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Giuseppe Antonio Guazzelli

(b Sora, nr. Frosinone, Oct 30, 1538; d Rome, Jun 30, 1607).

Italian cardinal and church historian. A disciple of St. Filippo Neri and among the early and more influential members of the Congregation of the Oratory (Oratorians) established in Rome by Neri, as church historian, Baronio was involved in relevant projects promoted by the Roman Curia after the closure of the Council of Trent. As early as 1580 he collaborated on revising the Martyrologium Romanum, one of the post-Tridentine liturgical books, and then added to the same Martyrologium a general introduction and an extensive analytical commentary (respectively the Tractatio de Martyrologio Romano and the Notationes, both first published in 1586). Between 1588 and 1607 he published the Annales Ecclesiastici, in twelve volumes, where he dealt with church history from the birth of Christ down to 1198: such monumental erudite work was the main Catholic response to the Protestant Magdeburg Centuries (published 1559–1574). Different aspects of Baronio’s scholarly work are deeply linked. In his ...


Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

(b San Marino, Sept 27, 1506; d Pieve S Paolo, nr Pisa, March 25, 1554).

Italian architect. He was the son of Bartolo di Simone Belluzzi, an important political figure in the Republic of San Marino. He spent his youth in commerce and at the age of 18 was sent by his father to Bologna, where he remained for two years. In 1535 he settled in Rome, entering the service of Ascanio Colonna, whom he followed to Naples to meet Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. At the end of that year he returned to San Marino to marry a daughter of Girolamo Genga. From that time, without abandoning his business interests, he worked with his father-in-law, who was then employed by Francesco Maria I della Rovere, 4th Duke of Urbino, to enlarge the Villa Imperiale at San Bartolo, near Pesaro (for illustration see Genga family, §1), and on other architectural projects for the state. In September 1538 Belluzzi worked with his father-in-law on the fortifications of Pesaro and at the same time began to study Vitruvius. In ...


Clare Robertson

(b Venice, May 20, 1470; d Rome, Jan 18, 1547).

Italian ecclesiastic, writer, collector and patron. His literary fame rests chiefly on his contributions to the development of Italian vernacular literature and to his revival of the Petrarchan style in poetry. Among his best-known works is Gli Asolani (written c. 1497; pubd 1505), which consists of Platonic dialogues on love. Born of a patrician family, he made several attempts to follow his father’s distinguished political career before deciding to devote himself to literature. In 1492 he left Venice, going first to Messina, then Padua and Ferrara. For a time he was part of the cultivated circle of the della Rovere court in Urbino, where he was described by Baldassare Castiglione in Il libro del cortegiano (1528) as the archetypal humanist. After taking minor orders in 1508, he moved to Rome in 1512 and worked there as a papal secretary, together with Jacopo Sadoleto (1477–1547). On the death of Leo X in ...


(b Venice, Aug 14, 1530; d Turin, Jan 20, 1590).

Italian scientist, mathematician and writer. He studied mathematics with Niccolò Tartaglia (1500–59) and became one of the most progressive scientific thinkers of the later 16th century. From 1558 to 1567 he was in the service of Ottavio Farnese, 2nd Duke of Parma, and then moved to Turin at the invitation of Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Savoy, where he remained for the rest of his life. His interests extended to most branches of contemporary science, including astronomy (in De gnomonum he refers to his making of a meridian), acoustics, music and geometry. His studies of mechanics in particular made him an important forerunner of Galileo Galilei. The breadth of his interests is reflected in his principal published work, the Diversarum speculationum mathematicarum (1585), which includes a section on perspective and is dedicated to the Milanese architect at the court of Turin, Giacomo Soldati (fl 1561–1600)....


David Cast

(fl 1500–?1530).

Italian connoisseur. He was possibly the owner and perhaps also the compiler of a collection of notes about the lives and works of the artists of Florence in the Renaissance. The text of this collection, first published in 1891 by Cornelius von Fabriczy, has survived in two versions in two different manuscripts in the Biblioteca Nazionale, Florence: the so-called Codice Strozziano (Cod. Magliabechiano cl XXV 636) and the Codice Petrei (Cod. Magliabechiano cl XIII 89). The first of these seems to be in fragments but is more accurate, the second somewhat careless but more complete; the two texts may be compared in the edition of 1892 by Karl Frey. The association of the texts with Billi was first made in writings by Fabriczy and Frey following Gaetano Milanesi’s 1872 citing of Billi’s name after an investigation of the Codice dell’Anonimo Magliabechiano (Florence, Bib. N. Cent. Cod. Magliabechiano cl XVII 17). Billi was a member of a distinguished family in Florence, who owned a chapel in SS Annunziata, for which, according to Vasari, they commissioned from ...


M. J. T. M. Stompé

(b Lohr, c. 1525).

German architect, engraver and writer. After training as an architect in his native town, Hans Blum left Lohr because two architects were already working there: Peter Volckner (fl 1539–48) and Jost Wenzel (fl 1548–70). He then moved to Zurich, where he married Ragali Kuchymeister in 1550. Their eldest son Christoffel Blum (bapt 21 Jan 1552) was named after the publisher Christoffel Froschauer (?1490–1564), who later published Hans Blum’s treatises on architecture.

Hans Blum is primarily known as the author of Quinque columnarum exacta descriptio atque delinaeatio cum symmetrica (1550), a book on the five orders of architecture. He based his work on the fourth volume of Serlio’s Regole generali di architettura (Venice, 1537), a German edition of which was published in 1542. The second source for Blum’s book was Gualtherus Rivius’s edition of Vitruvius, published in 1548 and illustrated by Peter Flettner (...


Z. Waźbiński

(b Florence, 1549; d Florence, March 31, 1613/18).

Italian scholar and writer. His literary output (only partly published) was immense: largely speeches and other occasional works, but also many historical writings. In the field of art literature he wrote (in 1571) Eccellenza della statua del San Giorgio di Donatello. Dedicated initially to Cosimo I de’ Medici, it was published in 1584 with a new dedication to the Florentine Accademia del Disegno. Also significant is Le bellezze di Firenze (1591), the first Renaissance guide to Florence. The treatise on Donatello’s sculpture is an important academic document on the theory of art in Florence in the 16th century. His Discorso sopra l’eccellenza dell’opere del Andrea del Sarto, pittore fiorentino (1567; Florence, Bib. Uffizi, MS.9, ins. 1) and Oratio … de laudibus Michaelis Angeli florentini pictoris, sculptoris atque architecti nobilissimum (London, BL MS. 1978, fols 1–25) were also written for the Accademia del Disegno.

London, BL [MS. of F. Bocchi Oratio … de laudibus Michaelis Angeli florentini pictoris, sculptoris atque architecti nobilissimum]...


Ruth Webb

(b Besançon, 1528; d Metz, Oct 30, 1602).

French antiquarian, artist and neo-Latin poet. After beginning his education with his uncle, the itinerant Classical scholar Hugues Babel, Boissard studied in Leuven and then in Germany and northern Italy, settling in Rome in 1556. Here he began to study and draw the monuments and collections of antiquities in and around the city. He returned to Besançon in 1559 but, because of his Protestant faith, soon moved to Metz, leaving most of his drawings at Montbéliard where they were later destroyed. Boissard collaborated with the goldsmith Jean Aubry (fl 1600) and the Frankfurt engraver and publisher Theodor de Bry (see Bry, de family, §1) in the production of illustrated books to which he contributed texts and drawings. The Emblematum liber (1593) differs from the usual emblem format by including explanatory prose texts. This idea was developed in the Theatrum vitae humanae (1596), a collection of biblical and mythological vignettes with long, moralizing commentaries. Boissard also produced collections of portraits and a book on national costumes. His most ambitious work was the compendious ...


Donatella Pegazzano

(b Florence, c. 1537; d Florence, Dec 26, 1588).

Italian writer. He was born into a noble Florentine family and epitomizes the courtly and literary world of Florence in the second half of the 16th century. As a young man he was connected with those Florentine nobles who opposed the Medici, but later he became a supporter of the powerful family. Most of his life was spent in Florence, except for a period (1572–5) in France, where he was perhaps forced to stay for economic reasons, and where he enjoyed the patronage of the Comte de Carcès and his wife Marguerite.

On his return to Florence, Borghini began his prodigious activity as a man of letters, poet and writer of comedies, producing La donna costante in 1575 and L’amante furioso in 1584. He also began to frequent the cultured society around the court of Francesco I de’ Medici and moved in the circles of the Capponi, Vecchietti, Valori and Pitti families. In this milieu, under the influence of Francesco I, he assembled a collection that included not only works of art but also bizarre and curious natural objects, achieving a mixture of ‘naturalia’ and ‘artificialia’ that was typical of the German ...


Marlis von Hessert


(b Florence, Oct 29, 1515; d Florence, Aug 18, 1580).

Italian philologist, historian and artistic adviser. On 20 June 1531 he entered the Benedictine Order at the Badia in Florence, took his vows a year later and was appointed a deacon in 1537. While there he was mainly concerned with studying Classical authors. After spending fairly brief periods in Perugia, Rome, Montecassino, Naples, Arezzo and Venice he settled in Florence in 1544 with the intention of devoting himself mainly to the study of literature and history. However, in 1552 Cosimo I de’ Medici entrusted him with the time-consuming post of spedaglino (hospitaller) to the Ospedale di S Maria degl’Innocenti.

Borghini had become friendly with Giorgio Vasari and, along with Cosimo Bartoli and Pier Francesco Giambullari (1495–1555), he had corrected and provided plates for the first edition (1550) of Vasari’s Vite. He collaborated with Vasari in several projects for Cosimo I: in 1563 he provided the programme for Vasari’s ceiling decorations in the ...


F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

(b Saint-Jean-d’Angely, Charente-Maritime, c. 1562; d Paris, c. 1634).

French garden designer and theorist. Of Huguenot origin, he seems early to have enjoyed the favour of Henry of Navarre, later Henry IV. A respected member of the royal entourage, Boyceau was appointed Surintendant des Jardins du Roi in the succeeding reign of Louis XIII. Consequently, he was in a position to exert substantial influence in determining the nature of garden design at that time. In his Traité du jardinage, published in 1638, Boyceau succinctly summarized the history of French gardening and codified the rules that would govern the 17th-century formal garden. For the first time a French designer adopted an aesthetic point of view, thereby promoting the intellectual climate that was to establish gardening as a fine art. He introduced a new feeling for monumental scale to the French garden, insisting that it should reflect a strong sense of organic unity in which order, symmetry, and visual harmony would be all-pervasive....


Janet Cox-Rearick

[Agniolo di Cosimo di Mariano Tori]

(b Monticelli, nr Florence, Nov 17, 1503; d Florence, Nov 23, 1572).

Italian painter and poet. He dominated Florentine painting from the 1530s to the 1560s. He was court artist to Cosimo I de’ Medici, and his sophisticated style and extraordinary technical ability were ideally suited to the needs and ideals of his ducal patron. He was a leading decorator, and his religious subjects and mythological scenes epitomize the grace of the high maniera style; his cool and highly disciplined portraits perfectly convey the atmosphere of the Medici court and of an intellectual élite.

Bronzino was the pupil first of the conservative Raffaellino del Garbo and then of Jacopo Pontormo, who portrayed him c. 1518 in the foreground of Joseph in Egypt (London, N.G.). Pontormo’s Mannerist style was the major formative influence on Bronzino’s art. He worked with Pontormo in 1523–6 in the cloister at the Certosa di Galluzzo, near Florence, where he painted lunettes (damaged) of the Martyrdom of St Lawrence...


[Buchelius, Arnoldus]

(b Utrecht, 1565; d Utrecht, 1641).

Dutch jurist, historian and Classical scholar. He is mainly remembered for his extremely varied collections of excerpts and diary-style notes, many on artists. He studied law in Leiden, Douai and Paris and took his doctorate in 1593. He acquired a basic humanist culture, which he enhanced by travelling to Germany, France and Italy and maintained through detailed correspondence with learned contemporaries, but his main interest lay in the history of Utrecht and especially in ancient monuments and the works of contemporary artists. As a scholar working on his own behalf, he was not dependent on attracting public support or on publishing papers; he lived for his library, which was his ‘whole wealth … I carry all I possess with me … I regard myself as a citizen of the world’ (letter to C. van Baerle, June 1627; Utrecht, Bib. Rijksuniv., MS. 983, fol. 158). Buchell’s diary and Res picturiae contain interesting comments on the arts; they bring together philological studies (excerpts from Plutarch and Pliny), texts by contemporaries with comments on them (Lampsonius and other works in his library), Buchell’s own observations (names of artists and their dates, particularly in the field of prints and from his own collection as well) and his own responses (marginal notes on Michelangelo, Dürer and especially on Crispijn de Passe (i) and (ii)). The catalogue of his library and his manuscripts (most of which are unpublished) is in the ...


Philip J. Jacks

(b c. 1450; d Rome, 1527).

Italian philologist and antiquarian. He was probably born near Ravenna. ‘Calvus’ was a classical cognomen; the family name ‘de Fabii’ can be traced to Forlì. By 1511 Calvo had entered the employ of Federico II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua, as a private tutor of geometry and Greek; he was already preparing an omnibus translation of Hippocrates into Latin (pubd 1525). At the request of Pope Julius II, Calvo settled in Rome in 1512. His reputation as a philologist brought him into contact with Raphael, who asked him to stay as a guest in his palazzo and to translate Vitruvius. Raphael might have used Calvo’s work in progress when he wrote to Baldassare Castiglione in 1514 that he had ‘probed Vitruvius, but still yearned for more’. Presumably Calvo completed the translation by November 1516, when he turned his attention to an edition and commentary of Galen’s Epidemiorum, which occupied him until ...


David Howarth

(b London, May 2, 1551; d Chislehurst, London, Nov 9, 1623).

English antiquary, historian and collector. The son of a painter, Camden was educated at Christ’s Hospital, St Paul’s School and Oxford. Unable to obtain a fellowship, he moved to London in 1571 and began collecting material that would later form the basis of his greatest work, the Britannia, the foundation of antiquarian studies in Britain. Camden was persuaded to systematize his researches by the cartographer Abraham Ortelius, who was visiting London in 1577. Camden wrote both of his debt to Ortelius and of his own ambitions: ‘[Ortelius] did very earnestly sollicit me to acquaint the World with Britain that ancient Island; that is, to restore Britain to its antiquities, and its Antiquities to Britain, to renew the memory of what was old, illustrate what was obscure, and settle what was doubtful.’ The Britannia appeared on 2 May 1586, dedicated to William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, who was the foremost patron of scholarship at the time. It was largely topographical and historical, though with significant elements of heraldry and genealogy. It was an immediate success, running to three English editions in four years. It was both the beneficiary and the fullest expression of the scholarship and historical methods of ...


François Quiviger

(b Friuli, c. 1480; d Milan, May 15, 1544).

Italian writer. He held a professorship in Bologna for some time, but dedicated the greater part of his life to elaborating his Teatro del Mondo (destr.). This was a wooden amphitheatre in Venice, constructed after the Vitruvian model, divided by seven gangways into seven sections that corresponded to the seven pillars of wisdom of the Temple of Solomon. The theatre was built on seven levels: the first, governed by the seven planets, was followed by others embodying a series of allegories dominated by mythological themes (Apollo, the Cave, the three Gorgons, Pasiphaë and the Bull, Mercury’s sandals, and Prometheus). Derived from both the Classical mnemonic and the hermetic tradition (Yates), the Teatro was intended to guarantee instant access to universal knowledge. Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo’s Tempio della pittura (Milan, 1590) took its inspiration from this. Towards 1530, Camillo wrote a treatise on imitation, in which he argued against Erasmus’s Ciceronianus...


Clare Robertson

(b Reggio Emilia, ?1531; d after Sept 10, 1569).

Italian writer. He apparently spent his life in the service of the Este family, to whom most of his published works are dedicated. In all his writings he was preoccupied with the diffusion of Classical knowledge in the vernacular. In 1551 he published a translation of Ovid’s Fasti; in his dialogue Il Flavio intorno ai Fasti Volgari (Venice, 1553) he commented on this, also adding much material on Roman myths, religion and ceremonies. His most important work, however, is the Imagini delli dei de gl’antichi (Venice, 1556, 2/1571; facs. ed. M. Bussagli, Genoa, 1987), a handbook for artists, which the preface states would give them ‘material for a thousand beautiful inventions with which to adorn their statues and paintings’ (1556 edn, p. 3). In practice, however, the book was used more by iconographic advisers than by artists themselves. It contains information about the gods of antiquity, each chapter devoted to one of the gods and the myths associated with them and their descendants. Cartari concentrated on their appearances and attributes, as well as their various symbolic significances, an innovative emphasis on the visual aspects of myth. Although he insisted in his preface that all his sources were ‘worthy ancient authors’, in fact he relied considerably on Late Antique writers on myth, such as Martianus Capella (...


(b Casatico, nr Mantua, Dec 6, 1478; d Toledo, Feb 2, 1529).

Italian writer, humanist, diplomat and soldier. He was educated from 1490 to 1499 at the court of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, where he met Leonardo da Vinci and Giovanni Cristoforo Romano. He was in the service of Francesco II Gonzaga, 4th Marchese of Mantua, in 1499–1504, after which he was at the court of Urbino until 1516, serving first Guidobaldo I, Duke of Urbino, and afterwards his successor, Francesco-Maria I della Rovere. There he met Pietro Bembo, Ludovico da Canossa (1476–1532), Giuliano de’ Medici, Duc de Nemours, and Raphael, with whom he developed a strong friendship.

In 1508 Castiglione began Il libro del cortegiano, for which he is best remembered. It was finished in 1518 and revised and published in 1528. In these fictitious dialogues, set in the palace rooms of Elisabetta Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino, the courtiers, all historical persons, discuss the proper education for the ideal aristocrat. Castiglione dated the dialogues to ...


Marco Collareta

(b Milan, Dec 3, 1480; d Faenza, March 16, 1554).

Italian writer, collector and patron. He was a distant relation of Baldassare Conte Castiglione. At the age of 25 he entered the order of the Knights of St John and from 1505 to 1508 lived in the house of the order on Rhodes. It was while he was there that Isabella d’Este asked him to acquire some antiquities for her; their correspondence illuminates the antiquarian taste of north Italian collectors. From 1508 to c. 1518 he was in Rome, and then, until his death, in Faenza. As a young man he had been in contact with illustrious literary figures such as the poet Jacopo Sannazaro (1458–1530), but in this provincial town he became withdrawn, and increasingly bigoted and intolerant. His most important literary work, the Ricordi (1546), is informally structured and covers a variety of subjects. A chapter on the ‘decoration of the house’ discusses paintings, sculptures, engravings and ...


Ian Campbell

(b c. 1510; d after 1571).

Italian architect, engineer, theorist and writer. He was the son of Giacopo Cataneo, a stationer from Novara. The earliest secure date for his activity (23 March 1533) occurs in his sketchbook (Florence, Uffizi, U 3275-3391 A), which has the general character of an exercise-book and hence of a youthful work. Virtually every drawing in it is copied from the treatises of Francesco di Giorgio Martini. The first 42 folios include drawings of ornaments and civil architecture from Francesco’s codices Ashburnham (Florence, Bib. Laurenziana) and Saluzziano (Turin, Bib. Reale), while the remaining 64 folios contain drawings of fortifications and machines derived from the Codex Magliabechiano (Florence, Bib. N.). A peculiarity of the drawings of fortifications is their frequent juxtaposition with calligraphic exercises, the intention of which seems primarily decorative. It is as a ‘scrittore’ that Cataneo first appears in Sienese communal records in 1539, and also as ‘computista’, which looks forward to his first publication, ...