon, June 21, 1689).

French painter, draughtsman, architect, sculptor and printmaker. He trained in Paris, where he came into contact with Jacques Sarazin, who advised him to study painting rather than sculpture. He probably studied (c. 1637–45) with Simon Vouet, becoming familiar with perspective, the Mannerism of the School of Fontainebleau and the Baroque, then newly introduced to Paris. Around 1645 he arrived in Rome; during his stay there (which ended in 1653) he worked with artists who were members of Nicolas Poussin’s circle and frequented the studios of Andrea Sacchi, Pietro da Cortona and Gianlorenzo Bernini (who thought highly of him). He executed paintings for Niccolo Guido di Bagno (1584–1663). His engravings of antique tombs and his prospettive were much admired. In 1654 he created a mausoleum for René de Voyer d’Argenson, Ambassador of France in Venice, in S Giobbe, Venice.

In 1655 Blanchet returned to Lyon, having been summoned to carry out the decoration, both painted and sculpted, of the Hôtel de Ville. In ...


M. J. T. M. Stompé

(b Lohr, c. 1525).

German architect, engraver and writer. After training as an architect in his native town, Hans Blum left Lohr because two architects were already working there: Peter Volckner (fl 1539–48) and Jost Wenzel (fl 1548–70). He then moved to Zurich, where he married Ragali Kuchymeister in 1550. Their eldest son Christoffel Blum (bapt 21 Jan 1552) was named after the publisher Christoffel Froschauer (?1490–1564), who later published Hans Blum’s treatises on architecture.

Hans Blum is primarily known as the author of Quinque columnarum exacta descriptio atque delinaeatio cum symmetrica (1550), a book on the five orders of architecture. He based his work on the fourth volume of Serlio’s Regole generali di architettura (Venice, 1537), a German edition of which was published in 1542. The second source for Blum’s book was Gualtherus Rivius’s edition of Vitruvius, published in 1548 and illustrated by Peter Flettner (...


Michael Eissenhauer

(b ?Memmingen; fl c. 1511; d Mulhouse, 1553).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. The son of a Memmingen artist, he was in Lucerne in 1512–13 and was taxed in Konstanz from 1515 to 1544. Leaving Konstanz in 1543, he stayed briefly in Colmar, then worked in Montbéliard (1544–6). From 1552 until his death he was employed painting the town hall (built 1551) of Mulhouse. His principal work was the high altar (1523–4; destr. 1529) of the church at St Gall Abbey. His surviving work was formerly thought to include the triptych (1524) in the cathedral at Konstanz, and the etchings of the Augsburg monogrammist Master CB were also attributed to him, but the triptych is now known to be the work of Matthäus Gutrecht II (fl 1517–24), and the monogrammist CB has been identified as Conrad Bauer (fl 1525–31). Thus Bockstorffer is no longer seen as a painter of Augsburg training who had a lasting influence on, and introduced significant innovations to, the painting of the Bodensee area. His oeuvre, of which only a few samples survive (along with the St Gall altarpiece, all the murals were lost), shows him as an artist of slight originality. A winged altarpiece (...


Feliciano Benvenuti

(b ?Vicenza, c. 1500; fl c. Venice, 1530–70).

Italian wood-engraver. He is known only by his signed prints drawn from the designs of various artists. The inscription titianvs inv/Nicolaus Boldrinus/Vicenti[n]us inci/debat. 1566 on the chiaroscuro woodcut of Venus and Cupid (see Muraro and Rosand, p. 317) testifies to its derivation from a Titian model as well as to its date. Boldrini was long considered the engraver of Titian’s work par excellence and his direct collaborator, but today critical opinion (Oberhuber) tends to see such collaboration only in the famous woodcut of the Six Saints (Landau, p. 335, n. P34). Stylistic and historical considerations lead to the conclusion that some landscape prints, such as Landscape with a Milkmaid and St Jerome in the Wilderness, are not the product of a direct relationship between Boldrini and Titian but rather the work of the German Giovanni Britto (see 1993 exh. cat., pp. 563–4). Of around 30 works of very different style and engraving quality that have been assigned to Nicolò Boldrini, among the most famous, also known in chiaroscuro forms, are the ...


Stefania Massari

(di Antonio)

(b Bologna, c. 1510; d Bologna, after 1576).

Italian printmaker and painter. He was a pupil of Lorenzo Sabbatini and evidently a late follower of Marcantonio Raimondi. He is now credited with 410 prints (almost all Rome, 1st. N. Graf.), as against Adam von Bartsch’s attribution of 354. They include reproductive as well as original prints, and his independence of vision makes him one of the most interesting interpreters of his time. His activity in this field began c. 1531, as is indicated by the date on the Raphaelesque St Cecilia (b. 74). Parmigianino entrusted him with the copper engraving of his drawings, for example Mercury and Minerva (b. 168). While in Rome c. 1544–7 Bonasone interpreted works including Michelangelo’s Last Judgement (b.80) and Raphael’s Toilet of Psyche (b. 167). He often combined the techniques of etching and engraving in the same print.

In Bologna after c. 1547 Bonasone began his most important work, the illustration of the 155 symbols (...


Jetty E. van der Sterre

(b Mechelen, 1545; d Antwerp, 1608).

Flemish painter, engraver and draughtsman. His identity is confused: it is known that a painter called Pieter van der Borcht worked in Mechelen for the Antwerp publisher Christoph Plantin from 1564 onwards. From 1552 until at least 1592 this artist—referred to as Pieter van der Borcht IV by Hollstein and as Pieter van der Borcht II by Bénézit—made etchings as well as woodcuts with the inscription fecit petrus van der borcht.

In addition, there was a Pieter van der Borcht active in Mechelen, who, after 1552, made woodcuts which he signed p.b. Thus, either one artist had a steady output of woodcuts and etchings over a long career (1552–c. 1600) or there were a number of artists with the same name. The second hypothesis seems the more likely. It is supported by other facts. In 1580 a ‘Pieter Verborcht, painter’ became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp, of which he served as dean in ...


Alfonso E. Pérez Sánchez

(b Rome, c. 1575; d Rome, Jan 15, 1616).

Italian painter and etcher, also active in Spain. He was the son of a Florentine carpenter and stepbrother of the sculptor and architect Giulio Lasso. He accompanied Lasso to Sicily, and his earliest known work is a modest painting, in a Mannerist tradition, of St Gregory in his Study (1593; Catania, Villa Cerami, see Moir, pl. 48). He finished his training in Rome, and his study of the art of ancient Rome is evident in his early paintings, both in his use of Classical ruins and in the sculptural folds of his drapery. He must also have painted from nature and responded to the naturalism of Caravaggio. About 1598 Borgianni was in Spain and in 1601 he was in Pamplona. He stayed at least until June 1603, when he signed a petition for the establishment of an Italian-style academy of painting in Madrid. Among the other signatories was the Madrid-born Eugenio Cajés, whom Borgianni may have met in Rome, since Cajés was in Italy about ...


(b ’s Hertogenbosch, 1518; d Antwerp).

Flemish engraver. He is thought to have worked in Rome in the workshop of Marcantonio Raimondi. In 1543 he moved to Antwerp, where he joined the painters’ guild in 1551. He made reproductive engravings after such artists as Raphael, Giulio Romano, Frans Floris, Lambert Lombard, Hieronymus Bosch and Maarten van Cleve, as well as from his own designs. Bos’s earliest dated prints comprise a series of the ...



(b ’s Hertogenbosch, c. ?1510; d Groningen, before April 22, 1566).

Flemish printmaker. In 1540 he was registered as a citizen of Antwerp and became a member of the city’s Guild of St Luke, although it is possible he was in the city for some time before this date. His first known engraving is Prudence and Justice (1537; Hollstein, no. 71) after Maarten van Heemskerck. There are several engravings based on Classical statues (e.g. Laokoon, 1548; Hollstein, no. 60) and the work of Marcantonio Raimondi and Agostino Veneziano, suggesting that Bos may have gone to Rome some time before 1540. It is, however, possible that Bos copied the Italian originals from drawings or prints brought back from Italy by other artists. Between 1540 and 1544 Bos worked in Antwerp as an engraver. Many of his engravings served as illustrations for books, including two treatises on architecture by Vitruvius and Serlio, which were published by Pieter Coecke van Aelst. Bos also provided woodcut designs for a book on anatomy produced by the printer and publisher ...


Thierry Bajou

(b Montpellier, Feb 2, 1616; d Paris, May 8, 1671).

French painter, draughtsman and engraver. Although he was one of the most successful painters of the mid-17th century in France and highly praised by the writer André Félibien, he was also widely criticized for never achieving a fixed style of his own. He began his career as an imitator of the Bamboccianti and of Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione. He later produced altarpieces in a vigorous Baroque style and portraits in the manner of Anthony van Dyck before coming under the classicizing influence of Nicolas Poussin. Towards the end of his career, in a lecture to the Académie Royale, he recommended that young artists reject uniformity of inspiration. Remarkably, he was able to give a personal flavour to his work in any style and genre.

He was born into a Protestant family, the son of Marin Bourdon, a master painter and glass painter, and Jeanne Gaultière, the daughter of a master goldsmith. He probably left Montpellier for Paris when the city was besieged by Louis XIII in ...


Marianne Grivel

(b Angers, c. 1525; d ?Angers, c. 1625).

French engraver, etcher and designer. Vasari, in his Vita of Marcantonio Raimondi, mentions that ‘after the death of Rosso [Fiorentino], we saw the arrival from France of all the engravings of his works’. He attributed this upsurge of engraved reproductions ‘to the copperplate engraver René’, that is René Boyvin. He came to Paris c. 1545 from Angers, where he was an associate of the mint. In Paris he may have been in contact with Antonio Fantuzzi, and he is known to have renewed a contract of service with the engraver Pierre Milan in 1549 (Parent). In 1553 he completed two plates that Milan had failed to finish for the music publisher Guillaume Morlaye (c. 1510–after 1558); one of these was the Nymph of Fontainebleau (Levron, 169). He later opened his own workshop, and it is known that Lorenzo Penni, the son of Luca, was working for him in ...


Stefania Massari

(fl Rome, 1579–99).

Italian printmaker and cartographer. Of Milanese origin, he is recorded first in Rome in 1579 as a member of the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon, and he remained there at least until 1599, the date of his last work. In 1582 Brambilla produced a series of 135 small engravings of emperors from Julius Caesar to Rudolf II and in 1585 another series, of the popes to Sixtus V. His most successful works, however, were prints of scenographic reconstructions of antiquity such as the Sepulchre of Lucius Septimius (1582) and contemporary views of ancient and modern Rome, for example the Belvedere del Vaticano (1579) and the Fireworks Display at Castel Sant’Angelo (1579). Many of his prints depicting ancient monuments, produced after 1577, were included in the Speculum Romanae magnificentiae (see Hülsen). He also produced prints depicting popular games and street scenes (e.g. Rome, Calcografia N., no. ...


(b Speyer, 1709; bur; Mannheim, Dec 21, 1760).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. Trained by Johann Georg Dathan (1703–c. 1748) in Speyer, he was a court painter in Mannheim from 1733 until his death, from 1755 gallery director and from 1757 a privy councillor. Of the religious works that, as a court painter, he was obliged to produce, the only ones that survive are frescoes (spandrel paintings) depicting the Four Quarters of the World (after 1748; Mannheim, former Jesuit church of SS Ignaz und Franz Xavier) and ceiling paintings in Electress Elizabeth Augusta’s library in Schloss Mannheim.

Brinckmann’s landscapes show two opposing trends. On the one hand, there are small, detailed picturesque landscapes in courtly or rural settings with suitable accessories, often with many figures. According to the terms of his contract, he had to produce two such paintings each year; typical examples are the Court Gardens at Mannheim (1745) and Wolfbrunnens near Heidelberg...