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Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1845; d 1908).

American interior decorator and founder of the first tapestry factory in the USA. He worked for Herter Brothers (see Herter, Christian) on the decoration of a series of grand houses, notably William H. Vanderbilt’s house on Fifth Avenue, New York, and William Welsh Harrison’s Grey Towers Castle (now part of Arcadia University) in Philadelphia. When the Vanderbilt house was completed in 1882, Christian Herter returned to Germany and Baumgarten took over the company. In 1891 he started his own company, William Baumgarten and Company, Inc., and in 1893 complemented his interior decoration business with a tapestry factory in his Fifth Avenue premises. He recruited weavers and dyers from the Royal Windsor Tapestry Manufactory (which had closed in 1890), including five weavers from the Foussadier family. The factory’s tapestries include one at Grey Towers (1898).

A Short Résumé of the History of Tapestry Making in the Past and Present...

Article

Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

In 

Article

Hafez K. Chehab

[Bayt al-dīn; (Qasr) Beit ed Din; Bteddin]

Palace on Mt Lebanon, south-east of Beirut. Built between 1804 and 1829 by the amir Bashir II Shihab, ruler of Mt Lebanon (reg 1788–1840), this stone palace is divided into three units: the Dar al-Barraniyya with an outer gate, large reception area and court; the Dar al-Wusta (1829) with reception and administrative areas; and the Dar al-Harim (1806) for the prince and his relatives. The marble gate of the Dar al-Harim is shaded by a two-storey iwan and the façade is shaded by a wooden porch. The three-storey quarters contain a formal reception hall decorated with marble panels in the Ottoman style and several apartments, courts and halls richly decorated with carved marble and painted wood. This luminous palace was surrounded by gardens irrigated by an aqueduct.

J. L. Burckhardt: Travels in Syria and the Holy Land (London, 1822), pp. 193–205H. O. Fleischer: ‘Über das syrische Fürstenhaus der Benu-Schihab’, ...

Article

Stephen Hill

(Margaret Lowthian)

(b Washington, Co. Durham, July 14, 1868; d Baghdad, 11/July 12, 1926).

English archaeologist and architectural historian. The first woman to achieve a first-class honours in modern history at Oxford University, she travelled widely in Europe, Japan and especially the Middle East in the 1890s, achieving fluency in a number of European languages as well as in Persian, Turkish and Arabic. She developed an interest in archaeology and architecture that was reflected in an authoritative set of articles on the Early Byzantine churches of Syria and southern Turkey, based on her travels in 1905. Her first major travel book, The Desert and the Sown, contains a mixture of travellers’ tales and archaeological information, as does her Amurath to Amurath. Between 1905 and 1914 she made archaeological studies of the Early Byzantine and Early Islamic monuments of Turkey, Syria and Mesopotamia (now Iraq). In 1905 and 1907 she surveyed Binbirkilise with Sir William Ramsay; their book, The Thousand and One Churches, remains the authoritative account of this important site. The architectural recording by survey and photography at Binbirkilise was carried out by Bell and is a lasting monument in its own right. Bell’s interest in Anatolia was inspired by Josef Strzygowski and his book ...

Article

Vincent Lombard, Donato Notarnicola and Jhemel Zioua

(b Paris, June 7, 1876; d Quebec, July 5, 1944).

French architect and monk. He was the son of an architect and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He was a brilliant student and obtained his diploma in 1901. After a trip to Spain and Italy, where he produced some beautiful watercolours that earned him a special mention at the Salon in Paris (1901), he decided to become a monk and entered the Benedictine monastery at Solesmes, Sarthe. At this time, religious communities exiled from France needed many new buildings, and Bellot was sent to the Netherlands in 1906 to extend a monastery there. He learnt how to build in brick, a material he used for the rest of his life, and he also became acquainted with H. P. Berlage and Modernist Dutch architecture. Bellot worked in the Netherlands and on the Isle of Wight, England, until 1920, producing many fine yet low-cost buildings in brick. His inventiveness, allied to an admiration for medieval architecture and the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc, led him to develop a style that had neo-Gothic aspects, clearly expressing structure and giving an impression of lightness and balance as much as mass and weightiness, and he used brick to create both structure and decoration....

Article

Jonathan M. Bloom

revised by Sheila S. Blair

(b Alexandria, 1873; d Athens, 1954).

Greek patron. A Greek cotton merchant, Benaki was born at a time when the memory of the War of Independence (1821–9) inspired strong feelings of nationalism in Greeks living abroad. Benaki assembled a collection of objects—art, crafts and souvenirs—that expresses the historical continuum of Greece and pride in the Greek cultural heritage. in 1926 he moved permanently to Athens where in 1930 he founded the Benaki Museum, inaugurated the following year when Benaki presented his collections, along with what had been the Benaki family home in Athens and substantial funds for its maintenance, to the Greek government. Benaki had supervised the transformation of the house into a museum, wanting to preserve the intimate atmosphere of a family home; he continued to work towards maintaining and enriching the museum until his death. The Benaki Museum’s collections include examples of the antique and Byzantine art for which Greece is traditionally best known, as well as icons from Cyprus, Muslim art representing the Ottoman Empire, souvenirs from the war of independence and examples of national costume from all over the country. The Islamic material—principally ceramics and textiles from Egypt and the Ottoman Empire along with gold jewellery—was spread over two rooms on the first floor and one on the second....

Article

Oleg Grabar

(b Geneva, March 16, 1863; d Geneva, March 13, 1921).

Epigrapher and historian of Islamic art and archaeology. Born to a well-to-do and intellectually active Genevan family of bankers (the scholar of linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913) was a cousin), van Berchem was educated as a philologist and historian in Geneva, Germany and France. He combined the intellectual traditions of France and Germany and belonged to a supranational brotherhood of wealthy scholars independent of political or other contingencies. In 1889 he travelled through Egypt, Palestine and Syria and became convinced that ‘a well-studied monument is of greater value than the best text’. He discovered that the inscriptions typical of Islamic urban architecture provided an extraordinary documentation on everything from the means of construction and date to symbolic and esoteric meanings. This discovery, honed by other trips, led to a series of articles on what van Berchem called ‘l’archéologie arabe’, still the most profound statements about the methods of explaining classical Islamic architecture in context. Van Berchem also persuaded the French Academy to sponsor the series ...

Article

[Jean-Guillaume]

(b Paris, May 23, 1756; d Paris, March 23, 1822).

French engraver. At baptism he was erroneously registered as Jean-Guillaume instead of Charles-Clément and has consequently been known by two different sets of Christian names, while his assumed surname was taken from his father’s nickname. He received his earliest training in Jean-Baptiste Le Prince’s studio; at the age of 14 he enrolled in the studio of the engraver Jean-Georges Wille, who thought highly of him and of his work, particularly admiring his draughtsmanship. Like his teacher, Bervic worked entirely in burin, which resulted in a severity of style comparable to that of his master. He received numerous prizes and honours. On 24 September 1774 the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris awarded him first prize for drawing from the nude in the quarterly competition for students. On 25 May 1784 he was approved (agréé) as a member by the Académie. In 1792 he won the prize awarded for the encouragement of line-engraving and in ...

Article

Jerome Silbergeld

At certain times in Western art movements, as, for instance, with Art Nouveau, line has been accorded particular importance. It is also a valued element in Islamic art. However, it is in East Asian art that brushline assumed its most distinctive and universally admired aspect, seen prominently in the brushwork of calligraphy and painting and imitated in woodblock-printing, but also evident in decorated ceramics, lacquerware, architectural tiles and reliefs, and sculpture. Particularly in China, but also in Korea and Japan, viewers of painting traditionally concentrated their appreciation on brushwork, seen in terms of execution or performance and regarded as the most fundamental expression of artistic personality and creative talent, while other elements such as colour and compositional invention were accorded considerably less attention.

From early times, East Asian writers on art have paid great critical and theoretical attention to brushline. The six criteria for the assessment of painting, proposed by the Chinese critic ...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], March 28, 1864; d Oslo, June 2, 1953).

Norwegian architect and designer. He was trained as a draughtsman and technician in Christiania (1883–4) and completed his education as an architect in Berlin (1884–7). He started his own practice in Christiania in 1888, serving also as a teacher at the Royal School of Design there from 1908 and as director from 1912 to 1934. Early on he demonstrated an extraordinary ability as a draughtsman and a thorough knowledge of architectural history; he was equally interested in the traditional buildings of his own country and international contemporary trends. Bull’s first buildings in Christiania, such as the Paulus Church (1889–92) and Mogens Thorsen’s home for the elderly (1896–8; destr.), are historicist, although freely so. The high spire of the Gothic-Revival church, which is of red brick with details in glazed tiles, provides a landmark for Georg Bull’s earlier Grünerløkka development. In the National Theatre (...

Article

Joan Hichberger

[née Thompson, Elizabeth Southerden]

(b Lausanne, Nov 3, 1846; d Gormanston, Ireland, Oct 2, 1933).

English painter. She was the elder daughter of Thomas James and Christiana (née Weller) Thompson, members of London’s literary and artistic circles and close friends of Charles Dickens. Both she and her sister (the poet and essayist Alice Meynell) were educated by their father. She spent much of her childhood in Italy, but the family returned to England in 1860 so that she could have professional tuition. She became a student in the elementary class at the Female School of Art, South Kensington, London, and, after a further interval of travel and residence on the Continent, obtained a place in the antique and life classes at the school in 1866. Her main rival for academic honours there was Kate Greenaway. In 1869 the family lived in Florence, where she studied drawing at the Accademia di Belle Arti with Giuseppe Bellucci (1827–82). Her first recorded painting was a religious work, ...

Article

[Āqā Buzurg]

(b Shiraz; fl c. 1840–60).

Persian painter. His portrait of the Qajar ruler Nasir al-Din (reg 1848–96) as Crown Prince (untraced) was done in 1846, as was a painting of a pheasant and partridge in the Churchill Album (London, BM, Or. MS. 4938). His finest piece is a varnished (‘lacquered’) penbox dated 1853 (Tehran, Mus. Dec. A.) decorated with penetrating portraits of the ministers of Prince Farhad Mirza, governor of Shiraz. The butt end of the penbox contains a self-portrait of the artist, showing him painting a penbox. Portraits continued to be his main subject, as on a pair of varnished book covers (priv. col., see Robinson, 1979, fig. 235) attributed to the end of his career. His portraits are notable for their realism and are similar in spirit to the work of his contemporary, the court painter Abu’l-Hasan Ghaffari (see Ghaffari family, §2).

B. W. Robinson: Persian Miniature Painting from Collections in the British Isles...

Article

Ernst Haverkamp

(b Skien, Telemark, May 1, 1827; d Düsseldorf, July 8, 1852).

Norwegian painter, active in Germany. From a well-to-do family, he studied at Christiania (now Oslo) Universitet and then became a private pupil of Hans Fredrik Gude before going to Düsseldorf in 1846; he spent the rest of his life there, except for summer visits to Norway and a longer stay in Christiania (1848–9). Johann Wilhelm Schirmer’s traditional technique and Dutch landscape art were important influences. In contrast to other Norwegian Düsseldorf painters, Cappelen was not especially attracted by mountain scenery. His most successful work, Waterfall in Lower Telemark (1852; Oslo, N.G.), probably developed from sketches made in 1851. The waterfall runs diagonally through the picture, and the mist hangs low over the wooded hillside that frames the scene. The diminutive figures of men working logs over the falls create a romantic contrast with the monumentality of the natural surroundings.

Melancholy pervades Cappelen’s paintings despite the happy and lively nature apparent in his correspondence. His great unfinished work, ...

Article

Helmut Börsch-Supan

In 

Article

Helmut Börsch-Supan

In 

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gudrun Schmidt

German family of artists. The sculptor Emil Cauer the elder (b Dresden, 19 Nov 1800; d Bad Kreuznach, 4 Aug 1867) studied in Berlin under Christian Daniel Rauch. He taught art at Bonn University. At first he was more interested in painting, but then turned enthusiastically to sculpture. He settled in Bad Kreuznach in 1832. Much of his work comprises small genre scenes and figures taken from fairytales. He also modelled important figures from German history and the Reformation, such as Ulpich von Hutten and Philipp Melancthon, and characters from Shakespeare’s plays. His two sons, Carl Cauer (b Bonn, 14 Feb 1828; d Bad Kreuznach, 17 April 1885) and Robert Cauer the elder (b Dresden, 13 Feb 1831; d Kassel, 2 April 1893), both became successful sculptors. Carl was the most important member of the family. He trained with his father and then with ...

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Roman Prahl

(b Prague, Aug 1, 1830; d Paris, April 23, 1878).

Czech painter. After entering the Prague Academy of Fine Arts to study under Christian Ruben (1805–75) in 1848, he went on to study under Gustaf Wappers at the Antwerp Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in 1849 and under Louis Gallait in Brussels and Paris from 1850 to 1855, thus becoming one of the first Bohemian artists to absorb Belgian and French influence. He made his name as a history painter (The Counter-Reformation, 1854; Hussites Defending a Farm Track, 1857; both Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes), rendering subjects from Bohemia’s history. Besides returning for material to his homeland and to Slovakia, he travelled in southern Slav regions. Čermák depicted resistance there to Turkish rule in a Romantic manner for a receptive public in the salons of Paris and Brussels. Other works took their subjects from contemporary folk life, for example Dalmatian Wedding (1875–7; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also painted a number of portraits, landscapes and still-lifes, both in southern Europe and in Normandy. Much of Čermák’s work was a typical mixture of certain trends of late Romanticism, French realist painting of the ...

Article

Elżbieta Charazińska

[Brat Albert; Brother Albert]

(b Igołomia, nr Kraków, Aug 20, 1845; d Kraków, Dec 25, 1916).

Polish painter and monk. After a rather wild youth, during which he was an insurgent in the Polish Uprising of 1863, lost a leg during a subsequent clash with Russian soldiers, was imprisoned and later fled to Paris, he returned to Poland to study drawing in Warsaw (1865), before studying engineering in Ghent (1866–7) and painting at the Akademie in Munich in 1869–74 under Herman Anschütz (1802–80) and Alexander Strähuber (1814–82). Here he was much admired by the Polish artistic community for his artistic judgement and his knowledge of the latest European art trends, as well as for his use of colour. During the initial phase of his career, Chmielowski was influenced by the Nazarenes, he was fascinated by the art of Arnold Böcklin and Anselm Feuerbach, and he valued highly the work of Velázquez. He drew on themes from antiquity, as in ...