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Virginia Chieffo Raguin

(b Andlau, Alsace; fl 1447; d c. 1501).

German glass painter. His commissions and influence extended from the area around Strasbourg into southern Germany and Austria. Hemmel became a citizen of Strasbourg through marriage in 1447 with the widow of a local glass painter named Heinz. His work shows figure types similar to contemporary engravings, in particular those of Martin Schongauer; Hemmel’s Adoration of the Magi in the Nonnbergkirche, Salzburg, is derived from a Schongauer print of the same subject. Distinctive among his many commissions are the Kramer window (1479–80) in Ulm Minster and the axial choir window of St Anne and the Virgin (c. 1478–9) in the Stiftskirche, Tübingen. The balance of the intense purple, scarlet and deep blue against extensive silver-stain yellow and white glass creates a tension between spatial planes. Hemmel’s draughtsmanship in his Virgin and Child with Lily from the Nonnbergkirche, Salzburg (c. 1470–80; Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.; see Stained glass, ...


Jane Campbell Hutchison

Broek, Jan van; Bruck, Johannes von; Brugge, Johannes von]

(b Ghent or Bruges, c. 1501–2; d Basle, 1556).

South Netherlandish glass painter and religious sect leader. First mentioned in Delft, where he married and settled in 1524, Jorisz. was trained as a painter of stained glass. A convert first to Lutheranism and later to Anabaptism, he was arrested for blasphemy in 1528 and was fined, whipped and had a hole bored in his tongue. He was then banished from Holland and sentenced (in absentia) to be hanged. Calling himself ‘the Third David’, he founded his own Anabaptist sect, took his family and followers to Basle and passed himself off as a Dutch nobleman, ‘Johannes von Bruck’. Living on funds from his Dutch publications—including the Wunderboeck (Deventer, 1542), illustrated with his own woodcut designs—and from secret donations, he lived in the Spiesshof on the upper Heuberg in Basle, and in a series of castles in the countryside. Although quite a few citizens of Basle seem to have known his real identity, he was not denounced until three years after his death, when his body was exhumed and burnt under the gallows, together with a portrait and his heretical writings....


Renate Baumgärtel-Fleischmann

(b c. 1430–35; d Bamberg, late 1508).

German painter, draughtsman and designer. He ran a painting and woodcarving workshop in Bamberg from 1465, his main patrons being the town of Bamberg and the bishop’s court. Although he was generally commissioned to supply objects for everyday use, these have not survived; nor have the stained-glass windows for which he made preliminary drawings. Extant works based on his designs include a carved stone coat of arms (1494) on the Alte Hofhaltung in Bamberg, made by a Nuremberg master, and the tomb plaque of Bishop Georg Marschalk von Ebneth (d 1505) in Bamberg Cathedral, cast by Peter Vischer I in Nuremberg. However, both works are more expressive of the masters who executed them than of the designer. Thus the only basis for judging Katzheimer’s style lies in the 22 woodcuts for the Halsgerichtsordnung (Bamberg, 1507), printed by Johann Pfeyll, for which he supplied the preliminary drawings. The compositions are simple, with the figures lined up horizontally, diagonally or in tiers (the traditional way of suggesting depth), and the interior spaces are usually represented in outline only. Two reliefs relating to the ...


(b ?Kulmbach, Upper Franconia, c. 1485; d Nuremberg, between 29 Sept and Dec 13, 1522).

German painter and draughtsman. Described by Sandrart as a ‘disciple’ of Dürer, Kulmbach emerged as the foremost interpreter of the great German master’s art following the departure from Nuremberg of both Hans Schäufelein (i) and Hans Baldung in 1509. Indeed, in the second decade of the 16th century Kulmbach was the most important designer of stained glass and designer and painter of altarpieces in Nuremberg. As Dürer himself concentrated increasingly on the graphic arts and accepted only select commissions from the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and a small group of eminent patrons, Kulmbach received the lion’s share of commissions for highly visible works of art in the major churches of Nuremberg. In the years just before the Reformation, he thus played a key role in shaping the city’s church interiors, most notably the eastern choir of St Sebaldus.

The name ‘von Kulmbach’ suggests that he was born in Kulmbach in Upper Franconia. It is uncertain whether ‘Süss’ is a surname or a nickname (corresponding to Hans Baldung’s nickname ‘Grien’). Judging from Kulmbach’s stylistic development, he was probably born later (...


Jane L. Carroll

[Cornelisz., Pieter]

(b Leiden, c. 1484; d Leiden, between Oct 31, 1560 and early July 1561).

North Netherlandish painter and designer of maps, furniture and glass paintings. He was the eldest son of Cornelis Engebrechtsz.; in 1509 he married Marytgen Gerytsdr. van Dam. In 1514 and 1519 his name appeared in the Leiden civic guard lists, where he is recorded as a painter and not as a glass painter (contrary to van Mander’s report). On 9 April 1530 Pieter moved to Bruges to be with his younger brother, the painter Cornelis Cornelisz. Kunst (1493–1544), and to take charge of his sibling’s business affairs. Pieter had returned to Leiden by 1532, when he designed a pulpit for the St Pieterskerk, his only important documented work.

His earliest recorded work is a glass window from 1516 for the Marienpoel cloister near Leiden. The work is described as a small pane with a drinking scene (a Prodigal Son?), which was executed for Lambert Johansz. Such a piece may support van Mander’s claim that Pieter Cornelisz. taught the art of glass painting to ...


Virginia Chieffo Raguin

French family of glass painters. They were the dominant stained-glass artists of the second quarter of the 16th century in Normandy and the diocese of Beauvais. One of the earliest securely dated works is the Crucifixion with the Virgin of Pity and SS Hubert, Christopher, Francis and Louis (1522) by Engrand Le Prince (d 1531) in Beauvais Cathedral. The Tree of Jesse in St Etienne, Beauvais, must also date c. 1522 and is signed by Engrand; the window of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette in St Etienne, however, dates from c. 1530 and shows the initials of Pierre Le Prince (fl 1530s). At Rouen, Engrand collaborated with Jean Le Prince (fl 1496–1555) in the Triumph of the Virgin, the Life of John the Baptist and the Corporal Works of Mercy, made for St Vincent (c. 1525; Rouen, St Jeanne d’Arc). Nicolas Le Prince (fl...


[Guillaume de Pierre]

(b La Châtre, nr Bourges, 1467–70; d Arezzo, July 30, 1529).

French stained-glass maker and painter, active in Italy. He was called to Rome before 1509, perhaps by Donato Bramante. Marcillat was employed by the popes Julius II and Leo X in the Vatican and at S Maria del Popolo, where the two Serlian windows in the choir are his earliest surviving works (1509; heavily rest.). Summoned to Cortona in 1515 by Cardinal Silvio Passerini, he established a workshop and began keeping a detailed account-book, which has survived; his prolific output there included a two-part window for the chancel of Cortona Cathedral, comprising the Nativity (1516; Detroit, MI, Inst. A., no. 37.138) and the Adoration of the Magi (London, V&A, no. 634.1902). Based in Arezzo by 1519, he produced the most skilfully executed windows of his age, notably the five splendidly illusionistic Gospel scenes, including the Expulsion from the Temple and the Raising of Lazarus, in Arezzo Cathedral (...


(b Murano, c. 1470; d ?Venice, after Aug 21, 1531).

Italian engraver, painter and designer of stained glass. He was born into a family of glass painters, and, although there is no documentary evidence that he worked outside Venice, his early paintings and engravings show the influence of Domenico Morone and of Mantegna and his circle, which would suggest that Mocetto’s training may not have been exclusively Venetian. His artistic evolution is most clearly seen in a comparison of early works still close to Morone, such as a series of three engravings of the Battle between Israel and the Amalekites (see Hind, nos 719–20) or the painting of the Battle (Pavia, Pin. Malaspina), to works of a few years later, such as the two small paintings of the Massacre of the Innocents (London, N.G.) and the engravings of Pagan Sacrifices (h 726–7), the Metamorphosis of Amymone (h 728) and the Calumny of Apelles (h. 727), all datable to ...


Janice Shell

Italian family of painters. Paolino da Montorfano (fl Milan, 1402–30) worked in Milan Cathedral as a painter and as a painter of stained glass. Abramo (di Alberto) da Montorfano (fl Milan, 1430–38), in 1430 also employed in Milan Cathedral, apparently worked regularly for the Visconti and was a member of the painters’ guild, as was his son Alberto (di Abraam) de Montorfano (fl Milan, c. 1450–81). Giovanni da Montorfano (fl 1452–70) worked in Milan Cathedral in 1452 and 1454, and in Genoa from 1457; a signed St Martin and the Beggar exists (Cernuschi sale, Paris, Gal. Petit, 25–6 May 1900, lot 65). Giovanni Donato (di Alberto) da Montorfano (b Milan, c. 1460; d Milan, 1502/3), who may have been active from the late 1470s, is best known for his fresco of the Crucifixion (signed and dated 1495; Milan, S Maria delle Grazie). Several frescoes in S Pietro in Gessate, Milan, in the chapels of St Anthony, St John the Baptist and the Virgin, are attributed to him, but their dating and attribution are problematic; his hand is most plausibly seen in the St Anthony frescoes. Frescoes of scenes from the ...


Camillo Semenzato

(b ?Venice, 1699; d Venice, Feb 21, 1781).

Italian sculptor. His father, Gregorio, was a glassworker from the Alto Adige. Morlaiter’s training as a sculptor may have taken place in Venice, and certainly his style has much in common with that of Venetian sculptors such as Filippo Parodi, Giuseppe Torretti and Francesco Cabianca; it also, however, has markedly Rococo characteristics that would have been more readily assimilated by an artist from outside the Venetian mainstream tradition.

Whatever Morlaiter’s artistic origins, he soon established a high reputation in Venice with a dynamic and precious manner, demonstrated in the Crucifix (c. 1732) he sculpted for S Maria degli Scalzi, which coincided well with contemporary taste. Typical also of his work, with their dynamic outline and luminous, faceted surfaces, are the marble figures of St Benedict and St Scholastica (1735; Fratta Polesine, SS Pietro e Paolo). Between 1735 and 1737 Morlaiter sculpted a marble frame with a Glory of Angels...


[Kristoffel; Stoffel]

(b Zurich, Feb 1558; d Winterthur, March 27, 1614).

Swiss glass painter, woodcut designer, etcher, book illustrator and writer. He was the son and pupil of the glass painter and councillor Jos Murer (1530–80), founder of a family of artists who lived in Zurich in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1577 he collaborated with his father on a cycle of 13 pairs of panes representing Thirteen Historic Scenes of the Swiss Confederation for the Zisterzienkloster of Wettingen, Aargau. Christoph’s monograms (sm, stm) are on three panes. He probably followed this work with study travels. In 1579 he designed a cycle of panes in Basle for the well-known citizen Leonhard Thurneysser (1531–96), celebrating the adventurous life of this much-travelled goldsmith, alchemist, astrologer and personal physician to the Elector of Brandenburg. Of the original cycle, two paintings, including the Birth of Leonhard Thurneysser of Basle in 1531 (1579; Basle, Öff. Kstsamml.), and two design sketches (?...


Jessie McNab

(b Agen, Lot-et-Garonne, 1510; d Paris, 1590).

French glass painter and potter. He probably grew up in Gascony. He settled in Saintes in 1539 or 1540, after a decade of travelling all over France and neighbouring regions working as a peintre-vitrier (one who paints, assembles and installs stained-glass windows) and probably also as a surveyor. During the first decade of his time in Saintes he worked as a surveyor, glass painter and possibly as a portrait painter. In connection with the tax for the salt industry, he received a prestigious royal commission to survey and map the salt marshes of the Saintonge between May 1543 and May or June 1544. His real interest, however, was concentrated on the search for the means of making a white tin glaze such as one embellishing a cup that he had admired during his travels. This change in the direction of his artistic interests occurred when he first settled in Saintes, possibly in the house of ...


Stephen K. Scher

(di Giovan Michele de’) [Pastorino da Siena]

(b Castelnuovo della Berardenga, c. 1508; d Florence, Dec 6, 1592).

Italian medallist, glass painter and die engraver. He was one of the most prolific and able medallists of the Italian Renaissance, producing around 200 medals. He held various official positions including several in the mints of Emilian courts: in Ferrara (1554–9), in Bologna (1572), in Novellara (1574) and in Florence (1576). In Florence he was ‘maestro di stucchi’ under Grand Duke Francesco de’ Medici (1541; 1574; 1587). He was also renowned as a portraitist in coloured wax for which he apparently developed new materials and techniques to represent hair and skin.

Pastorini trained as a glass painter under Guillaume de Marcillat, who worked in Arezzo until his death in 1529. He practised this craft through the 1530s and 1540s, first at Siena Cathedral (1531–7) and later in the Sala Regia in the Vatican and in San Marco (...


(b Amsterdam, 1566; d Amsterdam, c. before 1612).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher. He trained with the stained-glass artist Jacob Lenartz in Amsterdam and from c. 1588–9 to 1590 in Haarlem with Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem; after his apprenticeship he stayed there for a number of years as an independent master. He is one of the first important Dutch painter–etchers before Rembrandt. His work is distinguished by the wavy, exaggerated and contorted style typical of late Mannerism. The composition, style and pastel colours of the Flood (1592; Oldenburg, Landesmus.), his earliest dated painting, clearly show the influence of Cornelis Cornelisz., as do the pen-and-wash drawings Outdoor Party in a Garden (1593; Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml.) and Mercury (c. 1594; Rotterdam, Boymans–van Beuningen), the verso of which is addressed to the Utrecht goldsmith Adam van Vianen. He also made six etchings of religious subjects, five of which are dated 1593 and were probably made while he was still in Haarlem. His lines do not vary in thickness in imitation of engraved lines but end abruptly....


Alice Dugdale

(fl 1452; d ?1490).

Italian stonemason and architect. He is first recorded in 1452, working in Rome as a stonemason, cutting door and window architraves for the Palazzo Brandesi on the Capitoline Hill. Thereafter he is recorded as working for the papacy on a number of building projects including the Vatican Palace and the Benediction Loggia (1463–4; destr.). In 1467 he is mentioned as supervising stonemasons on the Palazzo Venezia. In 1472 he was sent to inspect the church of S Francesco at Assisi.

The only building that is known to be by Pietrasanta is the church of S Agostino, Rome (1479–83), built for Cardinal Guillaume d’Estouteville. By the summer of 1481 the aisles and nave were vaulted and by the following winter the façade was almost completed. An inscription on the façade records a completion date of 1483. The plan is simple with vaulted nave, aisles and side chapels, and the square crossing is surmounted by a cupola, one of the earliest examples of its type in Rome. The scooped-out side chapels echo those by Filippo Brunelleschi at Santo Spirito, Florence. The façade, made from travertine taken from the Colosseum, follows Leon Battista Alberti’s composition in his prototype antique façade at the church of ...


Marianne Grivel

(fl 1521–80).

French painter, sculptor and engraver. Born at Gray or Pesmes (both in Haute-Saône), he began work in Dijon, on ephemeral decorations for the ceremonial entry of Francis I in 1521. He probably also produced some stained-glass windows with coats of arms at Gray in 1530. Two engravings in the Flemish style, Roman Charity and Venus, are signed with his full name and dated 1546. Pierre-Jean Mariette ascribed to him a series of prints (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.; 4, after Polidoro da Caravaggio, of terms and 12 of architectural details) engraved in Italy, probably in Rome, between 1535 and 1538, bearing the monogram p.s., although Michel de Marolles, writing in 1666, thought this referred to a certain Perjeconter, otherwise unknown. Although they are very different in style to Prévost’s other works, these works may be by him. If he went to Italy, he was back in France before 1550, when he painted the retables of the high altars at Dôle and Gray for ...


Anna Maria Fioravanti Baraldi

(b Bologna; fl 1511–51).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was probably a pupil of Francia family, §1. In 1511 he collaborated with Bagnacavallo on frescoes (destr.) in S Pietro in Vincoli, Faenza, and in 1519 on a stained-glass window for the Cappella della Pace, S Petronio, Bologna. In 1524 Pupini painted the Virgin and Child with Saints—a copy of Raphael’s Holy Family (Paris, Louvre)—in the upper cloister of the Collegio di Spagna, Bologna. In 1525 he participated, with Girolamo da Carpi and Giovanni Borghese, in the decoration of the sacristy of S Michele in Bosco, Bologna. Thereafter he produced works that have Ferrarese elements and echoes of Parmigianino, evidently also influenced by the works of Girolamo da Carpi, as in the Nativity (Bologna, Pin. N.), the Madonna and Child with Saints (Baltimore, MD, Walters A.G.) and the Virgin and Child with Saints (Bologna, S Giuliano). In 1536 Pupini worked with Girolamo da Carpi, ...


J. P. Filedt Kok

(b Utrecht, c. 1455; d Mainz, c. 1490).

German painter, designer and woodcutter of Netherlandish birth. He was probably the son of the painter Hillebrant van Reewijk, who worked for the Buurkerk in Utrecht between 1456 and 1465 and in 1470 was Dean of the Utrecht guild. In 1483 Erhard accompanied Graaf Johann zu Solms-Lich, the Ritter Philipp von Bicken and Bernard von Breydenbach, chamberlain to the Archbishop of Mainz, on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In 1486 Peregrinationes in terram sanctam, written by Breydenbach and illustrated with woodcuts by Reuwich, was published and became highly popular as a travel guide. The woodcuts, which fold out to show townscapes, including Venice and Jerusalem, made this publication technically as well as artistically an exceptional achievement. The title page, with a richly dressed Venetian lady, and other smaller woodcuts showing inhabitants of the Holy Land, are similar in style to prints by the Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I...


(fl 1434–65).

French glass painter. He was a local artist working at the court of René I, Duke of Anjou (reg 1409–80), and was one of the great exponents of the last phase of Gothic stained glass in France. From 1434 to 1448 he was charged with the regular repair of the glass in Angers Cathedral, and his name constantly appears in the cathedral registers until 1454. When a fire in 1451 destroyed much of the original 13th-century glass in the transepts, Robin was made responsible for replacing the rose windows and several of the lancets. Surviving contracts provide limited documentation of the subjects of the original windows and those designated for the 15th-century replacements. Robin was to incorporate the Last Judgement into the north rose and the Signs of the Zodiac into the south. He enlarged the theme of the Last Judgement to include the apocryphal series of the Fifteen Signs of Doomsday...


[Paolo di Mariani di Tuccio Taccone da Sezze; Paolo da Gualdo; Paolo di Mariano]

(b ?Sezze, nr Velletri; fl 1451; d Rome ?1470).

Italian sculptor. His earliest documented works are three windows for the Palazzo del Campidoglio, Rome, for which he was paid on 1 January 1451 (Corbo, 1966). He worked with his father, Mariani di Tuccio Taccone, a mason, and Piero d’Albino da Castiglione on the construction of two chapels (destr.) dedicated to St Mary Magdalene and the Holy Innocents near the Ponte S Angelo and commissioned by Nicholas V. From 1453 to 1458 he was one of the team of sculptors working on the Arch at Castelnuovo, Naples (see Naples §IV 4.), for King Alfonso I. Several sections have been convincingly attributed to him, including the river god on the left side of the tympanum and the mask beside it, the spandrel reliefs of Victories with putti below and, probably, the free-standing figures of St Anthony and St George. Hersey has argued that Paolo played only a minor role, assisting with the carving of the narrative reliefs, but stylistically the ...