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Peter Richardson

(b Glasgow, July 4, 1857; d Wellington, New Zealand, August 4, 1942).

New Zealand architect of Scottish birth. He served his articles in Glasgow under John Gordon (1835–1912) and arrived in New Zealand in 1882. Although he worked briefly as a draughtsman for the firm of Mason and Wales, almost his entire career was spent working for the Public Works Department, to which he was first appointed in 1883. He was promoted to draughtsman in charge of the design of government buildings in New Zealand in 1888 and held the newly created title of Government Architect in 1909, retiring in 1922. His early buildings were generally designed in the Queen Anne style, often incorporating Baroque elements; examples include his additions to the Government Printing Office (1894–6; destr.), Wellington, and his Police Station (1895–9) in Dunedin, modelled on New Scotland Yard, London. He later designed the Dunedin Law Courts (1899–1902) in Gothic Revival style with a Scottish Baronial inflection. In the early part of the 20th century Campbell established Edwardian ...


David Dolan

Australian architectural partnership formed by the brothers Michael Francis Cavanagh (1860–1941) and James Charles Cavanagh (1871–1957) in 1895. Their father, John Cavangh, was an Irish-born contractor, who became Supervisor of Public Buildings for the South Australian Government. Michael Cavanagh was born at Yackandandah, Victoria and educated at nearby Beechworth. He continued his educationn in London and then Adelaide, where he worked with E. J. Woods (1837–1913). James was born in Adelaide and became articled to Michael while studying there, continuing his studies informally in Europe. Michael, who was the senior partner with higher public profile, remained permanently in Perth after 1895, while James worked in Brisbane between 1933–42, before retiring to Adelaide.

They designed ornate turreted hotels and many Federation style houses, but specialized in Roman Catholic churches and schools. Their large institutional buildings, such as Clontarf Orphanage (1900), Subiaco, all have façades with deep verandahs above rusticated flat or rounded arches. Except for some unusual, late Art Deco designs in partnership with others, their work is consistently eclectic, derivative and conventional....


Robert Smith


(b Wellington, New Zealand, March 30, 1878; d Sydney, June 19, 1953).

Australian photographer of New Zealand birth (see fig.). His father, Pierce Mott Cazneau (1849–1928), was an English-born New Zealand photographer, who became manager of a photographic portraiture studio in Adelaide c. 1889 and took his family to South Australia. While still at school Harold Cazneaux assisted his father and in 1897 joined the same studio as an artist-retoucher. He was mainly interested in becoming an artist and attended evening classes conducted by Harry P. Gill. Acquaintance with the influence of the English Pictorial photography movement in the 1890s made him aware of the medium’s artistic potential. Dissatisfied with his routine occupation in Adelaide, c. 1904 he joined a studio in Sydney where the work was similar, but a higher salary enabled him to buy his own camera and begin creative photography on his own account, including a lasting preoccupation with pictorial celebration of the diversity of everyday life in the city....


Marie-Antoinette Grunewald

(b Lyon, Dec 9, 1807; d Paris, April 12, 1895).

French painter. From 1825 he studied under Louis Hersent, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Eugène Delacroix at the Ecoles des Beaux-Arts in Lyon and Paris. At an early age he held Republican and perhaps masonic beliefs. He was a learned scholar of history, philosophy, Orientalism and mythological symbolism, but his erudition impeded clarity of thought. He was rich enough not to have to support himself by painting, and in 1827 he went to Italy, where he was particularly impressed by the art of the Florentine Renaissance. From 1828 he was associated with the German Nazarenes, who reinforced his belief in the pedagogical value of art and encouraged him to adopt a cooler, more linear style. Peter Joseph Cornelius introduced him to Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who soon afterwards tried to interest Chenavard in his own ideas about the philosophy of history. He acquired the idea of ‘palingenesis’, or rebirth, from the philosopher Pierre-Simon Ballanche; this doctrine, taken from Charles Bonnet and Giambattista Vico and fashionable between ...


Bridget Whitelaw

(b St Petersburg, May 9, 1828; d London, March 15, 1902).

Swiss painter and illustrator of Russian birth, active in Australia. He spent his childhood in Russia and in 1845 returned to his father’s home town, Lausanne, where he studied painting at the Musée Arlaud under J. G. Guignard (1811–97). In 1851 he moved to London where he studied lithography under Ludwig Gruner, and in 1853–4 he studied watercolour painting in Rome. He arrived in Australia on 25 December 1854 and, after visiting the goldfields, started working as an illustrator for local newspapers. His work was politically perceptive rather than skilled in its draughtsmanship. Between 1858 and 1864 he accompanied scientific expeditions into the wilderness. Some of the studies made on these trips served as preparatory sketches for his grandiose landscape The Buffalo Ranges (exh. 1864; Melbourne, N.G. Victoria), the first Australian painting purchased for the National Gallery of Victoria.

In November 1865 Chevalier visited New Zealand and explored the South Island for eight months, completing several hundred sketches and watercolours that reveal his brilliance in this field. Chevalier was a founder-member of the Victorian Society for the Fine Arts in Melbourne, where his house provided a centre for the city’s artistic and literary élite. However, he left for London in ...


J. N. Mané-Wheoki

(b Norfolk Plains, Tasmania, Nov 17, 1823; d Dunedin, Aug 23, 1877).

Australian architect, also active in New Zealand. Arriving in England in 1840, he trained in architecture and engineering before returning to Tasmania in 1848. He worked in the Government Survey Office (1851–5) and then set up in private practice in Launceston. A member of the Royal Victorian Institute of Architects, Melbourne, Clayton is credited with having erected some 300 structures in Tasmania, including five churches, three banks, a Mechanics’ Institute, a theatre, three mills, breweries, mansions, villas and five bridges. St Andrew’s, Launceston (1849), St Mark’s, Deloraine (1856–60), and Chalmers Church, Launceston (1859–60), are notable examples of his religious architecture; the Public Offices, Launceston (1859–60)—built of brick with richly modelled freestone dressings and Italianate classical in style—are the most ambitious and lavish of his secular works.

In 1863 Clayton moved to Dunedin, New Zealand, where he entered into partnership with ...


John W. F. Cattell

(b Walsden, Lancs, Jan 7, 1856; d Wellington, New Zealand, Aug 13, 1952).

New Zealand architect of English birth. The son of a Church of England clergyman, he worked for the church architects Edmund Evan Scott (fl 1851; d 1895) in Brighton and Robert Jewell Withers (1823–94) in London before emigrating to New Zealand, settling in Wanganui in 1877. He moved to Wellington in 1883 and was appointed architect to the Wellington Diocese of the Anglican Church. According to his obituary he designed more than 100 churches mostly in the southern half of the North Island.

Clere continued the tradition of wooden Gothic Revival churches clad with vertical boarding established by Frederick Thatcher and Benjamin Woolfield Mountfort; his buildings are successful more for their simplicity of design and fine proportioning than for their ecclesiological correctness. Working in a seismically unstable country, he was mindful of the necessity for structural strength in his buildings and experimented with the use of reinforced concrete for larger churches, such as St Matthew’s Anglican Church, Hastings (begun ...


Ian Molyneux

(b London, April 20, 1881; d Perth, June 20, 1938).

Australian architect of English birth. He was articled to Thomas Lockwood and Sons at Chester, and later he worked for Guy Dawber. In 1904 he emigrated to Western Australia due to ill-health; he practised architecture in Bunbury (1906–13) and then established a partnership with Joseph Herbert Eales (b1864) in Perth. Cohen was largely instrumental in bringing the ideas of the Arts and Crafts Movement direct to Western Australia. His earliest Australian work included interpretations of the local vernacular homestead in the Arts and Crafts manner, for example Reynolds Homestead (1906), Busselton. His work was later also influenced by vernacular revivals in other countries such as South Africa, for example Kings Park Grandstand (1925) in Perth, as well as by the Georgian Revival in England, which inspired his own house (1922) in Karoo Street, South Perth. His skill as a designer made him prominent in the search for an Australian style suited to a predominantly British society living in a Mediterranean climate. Another example of his work is the Crowther House (...


Ursula Hoff


(b London, Oct 24, 1868; d Virginia Water, Surrey, Feb 9, 1909).

English painter, active in Australia and France. He was sent to Australia in 1884 to learn surveying under his uncle W. J. Conder. After about two years in survey camps, he attended evening classes at the Royal Art Society, Sydney; in 1887 he worked as a lithographic draughtsman for the Illustrated Sydney News. Tom Roberts, then in Sydney on a visit from Melbourne, was among the open-air landscape painters that he knew at this time. He taught Conder some of the principles of Impressionism, such as truth to the momentary effect of light and to colour values, and the rejection of the academic ideal of high finish. The most important painting of Conder’s Sydney years, the Departure of the ‘SS Orient’ from Circular Quay, 1888 (1888; Sydney, A.G. NSW), already showed a distinct personal style, combining humour with nostalgia and selective observation with decorative finesse of handling and design. In ...


William McAloon

(b Upper Hutt, Oct 3, 1964).

New Zealand painter of Maori descent. Cotton studied at the University of Canterbury, graduating with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in 1988. He is prominent amongst a generation of Maori artists that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s including Michael Parekowhai (b 1968), Lisa Reihana (b 1964), and Peter Robinson, all of whom were schooled in contemporary Euro-American art styles and debates and then explored their Maori identities in relation to globalization and post-colonialism. Cotton’s early 1990s works were contemporary history paintings, locating New Zealand’s conflicted past firmly in a bicultural present. Drawing upon Maori figurative styles from the late 19th-century, particularly in meeting-houses inspired by the prophet and resistance leader Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki, Cotton’s sepia-toned works juxtaposed these images with customary Maori carved forms, written Maori script, the coastal profiles of early European explorers, and appropriations from contemporary artists as diverse as Imants Tillers, Bridget Riley, and Haim Steinbach....


Robert Smith

(b Hemingford Abbots, Hunts [now Cambs], Dec 13, 1832; d Beckenham, Kent, June 20, 1878).

Australian photographer and geologist of English birth. In 1852 he withdrew from studies at Christ’s College, Cambridge (1851–2) for health reasons, joined the Australian gold-rush, and spent two unproductive years prospecting in Victoria. The experience inspired an interest in geology, and in 1854 he joined the Victorian mineralogical survey as an assistant surveyor. During six months’ stay in London in 1856 and 1857 to study assaying at the Royal School of Mines, he became interested in photography. On his return to Victoria in 1858 he collaborated with Antoine Julien Fauchery (1823–61) in producing Sun Pictures of Victoria, a series of photographs illustrating various aspects of the life and scenery of the colony. Having rejoined the newly named Victorian Geological Survey (1859), in 1860 he began regularly using photography as a substitute for hand-drawn diagrams, and as a topographical record. With government financial support he produced photographs publicizing the colony for the International Exhibition in London of ...


Cameron Sparks

(b Ballarat, May 21, 1864; d Looe, Cornwall, March 26, 1939).

Australian painter. He trained at the Ballarat School of Design, the National Gallery School, Melbourne, and the Académie Julien, Paris. He was associated with the Heidelberg school in the 1890s, when he specialized in poetic evocations of evening, for example Moonrise (1894; Melbourne, N.G. Victoria). In 1897 he moved permanently to Europe, working in St Ives, Cornwall, England; the Conway Valley, Wales; and Dieppe, France, for 25 years and finally settling in Looe, Cornwall. He produced oils and watercolours of all these localities, as well as, portraits and flowerpieces. Among his more important European work in oil was St Ives Bay, Cornwall (1904; Adelaide, A.G. S. Australia) and A Normandy Village (1919; priv. col., see 1984 exh. cat., p. 53).

Although uninterested in theory and independent of contemporary artistic movements, Davies admired Monet and may have been influenced by Jean-Charles Cazin and Achille-Théodore Cesbron. His style was essentially simple, picking out a few details within a broader atmospheric effect. In his early work he favoured sombre earth colours, which brightened when he moved to Europe, particularly when he worked in watercolour although he retained a penchant for the muted tones of dusk and grey weather....


Judith O’Callaghan

(b ?Edinburgh, 1791–1800; d Sydney, Feb 15, 1843).

Australian silversmith of Scottish origin. He probably trained as a silversmith in Edinburgh before emigrating to Australia in 1824. After his arrival in Sydney, he was employed in the workshop of James Robertson (b 1781), a watchmaker who also traded in silver. By 1826 Dick was advertising as a gold and silver plate manufacturer, brass-founder and plater. Within two years his workshop staff included two jewellers and two silversmiths, all assigned convicts. In 1829 he was convicted on a charge of receiving stolen spoons and transported to Norfolk Island. Pardoned in 1833, he returned to Sydney where within a few years his expanded workshop offered services in watchmaking, jewellery, gilding and engraving as well as the manufacture of silver plate. Among his commissions was a gold cup (destr.)—possibly the first executed in the colony—made for the Sydney Races in 1834. Dick retired c. 1842. His widow, Charlotte Dick (...


R. J. Riddel

[Smith, Robert].

(b Dunedin, New Zealand, June 9, 1868; d Sydney, July 23, 1920).

Australian architect. Educated in Brisbane, Australia, he served his articles with the architects Hay & Henderson in Edinburgh (1886–90) while also studying at the Edinburgh Architectural Association where he formed a lasting friendship with architect Robert Lorimer. From 1890 to 1894 Dods worked in several prominent London offices, including the fortifications branch of the Imperial War Office, Dunn & Watson, and in the office of Aston Webb. He was admitted to the RIBA in 1891 and in the same year travelled to Italy. He was awarded a special prize in the Tite Prize competition (1893) and a medal of merit in the Soane Medallion (1894). Dods returned to Brisbane in 1896 having won a competition for a nurses’ home at the Brisbane Hospital, and entered partnership with architect Francis Hall (1862–1939) as Hall & Dods (1896–1916). The practice enjoyed a variety of commissions from domestic work (where Dods adapted the Queensland timber vernacular in a radically new way) to commercial buildings, hospital and ecclesiastical work. Significant work by Dods in Brisbane includes the New Zealand Insurance Building (...


Edward Hanfling

(b Hastings, March 21, 1930; d New Plymouth, Dec 8, 2011).

New Zealand sculptor, painter, printmaker, and installation artist. His art primarily involves assemblage, often with an eye to colour relationships; it also incorporates diverse sources including American modernism, African, and Asian art. Driver had little formal training and worked as a dental technician before he began sculpting with wood, clay, and dental plaster during the 1950s. Between 1960 and 1964 he produced assemblages and collages reminiscent of Robert Rauschenberg, though Driver was not aware of the American’s work then (e.g. Large Brass). In the United States from March to August 1965, he developed an interest in Post-painterly Abstraction as well as in Jasper Johns’s works. References to New York are manifest in his mixed-media wall relief La Guardia 2 (1966; Auckland, A.G.). The Painted Reliefs (1970–74) with their horizontal panels and strips of varying width and depth, mostly painted but sometimes aluminium, indicate the impact of American abstraction, notably that of Kenneth Noland. ...


Christine Clark

(b London, 1767; d Hobart, Tasmania, July 11, 1851).

English painter, printmaker and sculptor, active in Australia. In London he exhibited six portraits at the Royal Academy (1817–23) and three genre paintings at the British Institution and engraved two colour plates for George Morland, before moving to Hobart, Tasmania, in 1832. At the Hobart Mechanics’ Institute in 1833 he delivered the first lecture in Australia on the subject of painting. In 1849 he contributed the paper ‘The School of Athens as it Assimilates with the Mechanics Institution’ to a series of seven lectures (later published) delivered at the Institute. Duterrau painted landscapes and portraits but is best known for his works depicting the Aborigines of Tasmania and their traditional way of life. He was very interested in the events that led to the exclusion of the Aborigines from Tasmania, and in a series of works begun in 1834 but not executed until the early 1840s he showed George Augustus Robinson under commission from the Governor of Tasmania to restore peace with them. ...


Anne Gray

(b Alfredtown, Victoria, Sept 3, 1880; d London, Jan 21, 1938).

Australian draughtsman and printmaker. In his formative years he worked as a caricaturist for several Australian magazines. He moved to London in 1910 where he worked as a cartoonist for the Labour newspapers, the Daily Herald and New Age, and achieved great success with his biting cartoons (e.g. ‘Give Us this Day’; Cartoons, 1913), which made him a leading figure among English intellectuals. He worked in the humanist tradition of Honoré Daumier, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen and Jean-Louis Forain. He was a determined satirist calling for a better world, concerned with political hypocrisy and social injustice, and his cartoons were admired for their apt captions as well as for the hard-hitting images that accompanied them. Dyson visited the Western Front as an Official War Artist during World War I to record the Australian involvement in the war. He worked in the trenches among battle-weary soldiers and was wounded, though not seriously, at Messines and Passchendaele. He made numerous compassionate and frank watercolour-wash drawings of the ordinary soldier (e.g. ...


Miles Lewis

Australian architectural partnership formed by W(illiam) H(enry) Ellerker (b Birmingham, 1837; d Melbourne, 30 March 1891) and E(dward) G(eorge) Kilburn (b Australia, 1859; d 1894), active in Melbourne from 1886 to 1891. Ellerker came to Melbourne with his parents in 1853 and in 1856 was engaged as a draughtsman by Thomas Kemp. From 1858 he worked as a draughtsman in the Railways Department and then the Public Works Department. In 1863 he went to Queensland, where his design for Parliament House was recommended by a royal commission but did not proceed. He returned to Melbourne in 1867 and established a general practice in partnership with his brother John Ellerker, which was productive but designed nothing notable. He was a considerable investor in the Melbourne land boom of the 1880s and seems to have largely withdrawn from practice. The first major city buildings pre-date the partnership and were designed in association with ...


Barbara B. Kane

(b Melbourne, March 12, 1865; d Melbourne, Oct 8, 1915).

Australian painter and teacher. From 1878 to 1886 he trained at the National Gallery of Victoria Art Schools, Melbourne, and in 1887 left to study in Europe. In Paris he attended the Académie Julian and was taught by Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and by the American artist T. Alexander Harrison (1853–1930). He was involved with the plein-air artists at Etaples, Pas-de-Calais, and in Brittany and also visited Giverny, where from 1883 Monet was living. By 1890 he had moved to England, to the artists’ colony at St Ives, Cornwall. In 1892 he returned to Melbourne where he chiefly painted portraits and landscapes. He was a member of the Victorian Artists’ Society, exhibiting with them between 1892 and 1900. In 1893 he established the lively Melbourne Art School with Tudor St George Tucker (1862–1906). There an academic training coupled with a modified Impressionist technique was taught, as can be seen in Fox’s painting the ...


(b Uxbridge, nr London, Feb 7, 1872; d Melbourne, June 17, 1952).

Australian painter of English birth. She trained under the English painter Francis Bate (1858–1950) and from 1898 to 1902 she studied at the Slade School of Fine Art in London under Henry Tonks and Frederick Brown. She then went to the artists’ colony in St Ives in Cornwall where she met Emanuel Phillips Fox, whom she married in 1905. The two painters then travelled around France, North Africa and Spain, visiting Australia in 1908 and 1913. In 1915 her husband died and she then travelled between Australia and Europe, running an art school for American and Australian students in Paris. She exhibited in Paris at the Salon d’Automne from 1904 to 1930 and at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts from 1906 to 1937, and she was also a regular exhibitor in London. During the two World Wars she organized art unions for the relief of artists. In the 1930s she campaigned to persuade the Australian national art collections to buy works from modern French artists, such as Degas, Renoir and Toulouse-Lautrec. Her paintings were influenced by Post-Impressionism and were of genre, flower and landscape subjects, as in the ...