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Natália Marinho Ferreira Alves

(b Braga, c. 1690; d Braga, March 10, 1769).

Portuguese sculptor and carver. He was one of the most gifted of the wood-carvers who created Portuguese Baroque church interiors in the 18th century, lined with carved, gilt wood and glittering with gold. He used vigorous and imaginative ornament, in which plume-like displays of acanthus foliage, shells, dolphins and tritons mingle with angels, nude children, vases of flowers, bearded faces and masks with exotic coiffures, all framed and supported by distinctive carved brackets. Many of these motifs are enlarged versions of those in the engravings by Jean Berain I, known to have been in circulation at this time in Portugal.

This type of decoration is seen in Araújo’s first important work (1716–19) in the Benedictine monastery of S Bento da Vitória, Oporto, where the towering frames of the choir-stalls contain sculptured panels made of gilt chestnut wood representing scenes from the Life of St Benedict. Between 1719 and ...


John Bold

(b ?Umberslade, Warwicks, 1668; d London, 22/May 23, 1743).

English architect. He was the son of a Warwickshire country gentleman and was an accomplished amateur who did not depend on architectural practice for his living. He did not hold any architectural posts under the Crown but his appointment as Groom Porter to Queen Anne in 1705 gave him the lucrative responsibility for the licensing of gaming as well as providing him with the connections at court that enabled him to build up a substantial domestic practice.

The nature of Archer’s training is unknown, but it is clear that a period of European travel in 1691–5 instilled in him a taste for the continental Baroque that was to set his designs apart from those of his most important English contemporaries. Although his itinerary is not known, his presence is recorded in Padua in 1691, and it might be presumed on the evidence of his subsequent works that he visited Rome; it is likely that his passage to Italy took him through Austria. In the absence of solid documentation for a large number of buildings, Archer’s first-hand experience of the work of the architects of the mature Roman Baroque has led critics to attribute to him several works simply because they employ motifs beloved of Gianlorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini: the giant order, lugged architraves, broken and inverted pediments and curved surfaces. While these features are all present in Archer’s work, they were equally readily available to non-travelling Englishmen through the medium of Domenico de Rossi’s ...


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Cunq, Tarn, 1655; d Toulouse, Oct 26, 1739).

French sculptor. He trained in Toulouse, where he received his first official commission in 1677. This was for 30 terracotta busts representing famous men of Toulouse, together with a bust of Louis XIV for the Galerie des Illustres of the Capitole (Hôtel de Ville; 21 still in situ). From 1678 to 1688 Arcis was employed by the Bâtiments du Roi, collaborating on the sculptural decorations for the château of Versailles. These included a stone statue personifying Reason of State on the south wing, as well as a marble vase and term figure of Flora for the gardens (all in situ). In 1684 he was received (reçu) by the Académie Royale on presentation of a marble low relief of St Mark (Versailles, Notre-Dame). The following year the city of Toulouse commissioned a bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIV, raised on a high base with four low reliefs and four seated statues of slaves; this did not progress beyond a terracotta model (Toulouse, Mus. Augustins). In ...


(b Madrid, 1664; d Madrid, Feb 15, 1726).

Spanish architect, painter and writer. He was trained in architecture by the Jesuits and in painting by Claudio Coello and worked mainly as an architect. Two overdoors showing multiple allegorical scenes of the Battle of Lepanto (1721; Madrid, Pal. Arzobisp.) and a St Barbara (1723; Madrid, Mus. Lázaro Galdiano) reveal Ardemans as a talented painter working in the tradition of Francisco Rizi, Juan Carreño de Miranda and Francisco de Herrera the younger, and partially influenced by Luca Giordano. His debt to Coello is apparent in a ceiling fresco attributed to him in the Capilla del Cristo de los Dolores of the Venerable Orden Tercera de San Francisco, Madrid, which shows St Francis riding in a chariot of fire with figures watching from a balcony. Also attributed to Ardemans is the portrait of Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra (c. 1689; Granada, Pal. Arzobisp.)

As an architect, Ardemans belongs to a period of transition, continuing into the 18th century the Baroque tradition of the Madrid school. He worked in Granada (...


Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Real de Pachuca, c. 1670; d Mexico City, 1738).

Mexican architect. He qualified as an architect in 1691. Between 1695 and 1709 he worked on the Basílica of Guadalupe, Mexico, which is mainly interesting for its broken lines and for the octagonal form used in the dome, in the section of the towers, and the lintels of the doors. His activities were concentrated mainly in Mexico City, where he worked as Maestro Mayor for the Inquisition and the cathedral. He was responsible for the churches of S Gregorio and S Bernardo, the church and convent of S Teresa la Nueva, the monastery of S José de los Carmelitas Descalzos, the church of El Amor de Dios, and the church, sacristy, and sacristy entrance hall of S Domingo, as well as the Palace of the Inquisition and Customs, all in Mexico City. He also collaborated on the churches of S Clara, Jesús Nazareno, S Francisco, S Miguel, and La Profesa, all in Mexico City, and worked on the Colegio Seminario of the cathedral. His non-ecclesiastical works include the S Juan del Río, Mariscala, and Alhóndiga bridges. He used a white stone from Chiluca and ...


A. Gerhardt

(b Heimingberg-Hopperg, Tyrol, 1645; d Grins, Tyrol, May 7, 1706).

Austrian sculptor. From 1666 to 1671 he was an apprentice in the workshop of Michael Lechleitner (c. 1611–69), whose daughter he married. From 1671 to 1673 he probably worked in Otztal, Tyrol: the high altar in the church at Zwieselstein may be an early work of his. In 1673 he took over Lechleitner’s workshop. The first certain work by Auer is an ivory relief of the Fall of Man (signed and dated 1677; Weimar, Schlossmus.). The almost transparent relief ground, the smooth, soft full figures and the highly detailed, naturalistic delineation of the accessories are typical of Auer’s small sculptural work. The ceremonial goblet of rhinoceros horn carved with mythological scenes (signed i.a., c. 1680–90; Munich, Residenz) is probably also by Auer, as the small, lively figures are common in his work.

It is not easy to trace a stylistic development in Auer’s art; thus, lacking documentation, it is not possible to establish the chronology of his small sculptural work, his work for the royal art collection or his devotional images. He may have travelled to Vienna ...


J. J. Martín González

(b Valladolid; d 1739).

Spanish sculptor . He was the son of the sculptor Juan de Ávila (fl 1678–c. 1700) and a collaborator of Juan Antonio de la Peña (fl 1674–96), whose daughter he married in 1700. In his early works, such as Pietà (Valladolid, Colegio de los Ingleses), the folds are smoothly carved, like those of his father, but he subsequently developed towards a more Baroque style of great masses and sharply cut folds. In 1720 he undertook to make five sculptures for S Felipe Neri, Valladolid: in the Immaculate Conception the folds spread out from the centre of the figure; the contemplative Mary Magdalene continues the tradition of the 17th-century ascetic type. His St Michael (Palencia, Castil de Vela) is a heroic and courtly figure.

Ávila carved a series of statues for the high altar (the architecture of the retable probably being by Alonso de Manzano) of the parish church of Fuentes de Valdepero, Palencia (...


Matthias Frehner

(b Pfronten-Ried, nr Füssen, June 25, 1716; d Einsiedeln, Feb 9, 1799).

Swiss sculptor of German birth. He was apprenticed to the sculptor Peter Heel (1696–1767), but in 1732, after his father died, Babel became an itinerant journeyman sculptor. He appears to have moved gradually southwards, possibly drawn by the chance to study at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna and by the far greater number of commissions to be found there, from both secular and ecclesiastical patrons. In collaborating on large-scale decorative commissions, Babel would not only have acquired a solid training as a sculptor in stone and stucco but would also have learnt the stylistic vocabulary of international Baroque. A particularly strong early influence was the stuccowork of Francesco Carlone (1674–1750), with whom Babel probably collaborated.

In 1742 Babel settled in Mimmenhausen, residence of the leading Rococo sculptor Josef Anton Feuchtmayer. Here he made his first appearance as an independent master when he presented Abbot ...


(b Genoa, 1645; d Genoa, 1717).

Italian painter. His work is now little known, yet the large number of paintings cited by Soprani, the many existing drawings and the technical proficiency of the relatively few surviving paintings confirm that he was a prolific and versatile artist, capable of painting portraits, history pictures and religious scenes. He was the son of the painter Giuseppe Badaracco (c. 1588–1657), himself a pupil of Bernardo Strozzi and Andrea Ansaldo, whose work may have encouraged Giovanni Raffaello to compose lively narratives with many figures. Yet it is unlikely that Giovanni Raffaello studied with his father, and his formal education probably started in Rome, where he studied under Carlo Maratti and was influenced by the art of Pietro da Cortona. He spent eight years in Rome during the 1660s, when Giovanni Andrea II Carlone (i) was also recorded there (1662; 1664; 1666), which could explain the similarity of their drawing styles, for which both were indebted to Maratti. Badaracco visited Naples, Venice and other Italian cities before returning to Genoa, possibly by ...


Ulrich Knapp

(b Fürstenwalde, March 15, 1666; d Dresden, March 16, 1738).

German master carpenter and architect . He is first recorded as a journeyman carpenter in Alt-Dresden in 1693. On 20 October 1705, because of his acknowledged structural expertise in timber buildings and his technical abilities, he was appointed master carpenter to the city of Dresden, with the proviso that he must prepare the customary master drawings. He subsequently became municipal clerk of works (Saxon dialect, Bauvoigt) in Dresden (1722), and in later years he referred to himself as an architect. About 1711 he built two palaces in Dresden for the counts Beichling (later the Hotel de Saxe and the British Hotel; destr. 1945), the façades of which contrasted with the more restrained domestic architecture then common in Dresden; each was of four main storeys, two articulated by a giant order of pilasters (three-quarters columns in the case of the Hotel de Saxe), and many of the windows were topped with ornate, carved pediments. Bähr is best known, however, for his Protestant churches. One of the earliest was the parish church of Loschwitz (...


Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Zamora, c. 1680; d Mexico City, 1748).

Spanish architect and sculptor, active in Mexico. Between 1702 and 1703 he worked in Madrid as a designer of stage machinery, later moving to Andalusia, where he produced the principal altar of the sacristy of Seville Cathedral in the Rococo style, completed in 1709 (destr. 1824). Ceán Bermúdez described it as having ‘four large estípites, pilasters, lots of angels prankishly tumbling about and a cornice broken and interrupted in a thousand places with tortuous projections and recessions, the whole topped by a huge arch’. In 1714 Balbás also carried out the plan for the choir-stalls of the church of S Juan in Marchena, carved by Juan de Valencia, equally playful in style and similarly using estípites. The same year he designed the lectern in the same church, though this was not constructed until 1735.

Around 1718 Balbás went to Mexico City to take charge of the ‘retablo del Perdón’ in the Chapel of the Kings at the Metropolitan Cathedral, using the ...


Marco Carminati

(b Stradella, Pavia, 1723; d Parma, 1803).

Italian painter, also active in France . He studied painting in Florence under the Baroque fresco painter Vincenzo Meucci (1694–1766). He then went to Parma, where he won the esteem of Duke Philip, the Bourbon ruler of Parma, and the protection of Philip’s minister, Guillaume Du Tillot, who made Baldrighi court artist and sent him to Paris for further training, hoping thereby to bring refined French taste to the court of Parma. The painter was able to study and work with artists such as François Boucher, Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, Jean-Marc Nattier, Jean-Etienne Liotard and Jean-Baptiste Perroneau. Letters between Du Tillot and the banker Claude Bonnet, who represented the interests of the Parma court in Paris, have proved a rich source of information for Baldrighi’s stay in Paris, and indeed one of the artist’s first works was a portrait of Mme Bonnet (1752), followed a year later by the portrait of ...


Felicia Lewandowski

(b Verona, Aug 12, 1666; d Verona, April 21, 1740).

Italian painter and printmaker. His altarpieces and history paintings, which unite late Baroque classicism with Venetian colour, brought new life to north Italian painting. The son of Lucia Boschetti and Francesco Balestra, a wealthy merchant, he studied literature, rhetoric and the humanities, but, after lessons in drawing and perspective with Giovanni Zeffis (d 1688) and one Monsignor Bianchini (1646–1724), he moved to Venice in 1687 and trained with Antonio Bellucci. In 1691 he transferred to Rome, where he studied with Carlo Maratti, whose art continued a classical tradition that can be traced back to Raphael, and where he also absorbed the work of Annibale Carracci and Domenichino. In 1694 Balestra’s large drawing of the Fall of the Giants (Rome, Gal. Accad. N. S Luca) won first prize in a competition at the Accademia di S Luca. In 1695 he returned to Verona, where he was acclaimed as the chief exponent in the Veneto of Maratti’s late Baroque classicism. His pictures of this period were mainly small religious works, such as the ...


French family of goldsmiths and bronze-founders. Members of the Ballin family were active in Paris from the 16th century to the 18th. Claude Ballin (i) (b Paris, 3 May 1615; d Paris, 22 May 1678) became a master goldsmith in 1637. He was granted lodgings in the Louvre, Paris, before 1671 and became Orfèvre Ordinaire du Roi. Nicknamed ‘the Great Ballin’, he was one of the most prominent French goldsmiths of the 17th century. He worked extensively for Louis XIV, providing an enormous quantity of silver and silver-gilt objects, including vases, bowls, display stands and incense-burners that formed part of the silver furnishings (destr. 1690) of the château of Versailles. Ballin’s work in the classical style also included ecclesiastical pieces (untraced) for the cathedrals of Paris and Reims that are known from numerous drawings (Berlin, Kstbib. & Mus.; Stockholm, N. Mus.; Beauvais, Archvs Dépt.), and which also feature in some wall-hangings, for example the ...



Gauvin Bailey and Jillian Lanthier

Term used to describe one of the first genuinely global styles of art and architecture in the Western canon, extending from its birthplace in Bologna and Rome to places as far-flung as France, Sweden, Russia, Latin America, colonial Asia (Goa, Macao), and Africa (Mozambique, Angola), even manifesting itself in hybrid forms in non-European cultures such as Qing China (the Yuanming yuan pleasure gardens of the Qianlong Emperor) or Ottoman Turkey (in a style often called Türk Barok). The Baroque also embraced a very wide variety of art forms, from the more traditional art historical media of painting, sculpture, and architecture to public spectacles, fireworks, gardens, and objects of everyday use, often combining multiple media into a single object or space in a way that blurred traditional disciplinary boundaries. More so than the Renaissance and Mannerist stylistic movements which preceded it, Baroque was a style of the people as well as one of élites, and scholars are only recently beginning to explore the rich material culture of the Baroque, from chapbooks (Italy) and votive paintings (central Europe and Latin America) to farm furniture (Sweden) and portable oratories (Brazil). Although its precise chronological boundaries will probably always be a matter of dispute, the Baroque era roughly covers the period from the 1580s to the early 18th century when, in places such as France and Portugal, the ...


Andrzej Rottermund


(b c. 1680; d Tarnów, Jan 21, 1726).

Polish architect. In 1704 he was awarded first prize by the Accademia di S Luca, Rome, for his design of a public building. The first reference to his work in Poland is dated 1711, when he began work on the church of the Norbertines (completed 1720) at Imbramowice, near Kraków. In June 1711 he stayed at Białystok, probably at the behest of the Polish royal hetman Jan Klemens Branicki, and in 1713 he worked in Warsaw for Elżbieta Sieniawska of the Lubomirski family. Bażanka subsequently built the parish church in Młodzawy (1716–20), near Kielce. From 1715 to 1726 he was also at work in the Jesuit church of SS Peter and Paul on Grodzka Street, Kraków, where he designed, among other features, the tombs of the Brzechff and Branicki families, the main altar, the choir and the railing in front of the church façade. Much of his work was thereafter concentrated in or around Kraków. In ...


Matilde Amaturo

(b Mantua, Sept 23, 1690; d Mantua, Aug 18, 1769).

Italian painter. He was the son of the goldsmith Giovanni Bazzani and trained in the studio of Giovanni Canti (1653–1715). Giuseppe was a refined and cultivated artist (Tellini Perina, 1988) and as a young man profited from the rich collections of art in Mantua, studying the works of Andrea Mantegna, Giulio Romano, 16th-century Venetian painters, especially Paolo Veronese, and Flemish artists, above all Rubens. His earliest works, for example the Assumption (Milan, priv. col., see Caroli, pl. 20), reveal an affinity with contemporary Venetian painters such as Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, Federico Bencovich and Andrea Celesti, but Bazzani rapidly absorbed the influence of Antonio Balestra, Domenico Fetti and most of all Rubens and Veronese. The inspiration of the last two artists is apparent in a number of works that may be dated in the 1720s and early 1730s. These include the Miracles of Pius V, the Conversion of a Heretic...


Nina Lübbren

(b Turin, July 4, 1694; d Turin, June 21, 1766).

Italian painter of French descent. After a visit to Bologna in 1716, he was sent by Victor-Amadeus II of Savoy, King of Sicily, to study in Rome (1716–19), where he trained with Francesco Trevisani. Between 1719 and 1723 Beaumont was given various important commissions in Turin, including that for the ceiling painting of Aurora’s Chariot (1720) on the second floor of the Palazzo Reale. Around this time he was elected prior of the Confraternità di S Luca, and between 1723 and 1731 he was again in Rome. Victor-Amadeus II recommended him to Nicolas Vleughels, the director of the Académie de France in Rome, and Beaumont was much influenced by the Roman–French style of Trevisani, Carle Vanloo and Charles-Joseph Natoire.

On his return to Turin in 1731, Beaumont was appointed court painter to Victor-Amadeus III, and over the following years he decorated a series of chambers in the Palazzo Reale in Turin with frescoes and encaustic paintings, including the vault decorations for the queen’s Camera di Lavoro (...


W. Georg Rizzi

(Maria Nicolao)

(b Bologna, 1675; d Vienna, March 4, 1735).

Italian architect, decorative artist, stage designer and painter, active also in Austria. He trained as a quadratura painter in Bologna, where he was a pupil of Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole. He was recorded as working as a figure and quadratura painter in Vienna for Prince Montecuccoli in 1695, and shortly afterwards for Count Heřman Jakub Czernin in both Vienna and Prague. He soon became a project designer, when his responsibilities expanded to include architecture. Beduzzi’s first project was probably the design of furnishings for the summer sacristy of Melk Abbey Church (from 1701; see Melk Abbey, §2), which matched the European High Baroque style of the building. Later he designed furnishings and frescoes for the abbey church itself (1711–22) although, contrary to common belief, he did not design the high altar and doorway. He initially painted his frescoes himself, but later these were entrusted to his associates, as in the case of the pilgrimage church of Maria Taferl, near Melk, or to specialists employed by those commissioning the work. Beduzzi’s design for the illusionistic decoration of the church of St Peter (...


Wolfgang Holler

(b Ravensburg, Oct 15, 1665; d Munich, Oct 16, 1748).

German painter. He was the son of a cartographer and painter, Daniel Beich (fl 1624–70), with whom he probably trained. His first recorded work, View of Mountains at Evening (1694; Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.) marked him out as an independent artist. Beich received his first major commission through Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria: two battle scenes, painted between 1702 and 1704, for his newly built castle at Schleissheim. They won Beich the title of court painter. In 1704–15 he worked in Italy—initially in Rome, where landscape painting was dominated by foreigners such as Jan Frans van Bloemen, Christoph Ludwig Agricola and Franz Werner von Tamm, a circle he joined. Moving to Livorno, Beich was equally successful, with a reputation that made him sought after as a teacher. In Naples even Francesco Solimena admired him, and Bernardo de Dominici’s praise of his naturalism in the Vite de Pittori...