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Article

J. Lesley Fitton

(b Melos; d Feb 16, 1936).

Greek archaeologist. Hazzidakis was a doctor by training, but his enthusiasm for the archaeological heritage of Crete led to his foundation in 1878 of the Herakleion Society for the Promotion of Learning. He became President of the Society (or ‘Syllogos’) in 1883 and thereafter devoted his time to one of its particular aims, the preservation and study of the ancient monuments of Crete. Under the aegis of the Syllogos, Hazzidakis began a small museum in Herakleion where chance finds and gifts from private collectors were housed. This formed the basis for the now world-famous Archaeological Museum of Herakleion. After the liberation of Crete from Turkish rule in 1900, Hazzidakis and his colleague Stephanos Xanthoudides were recognized as the two first Ephors of Cretan Antiquities. Hazzidakis collaborated with foreign scholars (especially the Italian Frederico Halbherr) who excavated for the Syllogos and negotiated on Arthur Evans’s behalf for the purchase of the site of Knossos. In ...

Article

Massimiliano David

(b Berlin, 1858; d Florence, 1935).

German architectural historian and archaeologist. He attended the University of Berlin from 1876 to 1880 and studied archaeology with Ernst Curtius and Hans Jordan, classical philology with Emil Hübner and Johannes Vahlen, ancient history with Hans Droysen and Theodor Mommsen, and epigraphy with Johann Wilhelm Adolf Kirchhoff. In 1881 he went to Rome with the aid of a grant from the German Institute of Archaeology. From then on he devoted himself to the study of Rome from the point of view of epigraphy, topography, cartography and urban development. He was especially interested in studying the ways in which Renaissance artists approached the ancient monuments of Rome. From 1887 to 1909 Hülsen held the post of second secretary of the Institute in Rome, and he was an honorary professor at the University of Heidelberg.

Das Forum Romanum (Rome, 1904; Eng. trans., Rome, 1906, 2/1909) ‘La pianta di Roma dell’anonimo einsidlense’, Atti della Pontificia accademia romana di archeologia...

Article

John Curran

(b Oslo, March 2, 1903; d Rome, Dec 5, 1983).

Norwegian art historian and archaeologist. Founder of the Norwegian Institute in Rome, he played a major part in establishing late Antique art as an independent and worthy subject of research. His early work concentrated on portraiture, where he collected, published and analysed many little-known late Roman busts and portraits. In 1939 he produced with A. von Gerkan an unsurpassed study of the Arch of Constantine in Rome, which interpreted the monument as a crucial link between late Classical and early medieval art. His treatment of the composite nature of the construction and hierarchy of figures on the arch was particularly significant. His interest in art and political power led to studies on the symbolism of monarchy and the heavens in history, from the Ancient Near East to 11th-century Europe. He also studied the civic art of the later Roman empire, revealing the richness and variety of its themes. A collection of articles published on his 70th birthday (...

Article

D. Evely

(b London, Nov 3, 1894; d Borden Wood, W. Sussex, Sept 16, 1963).

English archaeologist and writer. Coming from a landed and educated family, she was taught first at home. Lamb went on to read Classics at Newnham College, Cambridge (1913–17), and served with Naval Intelligence (1917–18), before beginning her career as a Greek and Near Eastern archaeologist. Her first association was with Greece (1920s–30s), where she worked with Alan Wace at Mycenae and with A. M. Woodward at Sparta, assisted in publication and investigated sites on Ithaka and Chios: her contacts with the British School in Athens were never broken. She was Honorary Keeper (Greek and Roman) of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, from 1919 to 1958, but her attentions increasingly turned eastwards. In 1929 she visited Troy, and then conducted a self-financed campaign (1929–33) on the Early Bronze Age site of Thermi on Lesbos. In Anatolia exploration work was made on the Bronze Age site of Kusura. These achievements were recognized by election to the Society of Antiquaries (...

Article

Karolina Lanckorońska

[Karl Anton Leo Ludwig]

(b Vienna, Nov 4, 1848; d Vienna, July 15, 1933).

Polish archaeologist, writer, collector and patron, active in Austria. As an archaeologist his main interest lay in the architectural ruins of the late Roman Empire in Anatolia. In 1884 he organized an expedition of which he later published an account, Stadt Pamphyliens und Pisidiens. Sketches made by Jacek Malczewski (e.g. Warsaw, Royal Castle; mainly watercolours) are also records of the expedition. Lanckoroński and Malczewski later toured Italy and travelled to Munich together. Other artists patronized by Lanckoroński included Antoni Madeyski (1862–1939), Henryk Rodakowski and Hans Makart. During 1888 and 1889 Lanckoroński made a round-the-world voyage and subsequently published a diary of this trip, entitled Rund um die Erde. He brought back to Vienna various works of art, mainly sculptures and textiles. Between 1890 and 1895 a Baroque Revival palace was built for him in Vienna to designs by Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Hellmer (1849–1919). In it Lanckoroński installed paintings, mainly Dutch and French, that he had inherited and Italian paintings he had purchased (e.g. Masaccio’s ...

Article

Phyllis Pray Bober

(b Rostock, Sept 27, 1894; d Basle, Dec 17, 1960).

German art historian and archaeologist. He was educated at Tübingen, Göttingen and Munich, and in 1922 he received his PhD from Berlin and became a Fellow of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut in Athens. He pursued his archaeological career first at Berlin and the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut in Rome (1922–5), then at Heidelberg. In 1929 he was appointed to the chair at Munster and served as the director of the university museum. Under pressure from the Nazi regime, Lehmann left to reside in Rome, subsequently joining the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University, then being developed as a premier research centre in archaeology and the history of art. By 1938 Lehmann had founded and was directing the Institute’s Archaeological Research Fund, its primary objective being the study of ancient mystery cult and excavation of the Sanctuary of the Great Gods on Samothrace. His scholarship and teaching reflected the wide interests of a modern humanist, including, for example, the study of ancient buildings as represented by die-cutters for coins and the transformation of such ancient ship-fountains as the ...

Article

D. Evely

(Nikolaos)

(b Kephallenia, 1901; d Thera, Oct 1, 1974).

Greek archaeologist and historian. After graduating at Athens in Classical Philology and Archaeology (1919), Marinatos began his career with the Archaeological Service in Crete. Rapid promotion (Ephor, 1921) culminated in the Directorship of Herakleion Archaeological Museum (1929), after two years of study in Germany. For the next decade he excavated many Minoan sites, including Nirou Chani, Amnisos, Tylissos and Arkalochori. His energy and elegant, often bold, interpretations brought him the rewards first of the Directorship of the Service (1937) and then of a chair at Athens (1939). The last he held until 1968, though being twice recalled to the Service (1955–8; 1967–74). On the mainland he concentrated on Mycenaean matters, conducting excavations at Mycenae, around Pylos (1952 onwards) and at Marathon (1969–71), and producing many articles on aspects of Mycenaean culture, often set within a wider Aegean and Mediterranean perspective. Yet he also found time to work on Crete (Vathypetro, ...

Article

Dimitris Tsougarakis

(b Athens, Dec 23, 1887; d Athens, Oct 6, 1979).

Greek architect and archaeologist. He graduated from the National Polytechnic at Athens as an architect in 1908 and gained his doctorate from the University of Athens in 1915, having studied ancient Greek architecture with Wilhelm Dörpfeld (1853–1940), prehistoric archaeology with Georg Karo (1872–1963), archaic sculpture with Rudolf Heberdey and epigraphy with Anton von Premerstein (d 1937). He was the architect for the restoration works (1910–17) on the Acropolis of Athens under Nikolaos Balanos (1852–1933). He served as director of restorations for the ancient monuments of Greece, apart from the Acropolis, from 1920 to 1942, and director of restorations for the monuments of Greece including the Acropolis from 1942 to 1958. He also held posts as professor of morphology and rhythmology at the National Polytechnic (1919–40); professor of the history of architecture also at the Polytechnic (1943–58); and professor of Byzantine archaeology at the University of Athens (...

Article

Flemming Johansen

(Sigfred)

(b Dalsgaard, Denmark, May 7, 1876; d Copenhagen, Nov 8, 1950).

Danish archaeologist and writer. He studied in Göttingen and Munich 1886–97, was a private tutor in Poland 1901–2, received a PhD from the University of Copenhagen in 1904 and was director of the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, from 1926 to 1943. Throughout much of the latter period (1926–32) he excavated at Kalydon. He wrote novels, short stories and travel sketches and contributed articles on the history of art and the ancient world to Danish newspapers for many years. His memoirs describing life in Europe around 1900 are still readable. His book Der Orient und die frühgriechische Kunst was a pioneering work, and his scholarship in Greek and Roman iconography was innovative. He studied the Greek and Roman portraits in English country houses and had a special interest in Etruscan art. As director of the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek he made many important acquisitions, such as the statue of Demosthenes...

Article

Jordi Oliveras

(b Mataró, Oct 15, 1867; d Barcelona, Dec 24, 1956).

Spanish Catalan architect, architectural historian, archaeologist and politician. He graduated from the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura, Barcelona, in 1891, afterwards working as a municipal architect in Mataró. In 1897 he began working as an independent architect in Barcelona, while also teaching at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura and writing on architectural history. His first works as an architect, the Casa Martí (1896) in Carrer de Montsió, Barcelona, and the Casa Garí (1898), El Cros, Argentona, are typical of Catalan Art Nouveau (Modernismo) in that they show a neo-medieval influence, as do his slightly later projects in Barcelona, such as the improvements (1898–1900) to the Casa Ametller in the Passeig de Gràcia, the Casa Macaya (1901) in the Passeig de S Joan, the Casa Serra (1903–7; now the main seat of the Diputació de Catalunya) on the Rambla de Catalunya, the Casa Terrades or Casa de les Punxes (...

Article

Dagmar Preising

(b Berlin, Oct 16, 1886; d Berlin, April 27, 1945).

German archaeologist. He studied Classical archaeology, philology, ancient history and history of art in Berlin and Halle and in 1909 published his thesis, in Latin, on the composition of the wall paintings at Pompeii. In 1922, after a professorship at the University of Giessen, he took over the direction of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut in Berlin, which he brought to international recognition. In 1932 he became a professor at the Winckelmann Institut and president of the Archäologische Gesellschaft. His academic work ranged widely, from the art of the Mycenaean period (wall paintings in particular) to Late Antiquity, and included the reception of Late Antique art in classicizing revivals; there are 243 titles in the list of his publications. One of his interests was Greek relief sculpture and its polychromy. His reputation outside Germany is based mainly on his achievements in the field of Roman art and the art of Late Antiquity. He continued the work begun by his teacher, ...

Article

(b Glasgow, Sept 10, 1890; d London, July 22, 1976).

English archaeologist . Educated at Bradford Grammar School and University College, London, he was made Director of the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, in 1924, before moving to London as Keeper and Secretary of the London Museum (now the Museum of London) in 1926, where he also established the post-graduate Institute of Archaeology (1937) within the University of London. After active military service during World War II he reorganized archaeology in India as Director General of Archaeology (1944–8). On his return to London he began to reform and reshape the British Academy as Honorary Secretary. Meanwhile, he was a tireless excavator of some of the most notable sites in Britain, including the Roman temple complex at Lydney Park, Glos (1928–9; pubd 1933), the Roman city of Verulamium (now St Albans; 1930–33; pubd 1936), Maiden Castle (1934–6; pubd 1943) and Stanwick (pubd 1951–2...