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J. Patrice Marandel

(b Paris, Nov 19, 1696; d Paris, Feb 10, 1772).

French painter and engraver. He studied briefly with the history painter Nicolas Bertin but was more influenced by the portrait painter Jean-Marc Nattier, whose studio he entered c. 1718, and whose daughter he married in 1747. In Nattier’s studio he executed copies of portraits by van Dyck, Nicolas de Largillierre and Hyacinthe Rigaud (e.g. a copy of Rigaud’s portrait of Cardinal de Fleury; Hillerød, Frederiksborg Slot). He may have participated in Pierre Crozat’s project, begun in 1721, to publish engravings of pictures in the collection of the Regent, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, making drawings alongside Nattier and Watteau, and he may also have executed engravings after the paintings by Charles Le Brun in the Grande Galerie at Versailles under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Massé (c. 1724).

It was at the relatively late date of 1731 that Tocqué was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale on presentation of the ...


Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy

(b Cholet, 1703; d Paris, May 11, 1739).

French painter, draughtsman and etcher

. In 1719 he began apprenticeship in the Paris studio of Jean-Baptiste van Loo, and thanks to family connections he soon made contact with the influential patron the Comte de Caylus, in whose house he lodged. One of his first commissions was to etch two sets of three plates (1726 and 1728) after drawings by Antoine Watteau for the collection of prints Figures de différents caractères de paysages et d’études …, published by Jean de Jullienne in 1726. Trémolières also attended drawing lessons at the Académie Royale, and in 1726 and again in 1727 he gained second prize in the Prix de Rome competition. In 1728 he went to complete his artistic education at the Académie de France in Rome with Pierre Subleyras and Louis-Gabriel Blanchet.

In Rome the works of Guido Reni seem to have had a particularly strong influence on Trémolières; in the first year of his stay he made a copy (Grenoble, Mus. Peint. & Sculp.) of Reni’s ...


Roger White

(b Durham, bapt Feb 20, 1718; d London, May 17, 1765).

English architect, engraver and furniture designer. The son of a gardener, he was appointed Clerk of the Works at the Queen’s House, Greenwich, in 1736 and was clerk at a succession of royal buildings, notably at the London palaces of Whitehall, Westminster and St James’s (1746–54). In this capacity he became closely associated with William Kent, whose Horse Guards scheme he was responsible for executing and possibly modifying (1750–59). He engraved and published a number of Kent’s designs (notably in Some Designs of Mr Inigo Jones and Mr William Kent, 1744). Not surprisingly, Kent’s influence is strongly felt in Vardy’s own work, such as the ‘New Stone Building’ adjoining Westminster Hall (begun 1755; destr. 1883) and the unexecuted scheme (1754) for a building for the new British Museum in Old Palace Yard, Westminster.

Vardy’s private commissions included the remodelling (1761–3) of Hackwood Park (destr. in later alterations, ...


Elizabeth Miller

[ Francis ]

(b St Jean-du-Bruel, Aveyron, July 11, 1708; d London, Nov 26, 1780).

French engraver and print publisher, active in England. He is considered to be one of the founders of the English school of landscape engraving. A Huguenot, he came to London in 1711 and learnt engraving with Joseph Wagner (1706–80). His earliest dated print is from 1739. He helped introduce the Rococo style into England as an engraver or publisher of ornament books c. 1740–60, for example his engraved plates for William De la Cour’s First Book of Ornament (1741). Many of his landscape prints were after paintings by French and Dutch Old Masters, beginning with 11 plates for Arthur Pond’s Italian Landscapes project (1741–6; London, BM), a 44-plate survey of the works of Gaspard Dughet and Claude Lorrain in British collections. Typical of his mature work is the print after Claude, Great Annual Sacrifice at the Temple of Apollo on the Island of Delos (...


(b Eichstätt, Dec 19, 1738; d Munich, Feb 2, 1797).

German painter and etcher. After a five-year apprenticeship to the painter of sculptures Anton Scheidler ( fl 1745–after 1775) in Eggenfelden and short stays in Augsburg and Freising, he returned to Eichstätt and trained for a further year with the sculpture painter Jacob Feichtmayr ( fl 1735–67). From 1759–60 he was in Munich, first as assistant to Johann Michael Kaufmann (1713–?86), then as theatre painter at the electoral court, working to the designs of Lorenzo Quaglio, among others. His designs for the Elector’s Gobelins factory were recorded in a series of large-format oil paintings. In 1769 he became court painter.

Winck is regarded as the most heavily employed fresco painter in Munich in the later 18th century. His first major fresco (Starnberg, St Joseph) was completed in 1766; in the same year he worked at St Remigius, Raisting (nr Weilheim), and from 1767 in St Johann Baptist, Inning, but none of these early works have survived intact. His most important early work (...


J. E. P. Leistra

(bapt Amsterdam, Dec 19, 1695; d Amsterdam, Nov 12, 1754).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, etcher and writer . He was the leading 18th-century Dutch decorative painter, specializing in Rococo ceiling and room decorations and groups of putti painted naturalistically in colour or as imitation reliefs in grisaille. His preparatory drawings for ceiling decorations were collected during his own lifetime, but he also executed independent finished drawings specifically for collectors (e.g. Three Hovering Putti; Leiden, Rijksuniv., Prentenkab.)

At the age of nine de Wit was apprenticed to Albert van Spiers (1666–1718), a painter of ceiling pictures and overmantels who had studied with Gérard de Lairesse and in Rome. From 1708 de Wit studied at the Koninklijke Academie in Antwerp and, from 1709 to 1712, with the history painter Jacob van Hal (1672–1718). In 1711–12 de Wit made drawn copies of the 36 ceiling pictures designed by Rubens in the Jesuit church in Antwerp (now St Carlo Borromeo). When these were destroyed by fire in ...