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Hugo Johannsen

(b Knudstorp Manor, Scania, Dec 14, 1546; d Prague, Oct 24, 1601).

Danish astronomer and patron, active in Bohemia. He came from an old noble family and became known throughout Europe for his book De nova stella (1573), which overturned traditional theories on astronomy and cosmology. In order to secure Brahe’s services, in 1576 Frederick II, King of Denmark and Norway, granted him for life the island of Hven, in the sound between Denmark and Sweden, and funds to erect a dwelling there; on 8 August 1576 the foundations of Uraniborg were laid. In addition to housing Brahe and his family, guests and assistants, it served as an observatory, chemical laboratory and museum. Just south of the site a new semi-underground observatory, Stjerneborg, was built c. 1584. For 20 years Brahe led a research institute that was not only visited by other scholars but also by such dignitaries as James VI, King of Scotland (later James I, King of England), in ...


Gordon Campbell


Anna Maria Ferrari


(b Oreno, nr Monza, c. 1480; d Milan, Jan 19, 1524).

Italian painter. In 1490, aged 10, he joined the workshop of Leonardo da Vinci in Milan. In his notebooks Leonardo described him as a ‘lying, obstinate, greedy thief’ but also considered him an able pupil. He was nicknamed Salaì (or Salaino, the name of a demon) because of his lively and irascible character. He remained with Leonardo for about 30 years. In 1499 he accompanied him to Mantua, Venice and Florence. By 1505 he had achieved some fame as a painter; Alvise Ciocha, an agent of Isabella d’Este, Marchesa of Mantua, described him as ‘very able for his years’ and invited him to advise Pietro Perugino who was working for her. He accompanied Leonardo to Rome in 1513 and three years later to France, with Francesco Melzi.

In 1519, following his master’s death, Salaì settled in Milan on property that Leonardo had bequeathed him. He died a violent death. An inventory of his possessions shows that he inherited many works by ...


Jan Johnson

(b Carpi, fl c. 1502–32).

Italian woodcutter. He trained as a type-founder and painter and c. 1509 moved to Venice, where he was employed for five or more years making woodcut book illustrations. Despite the menial nature of his work, which involved copying 15th-century designs, he broke with custom by signing his blocks. By 1515 he had secured an important commission from the Venetian publisher Bernardino Benalius to cut blocks for the Sacrifice of Abraham, (Passavant, VI, 223) a large black-and-white print on four joined sheets (Berlin, Altes Mus., 15.15). The composition is a pastiche of elements taken from Dürer and Titian and was designed perhaps by Ugo himself. Benalius sought a copyright for the print, and, probably under this influence, the following year Ugo sought the protection of the Venetian Senate for a colour-printing process he was now using, the chiaroscuro woodcut (see Woodcut, chiaroscuro, §1). He claimed to have invented the technique, although it was not this that was patented, as is often thought; rather he copyrighted all his chiaroscuro designs, past and future, doubtless due to the plagiarism of earlier works such as the ...


Ian Campbell

(b c. 1510; d after 1571).

Italian architect, engineer, theorist and writer. He was the son of Giacopo Cataneo, a stationer from Novara. The earliest secure date for his activity (23 March 1533) occurs in his sketchbook (Florence, Uffizi, U 3275-3391 A), which has the general character of an exercise-book and hence of a youthful work. Virtually every drawing in it is copied from the treatises of Francesco di Giorgio Martini. The first 42 folios include drawings of ornaments and civil architecture from Francesco’s codices Ashburnham (Florence, Bib. Laurenziana) and Saluzziano (Turin, Bib. Reale), while the remaining 64 folios contain drawings of fortifications and machines derived from the Codex Magliabechiano (Florence, Bib. N.). A peculiarity of the drawings of fortifications is their frequent juxtaposition with calligraphic exercises, the intention of which seems primarily decorative. It is as a ‘scrittore’ that Cataneo first appears in Sienese communal records in 1539, and also as ‘computista’, which looks forward to his first publication, ...


(fl 1486–1523).

Italian illuminator, painter and sculptor. He was principally active as an illuminator and ran a workshop of considerable repute in Bologna. In 1486 he collaborated with Martino da Modena (fl 1477–89) on the decoration of choir-books for S Petronio, Bologna, and this contact with Martino undoubtedly influenced his style. In 1509 and 1511 and then in 1522 and 1523 he and his collaborators received payments for the illumination of a number of choir-books for the same church (Bologna, Mus. S Petronio).

Cavalletto’s only surviving signed and dated work is a full-page miniature of the Coronation of the Virgin (1523; Bologna, Mus. Civ. Med.), from the statute book of the guild of merchants and drapers of Bologna. The miniature, with the Virgin enthroned on a podium in a columned room, is strikingly monumental in its conception. Here, as in the best of Cavalletto’s work as an illuminator, the marked influence of the Ferrara school fused with the traditional style of Bologna is apparent. Also attributed to Cavalletto are the frontispiece miniature of the statute book of the College of Jurists of Bologna representing the ...


Libby Karlinger Escobedo

Illustrated manuscript (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, MS. 597/1424) of the Inferno by Dante Alighieri, probably made in Pisa c. 1345. Dante’s Inferno is the first part of his Divine Comedy, written sometime between 1308 and 1321, in which Dante himself, guided by the Roman poet Virgil, travels through the nine circles of Hell, encountering a variety of notable historical figures guilty of the various sins associated with each successive level. The many surviving manuscripts attest to the popularity of the text; more than 600 copies survive from the 14th century alone, including the Chantilly manuscript.

The Chantilly manuscript contains the Inferno as well as a Latin commentary on the text by Guido da Pisa. Most of the manuscript’s 55 miniatures accompany the commentary, though their iconography is drawn from the Inferno itself. The Chantilly manuscript is among the earliest illustrated copies of the Inferno and the only known illustrated copy of Guido da Pisa’s commentary. The manuscript includes the arms of the ...


Annarosa Garzelli


(b 1433; d Oct 27, 1484).

Italian illuminator and goldsmith. The creator of some of the liveliest miniatures of the 15th century, his manuscripts are rich in stylistic innovation and thematic invention, sometimes elaborated in a very limited space. He worked for the most important patrons in Italy and abroad, beginning his artistic career under Cosimo il Vecchio and Piero I de’ Medici, and continuing it under Lorenzo the Magnificent. Vespasiano da Bisticci was his contact with patrons outside Florence, who included Federigo II da Montefeltro, Ferdinand I, King of Naples, Louis XI of France and Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary. Francesco decorated texts of all kinds—literary, historical, scientific, religious—and of all sizes, from small Books of Hours to huge choir-books. Amid this variety of subjects his studies of the human figure and his introduction of portraits was innovative; he also established his own approach to landscape, with results similar to those of Antonio Pollaiuolo. His inventions, however, were reserved for privately commissioned books of small size. He created a new kind of ...


Kristen Lippincott

(fl 1480–?1500).

Italian painter and illuminator. A Virgin and Child (Ferrara, Pin. N.), signed and dated Antonii Cicognarii Pictura anno domini 1480, shows him to have been an extremely feeble painter at that date. Longhi (1934) and Ruhmer (1957) proposed that Cicognara had played a substantial role in the decoration of the Salone dei Mesi in Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 11 years earlier, but this thesis seems unlikely and has not been generally accepted. His earliest certain work is as a miniaturist in Cremona, where he illuminated two Antiphonaries and a Psalter for the cathedral between 1482 and 1483. The miniature of Isaiah on fol. 3r of the Psalter (Cremona Cathedral, Cod. IV) is signed and dated 1483. He is also documented in Cremona on 17 December 1486 and 31 May 1487, painting in S Rocco and in the Ospedale della Pietà. In 1490 he signed and dated a ...


Lucinda Hawkins

[Giorgio; Klovic, Juraj]

(b Grisone [Grizane], Croatia, 1498; d Rome, Jan 3, 1578).

Italian painter and illuminator of Croatian birth. The most important illuminator of the 16th century, he was a ‘Michelangelo of small works’, according to Vasari. Many of his documented works are dispersed or untraced, and some attributions are controversial, but his secure oeuvre gives a clear idea of his stylistic influences and development. Although much of his inspiration came from Raphael and Michelangelo, he developed his own visual language, brilliantly translating their monumental forms for work on the smallest scale.

Educated in his native Croatia, Clovio came to Italy at the age of 18 to study art. He began his training in Venice and spent several years there in the service of Cardinal Domenico Grimani and his nephew Marino Grimani. During this period he visited Rome, where he met Giulio Romano and studied with him. This stay in Rome, as well as his experience of the art collections of the Grimani, which included many works by northern artists, notably Dürer, strongly influenced his artistic development. Around ...


Gabriele Bartz

[Jacobo; Jacobus]

(fl 1398–1404).

South Netherlandish painter. He came from Bruges and is known only through written sources, the earliest of which places him in Paris in 1398, when he dictated instructions on the production of colours to Johannes Alcherius. Alcherius reproduced Coene’s instructions, with information from other French and Italian painters, in a treatise of 1411. In 1399, on Alcherius’s recommendation, Coene was one of the three consultants summoned to Milan to advise on the construction of the cathedral (see Mason, §IV, 3, (iii)). In a surviving contract, Coene was required to produce a drawing of the cathedral, from the base to the tip. In 1407 it was recorded that Jacques Raponde, acting for the Burgundian dukes Philip the Bold and John the Fearless, had paid on Philip’s behalf the sum of 20 francs to Coene in 1404 for a Bible in Latin and French. Coene worked on this commission with ...


Filippo Pedrocco

(b Murano, 1561; d Venice, 1605).

Italian painter. He was first taught by his father, Michele Corona, an illuminator, and later entered the workshop of Master Rocco, a copyist of antique works, but the main influences on his development were the works of Titian, Veronese and Jacopo Tintoretto. Between 1577 and 1585 Corona painted three grisailles for the Sala del Maggior Consiglio in the Doge’s Palace, Venice. These were rather clumsily modelled on the work of Veronese, but they nevertheless secured Corona the commission to decorate the walls of the same room with the story of the Doge Enrico Dandolo (destr.).

Corona’s oil paintings depicting Christ’s Entry into Jerusalem and Christ before Caiaphas, executed before 1585 for S Giuliano, Venice, clearly show the influence of Tintoretto in the crowds of figures and the dramatic use of chiaroscuro. His period of greatest activity was in the 1590s, when he worked in S Giovanni Elemosinario, Venice; his paintings there include a ...


Federica Toniolo

(fl Venice, c. 1399–before 1445).

Italian illuminator. A pivotal figure in early 15th-century Venetian manuscript illumination, he was first mentioned as a ‘miniator’ in the Mariegola (rule book) of the Scuola di S Caterina dei Sacchi, Venice (Venice, Correr, MS. IV, 118), written around the turn of the 15th century. A note indicating his paternity (‘filio ser Marci’) in a document of 1420 indicates that he was a brother of Franceschina, wife of Giovanni di Francia. The latter has been identified with Zanino di Pietro, a painter who influenced Cortese’s style. In 1409 a Venetian document mentions a ‘Christophorus de Cortisiis pictor’, who may be the illuminator Cortese to whom the polyptych Virgin and Child with Four Saints in the parish church of Altidona, Ascoli Piceno, has been tentatively attributed. The polyptych is very close to the style of Zanino di Pietro and also to that of a diptych, with the Crucifixion with SS Francis and ?Onofrio...


Charles M. Rosenberg

[Taddeo da Ferrara]

(fl 1451; d Bologna, by 1479).

Italian illuminator and painter. Bertoni hypothesized a Lombard origin for the artist on orthographic grounds, and Crivelli’s style seems to support this, although at least 20 years of his working life were spent in Ferrara. The earliest surviving document concerning Crivelli is his personal account book for 1451–7 (Modena, Archv Stor.). Ljuba Eleen (DBI) calculated that during this period Crivelli was engaged in more than 100 projects. In carrying out these commissions, he employed a sizeable shop of apprentices and assistants, including Cristoforo Mainardi (fl 1454) and Jacopo Filippo d’Argenta. In 1452 Crivelli contracted to illuminate ‘uno trato sopra lo evangelio di san zoane che fe santo agostino’ for Novello Malatesta. This has been identified with a copy of St Augustine’s Sermons on the Gospel of St John (Cesena, Bib. Malatestiana, MS. D.III.3).

In 1455 Crivelli received his most important commission, and until 1461, with Franco dei Russi, he was responsible for the illumination of the ...


Patrick Valvekens

South Netherlandish family of patrons and collectors. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries members of this aristocratic family played an important role in politics and were closely involved with the Burgundian court. Their collection of manuscripts was one of the most important of the time. It is difficult, however, to establish which manuscripts were acquired by whom. Jean, Count of Chimay (1395–1473), began the collection and ordered many manuscripts on behalf of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Jean’s son, Philippe, Count of Chimay (d 1482), commissioned eminent translators, scribes and illuminators, including Jean Wauquelin, Jean Miélot (fl 1448–63), David Aubert (c. 1435–79), Jacquemart Pilavaine (fl 1450–85), and Simon Marmion, to enrich the Cröy library. In addition, some of the manuscripts from the ducal library found their way into the Cröy collection. The library was inherited by Philippe’s son, Charles, Prince of Chimay (...


Federica Toniolo

(d between 12 Feb and March 9, 1479).

Italian illuminator, probably of German descent. He is documented from 1441 to 1462 in the Este court at Ferrara, working first under Lionello d’Este, Marchese of Ferrara, and then Borso d’Este. He was granted citizenship of Ferrara in 1462. His earliest documented works were executed in Ferrara, where in 1445–8 he participated in the decoration of a Breviary for Lionello d’Este (sold London, Christie’s, 8 Dec 1958, lot 190, p. 32; later dismembered). His illuminations for a Missal for Borso d’Este (Modena, Bib. Estense, MS. lat. 239), executed between 1449 and 1457, include that of the Crucifixion (fol. 146r). In 1453 he decorated the Spagna in Rima (Ferrara, Civ. Bib. Ariostea, MS. Cl.II 132). The stylistic relationship between this work, the Missal and the Breviary is problematic. Some scholars attribute only the Spagna in Rima to Giorgio, assigning the other works to an anonymous Master of the Missal of Borso d’Este. In ...


Patrick M. de Winter

[Jacopo Filippo de’ Medici]

(b Argenta, Emilia, c. 1438; d ?Ferrara, c. 1501).

Italian illuminator. In 1456 he was a garzone not yet of age in the workshop of the illuminator Taddeo Crivelli, then working on Borso d’Este’s Bible (Modena, Bib. Estense MS. V. G.12, lat. 422–3). In 1469 Jacopo was in Bologna. From 1477 until 1501 he produced most of the decoration in fourteen Antiphonals and two Graduals for Ferrara Cathedral (Mus. Duomo; two excised leaves in Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.). While in Ferrara in the early 1490s, Jacopo also painted most of the decoration of eight Antiphonals and five Graduals for the convent of S Francesco, Brescia (Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio-Martinengo). The frontispiece for a copy of Pliny’s Natural History (Turin, Bib. N.U.), a miniature of the Virgin and Child in a Book of Hours (Basle, Kstmus.) and single miniatures (New York, Met.; Washington, DC, N.G.A.; ex-Wildenstein Col., Paris) have also been attributed to Jacopo.

With his main collaborator, Fra Evangelista da Reggio, Jacopo developed a highly successful page layout with sumptuous borders that included medallions derived from those in the Bible of Borso d’Este but with ornamental frames made of larger, crisper elements. He also designed robust decorative initials that frame figures set against rocky, visionary landscapes. Jacopo’s style is characterized by rigid and incisively drawn forms and the juxtaposition of sharp, contrasting tonalities. He was overwhelmingly influenced by Cosimo Tura’s works of ...


[Bissucio; Bisuccio]

(fl 1421–81).

Italian painter and illuminator. Son of the Lombard painter Michelino da Besozzo, he is documented in 1421 as his father’s assistant in Milan Cathedral. Shortly afterwards he travelled south, arriving in Naples by 1438, when he painted the panel depicting St Anthony of Padua (Naples, S Lorenzo), of which only the crown of angels at the top remains. In S Giovanni a Carbonara (Naples), probably towards the end of the 1430s, he worked in the chapel of Sergianni Caracciolo, painting scenes from the Life of the Virgin and scenes of Hermitic Life, with the painter Perrinetto da Benevento and assistants. Leonardo can be credited with the Nativity, inscribed below with his name, the Annunciation, the Coronation of the Virgin and the last of the Hermit scenes. Probably later, in the same church, Leonardo also painted some figures of saints in the Mausoleum of King Ladislas. From 1454 Leonardo is documented as court painter to ...


Patrick M. de Winter

[Girolamo di Giovanni dei Corradi]

(fl 1451–83).

Italian illuminator and painter. He probably trained in the circle of Francesco Squarcione in Padua. It is possible that Girolamo is the Gerolamo Padovano described as illuminating manuscripts for S Maria Nuova, Florence, in Vasari’s Vita of Bartolomeo della Gatta. Girolamo’s first known works are an historiated initial P showing the Baptism of Constantine (1451; Paris, Mus. Marmottan) and a letter M inscribed Ieronimus. F. with St Catherine before Maxentius (London, V&A, MS. 1184), both probably excised from the same Antiphonal. The style of these compositions is eclectic and includes figures with little articulation that appear to derive from Antonio Vivarini’s types, combined with studied spatial effects probably learnt from Donatello’s main altar at the basilica of S Antonio, Padua. A subsequent but near contemporary work possibly by Girolamo is the miniature of St Maurice in the Life and Passion of St Maurice (1452/3; Paris, Bib. Arsenal, MS. 940, fol. 34...


Patrick M. de Winter

(fl c. 1450–70).

Italian illuminator. In 1462 he is recorded in Rimini living in the house of Francesco Antonio degli Atti, brother-in-law of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, ruler of Rimini, at whose court he was active. Giovanni illustrated copies of Basinio de’ Basini’s Hesperides (1449–57), an epic poem portraying Malatesta engaged in a struggle against Alfonso I, King of Naples and Sicily, for the domination of Italy. Presentation manuscripts (e.g. Paris, Bib. Arsenal, MS. 630; Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Canon. Class. lat. 81; Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. lat. 6043) were lavished by Malatesta on his allies. These codices include between 19 and 22 coloured drawings, with variations between copies, which are remarkable for their immediacy; one, for example, depicts a fortress by moonlight, another the Tempio Malatestiano under construction. Some scenes are within illusionistic marble frames. Two of the compositions bear the inscription op. ioannis pictoris fanestris. Giovanni also illustrated, with pen drawings, copies of Roberto Valturio’s ...