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(b Brighton, March 14, 1827; d Water Eaton, Oct 21, 1907).

English architect. He was the leading British church architect of the late 19th century, and with George Gilbert Scott II and J. D. Sedding he was one of the three architects principally responsible for undermining the hegemony of High Victorian Gothic, a style principally based on 13th-century, usually French examples, in favour of later, and English styles of medieval architecture. He was also responsible for setting the dominant tone for Anglican church architecture until well into the 20th century and built up a large practice, designing both new buildings and church furnishings.

A descendant of the founder of the Bodleian Library in Oxford, Bodley was the first pupil taken by George Gilbert Scott I, with whom he served a five-year apprenticeship from 1845. Upon setting up in independent practice, Bodley began to enjoy patronage from the Anglo-Catholic wing of the Church of England, while his work soon followed the move towards French and Italian precedents set by G. E. Street. The church of St Michael (...


Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Strasbourg, March 2, 1815; d Paris, March 20, 1896).

French architect and restorer. After training as a mason, he visited Munich in 1836 and then studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Henri Labrouste. He soon joined the group of Gothic Revival architects that formed around Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Eugène-Emanuel Viollet-le-Duc, and from 1843 he worked for the Commission des Monuments Historiques, with which he spent a large part of his career. He built very little, apart from the church of Ste Eugénie at Biarritz, but restored a large number of buildings, including the cathedrals of Toul and Laon (see Laon, §1, (i)) and the churches at Montiérender, Avioth (Notre-Dame), Chaumont (St Jean-Baptiste) and Guebwiller (St Léger). Boeswillwald began his career in the administration of diocesan buildings as Inspecteur (1845) at Notre-Dame, Paris, with Lassus and Viollet-le-Duc. He was successively appointed diocesan architect to Luçon (1846), Bayonne (...


Michael Bollé


(b Weilburg, Sept 8, 1806; d Wiesbaden, July 18, 1873).

German architect. He studied in Karlsruhe from 1825 under Friedrich Weinbrenner, and after the latter’s death in 1826 he continued his studies in Freiburg. Boos declined the promise of a chair at Karlsruhe and instead went to Heidelberg, where he sat his civil service examination in 1831. From 1835 he worked under Eberhard Philipp Wolff in Wiesbaden where he spent the rest of his career. His first independent building was an orangery in the Biebricher Schlosspark in 1836, the same year that he visited the Rhineland, Belgium and the Netherlands to study brick construction. In 1834 he had won a competition for a government building in the Luisenstrasse in Wiesbaden (now the Innenministerium). Built in the Romanesque Revival style (1838–42), it was the most important administrative building in the Duchy of Hesse-Nassau. Boos became chief planning officer in 1842, and it was in this capacity that he renovated and enlarged the medieval Schaumburg (...


David van Zanten

(b Lyon, July 23, 1814; d Ciotat, July 23, 1888).

French architect. His early life was typical of a minor 19th-century provincial practitioner. He was the son of a stonecutter and apprenticed to his father before his promise led him to study architecture, first at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Lyon, and then, about 1835, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, as a student of Henri Labrouste. Returning to Lyon in 1842, he was appointed diocesan architect in 1844, but abandoned this secure position to seek his fortune in Italy and Sicily. That adventure failed (costing his brother his life), and in 1850 Bossan returned, shattered, to Lyon. There, he became a disciple of the Catholic mystic Jean Vianney (d 1858), the Curé d’Ars, and he thenceforth devoted his life to a monastic existence, designing churches and teaching art. After 1850 he designed a series of ecclesiastical buildings that were among the most original, powerful and subtly nuanced to be built anywhere in France before ...


Gilda Grigioni

(b Milan, April 14, 1862; d Milan, Dec 31, 1889).

Italian architect. He enrolled in 1883 at the Politecnico, Milan, where he studied under Camillo Boito and Luca Beltrami. While still a student, Brentano won a scholarship competition (1885) with designs for an exhibition building in the Greek style and a Gothic Revival church. In 1886 he entered the international competition for a new façade for Milan Cathedral, one of his rivals being Beltrami. The style of the new façade was already the subject of heated dispute between those who believed that the building was basically inspired by north European Gothic and those who believed it was entirely of the Lombard school of architecture. In an earlier competition (1881) organized by the Accademia di Brera, projects representing each viewpoint (by Carlo Ferrario (1833–1907) and Beltrami) had shared first prize, but they had aroused such controversy that the judgement had actually been overturned and the project by Beltrami, advocating the Lombard thesis and proposing a façade with a sloping roof and three portals, had been disallowed. For the second competition Brentano presented two alternatives: one with side towers, clearly of northern Gothic inspiration, and another, less elaborate and close to Beltrami’s scheme but with five entrances. Invited to take part in the competition’s second stage (...


Stefan Muthesius

(b Hatford, Wantage, Berks, March 30, 1825; d London, Oct 7, 1901).

English architect and designer. Along with G. F. Bodley and J. L. Pearson he was the major designer of Gothic Revival churches in the later Victorian period. He began his training in London in 1847 and entered the Royal Academy Schools two years later, but his contacts in Oxfordshire with important High Church patrons such as John Butler, the vicar of Wantage, and key architect members of the Ecclesiological Society, including G. E. Street and William White, are of greater significance. As was the case with Street and White, secular commissions were to occupy only a minor part in Brooks’s career.

Brooks set up as an independent architect in London in 1852. Little happened, however, until 1860, when he began rapidly to gain prominence through a sequence of town churches. The issue of building large churches for the working-class poor in the unfashionable new districts of London was a major concern at this time among the Ecclesiologists, particularly A. J. B. Hope (ii), and even provoked debates in Parliament; a ‘model town church’ was then provided by ...


Donna McGee

(b Belfast, Nov 5, 1811; d Montreal, Nov 19, 1885).

Canadian architect of Irish origin. The son of an architect of the same name, he arrived in Quebec City in 1830. He established a practice there in 1831 and designed houses, including a Gothic Revival villa for the provincial secretary Dominick Daly (1798–1868), who may have been responsible for Browne’s appointment as Chief Architect for the Board of Works. He designed many public buildings in Kingston and Montreal; the former became capital of the Province of Canada in 1841, and Browne was commissioned to modify, add to and erect various government buildings. His masterpiece in Kingston is the City Hall (1843–4; then known as the Town Hall and Market Building), the commission he won in a competition held in 1841. The City Hall shows his characteristic massing of volumes and contrasting textures, using a varied vocabulary and a strong sculptural sense. Facing the waterfront, the main entrance to the T-shaped City Hall has a pediment supported by four columns, surmounted by a tall dome capped by a cupola. He was also responsible for many commercial and domestic commissions in Kingston, notably the houses known as St Andrew’s Manse for St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church and Rockwood for ...


David Prout

(b London, Dec 2, 1827; d London, April 20, 1881).

English architect and designer. His flamboyant and original High Victorian architectural style was influenced by French 13th-century Gothic, but he drew also on sources of many other periods. He is best known for his work at Cardiff Castle and Castell Coch for his patron, the Marquess of Bute. His designs for the decorative arts, particularly furniture and metalwork, are equally inventive and elaborate. He was friendly with the leaders of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, employing a number of Pre-Raphaelite artists and craftsmen in his decorative work.

He was the eldest son of Alfred Burges, a marine engineer and partner of James Walker (1781–1862). Walker & Burges were government engineers for many military and civil projects. Alfred Burges was immensely successful and the family wealth later enabled William to be selective in his commissions.

William Burges attended King’s College School, London, from 1839; here he was a contemporary of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and studied under ...


Chris Brooks

(b London, Sept 7, 1814; d London, Feb 23, 1900).

English architect and designer. He committed his feelings and creative energies to the High Anglicanism of the Oxford Movement from the early 1840s and to its expression through the revival of Gothic architecture and design, then vociferously advocated by the Ecclesiological Society, of which he became an active member. Butterfield’s extensive output was almost exclusively confined to the building and restoration of churches and associated buildings, such as vicarages and schools.

He was the eldest son of a London chemist, and his parents were Nonconformists. From 1831 to 1833 Butterfield was articled to a Pimlico builder, Thomas Arber, from whom he must have derived the detailed understanding of practical building that was to be basic to his architectural practice. Between 1833 and 1836 he was the pupil of E. L. Blackburne, a London architect with strong antiquarian interests, and in 1838–9 he became assistant to a Worcester architect, probably Harvey Eginton, whose practice included church building and restoration. During this period Butterfield must have begun to acquire the profound knowledge of medieval architecture that was to underlie all his work. In ...


Jean van Cleven

(b Bruges, March 23, 1805; d Bruges, Dec 31, 1877).

Belgian architect. He came from a family of architects who had been working in public service for several generations. After studying at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Bruges he accepted an administrative job with the Department of Public Works under the Dutch government; then in 1831 he left to become Inspector of Public Works in Bruges under the supervision of the architect J.-B. Rudd (1792–1870). He also taught at the Academie for a while. In 1842 Buyck went back into government service as provincial architect for the district of Bruges; he built numerous churches, presbyteries, town halls, schools and hospitals in the north of West Flanders. In addition he did restoration work on St Salvator Cathedral in Bruges, the churches of Our Lady in Lissewege and in Damme, the lighthouse in Nieuwpoort, the ‘het Brugse Vrije’ (now a museum) and other buildings. His buildings are characteristic of the group of architects who worked in public service and initiated the revivalist styles in Belgium during the second quarter of the 19th century. He designed churches in a Neo-classical style (Zedelgem, ...


Jeanne Sheehy

(b 1783; d Dublin, Jan 10, 1864).

Irish architect. He was deeply influenced by his training in the Schools of the Dublin Society under Henry Aaron Baker. He made some elegant watercolour perspectives (e.g. Trinity College and the Portus of the House of Lords, 1819; Dublin, N.G.) of James Gandon’s Dublin work in 1818 and 1819. Byrne is best known for the churches he designed for the Catholic archdiocese of Dublin from 1830, in which the stylistic and religious pressures of the time are well illustrated. His earliest works are classical, on a T plan, with clear spacious interiors. St Paul’s (begun 1835), Dublin, has an Ionic portico surmounted by a bell tower with a cupola. Inside, the east end is given focus by use of a Doric screen. St Audoen’s (begun 1841), Dublin, is even grander, with a sumptuous interior articulated by Corinthian pilasters. Byrne turned to the Gothic Revival style, however, for the church of St John the Baptist (...


(b Middlesex, Oct 21, 1812; d London, March 27, 1855).

English architect. He was articled to John Blyth (1806–78), a little-known London architect, who encouraged him to pursue his interest in ecclesiastical architecture. He studied the books of John Britton, A. W. N. Pugin and others and visited medieval buildings. In 1830 he exhibited a design for a cathedral transept at the Royal Academy. His earliest executed ecclesiastical commissions were the churches of St Stephen (1843–4; destr.) and St Andrew (1844–6) in Birmingham. St Andrew’s is in correct 14th-century style, with a deep chancel, and is very much in the manner of Pugin, of whom Carpenter was a friend and close follower. Carpenter was the favourite architect of the Cambridge Camden (later Ecclesiological) Society. His best-known churches are St Paul’s (1846–8), Brighton, Sussex, and St Mary Magdalene’s (1849–52), Munster Square, London, which The Ecclesiologist called ‘the most artistically correct new church yet consecrated in London’. Neither received the tall spire designed for it. Carpenter also made some sensitive and learned restorations, including Chichester Cathedral, W. Sussex (...


Jean van Cleven

(b Courtrai [Flem. Kortrijk], May 20, 1819; d Beloeil, March 10, 1886).

Belgian architect. One of the most distinguished Belgian architects of the second half of the 19th century who designed in several styles, he won a first prize at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in 1845 and specialized in the study of medieval architecture under Joseph Jonas Dumont. Around 1852 he established himself in Bruges, where he collaborated with Jean-Baptiste Charles François Bethune on the chapel of the Sisters of Charity (1858); before 1861, however, he moved to Beloeil, where he was employed on alterations to the Prince de Ligne’s château (which was then largely rebuilt following a fire in 1900). Carpentier was most influential in the field of ecclesiastical architecture. His churches at Beloeil (1862), Châtelet (1867; destr. by fire 1937), Thollembeek (1869), Antoing (1869) and Awenne (1881) show a personal interpretation of High Victorian Gothic, whereas St Remacle (...


David Dolan

Australian architectural partnership formed by the brothers Michael Francis Cavanagh (1860–1941) and James Charles Cavanagh (1871–1957) in 1895. Their father, John Cavangh, was an Irish-born contractor, who became Supervisor of Public Buildings for the South Australian Government. Michael Cavanagh was born at Yackandandah, Victoria and educated at nearby Beechworth. He continued his educationn in London and then Adelaide, where he worked with E. J. Woods (1837–1913). James was born in Adelaide and became articled to Michael while studying there, continuing his studies informally in Europe. Michael, who was the senior partner with higher public profile, remained permanently in Perth after 1895, while James worked in Brisbane between 1933–42, before retiring to Adelaide.

They designed ornate turreted hotels and many Federation style houses, but specialized in Roman Catholic churches and schools. Their large institutional buildings, such as Clontarf Orphanage (1900), Subiaco, all have façades with deep verandahs above rusticated flat or rounded arches. Except for some unusual, late Art Deco designs in partnership with others, their work is consistently eclectic, derivative and conventional....



French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...


Ornella Selvafolta

(b Turin, Oct 11, 1829; d Turin, Nov 9, 1921).

Italian architect. He studied under Carlo Promis (1808–72), an architect active in Turin in the first half of the 19th century, and in 1851 graduated in hydraulic engineering and civil architecture. He worked first in the engineering office of Severino Grattoni, who was then engaged on the Moncenisio tunnel. In the competition (1861) for a new façade for Florence Cathedral, Ceppi was a joint winner (announced 1863), but when a new competition was arranged he refused to enter. He decided instead to concentrate exclusively on the construction industry in Turin, which was at that time undergoing considerable changes, as Turin had just become the capital of Italy. From 1861 he worked with Alessandro Mazzuchetti (1824–94) on the project for the Stazione di Porta Nuova Centrale (completed 1868), facing Piazza Carlo Felice, for which Promis had provided the initial designs. While the outline and general layout of the design were largely Mazzucchetti’s, the decorative and architectural schemes of the façade were largely the work of Ceppi, who adopted a successful and convincing formal vocabulary derived from the English Gothic Revival. The station, notable for its ample fenestration, achieves a fine balance between decoration and functional and structural concerns. The long façades are punctuated with appropriate and elegant decoration highlighted by a lively use of colour. This work shows one of Ceppi’s main merits—the ability to adopt the formal vocabulary of a past age and to re-invent it to meet modern needs. Simultaneously attracted by technical progress and fascinated by classical architecture, Ceppi knew how to adapt any style with originality, and bring its content back to life....


(b Valpiana, Oct 1, 1842; d Milan, May 25, 1907).

Italian architect and engineer. He studied in Pavia and then at the Politecnico in Turin, where he qualified as an engineer (1867). He also studied architecture under Camillo Boito at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan. Among his early designs were the classical octagonal marble fountain (1870), known as ‘La Bollente’, in the spa town of Acqui Terme, and buildings including the four entrance gateways at the Esposizione Italiana (1881), Milan, his first major project. His two most important works are completely dissimilar in style. The Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (1888–93; damaged 1943; restored) on the Corso Venezia, Milan, is in a powerful Romanesque and Gothic style with a hint of Moorish architecture and, though much influenced by the ideas of Camillo Boito, it also has close international parallels in style with other natural history museums, such as that in London (...


(b Leicester, 1831-06-21; d Birmingham, 1883-10-22).

English architect. He was a pupil of H. Goddard (1792–1868) in Leicester and moved to Birmingham in 1856 where he became the foremost late 19th-century Gothic Revival architect. He was closely associated with the ideas of Joseph Chamberlain (who was no relation) and the Liberal party. He was also an ardent disciple of Ruskin and became trustee of Ruskin’s Guild of St George. From 1865 to 1883 he was Secretary of the Birmingham and Midland Institute, for whom he designed an extension (1880; destr. 1966) to E. M. Barry’s original building. Chamberlain favoured a strong, geometric Gothic style, using industrially produced materials such as red brick, terracotta, encaustic tiles and cast iron in his buildings. His first works, a shop in Union Street (1857; destr.) and Eld House (c. 1858) in Edgbaston, were both for his uncle. The polychromatic Venetian style of the house was in sharp contrast to the classical stucco buildings of that area. From ...


Betzy Dinesen

(b London, Sept 17, 1842; d London, April 5, 1935).

English architect and writer. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and articled to John Prichard of Llandaff, Glamorgan, setting up in independent practice in 1867. He began moving in the circle of William Morris and Dante Gabriel Rossetti and between 1868 and 1870 designed St Luke’s, Kentish Town, London, in a Gothic Revival style, with stained glass by Henry Holiday and Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. In 1872 Champneys designed the Eel Brook Common Board School (destr.), Harwood Road, Fulham, London. It was the first of the London board-schools, which were built as a result of the Elementary Education Act (1870), to be designed in the Queen Anne Revival style by a number of architects, one of the most important being J(ohn) J(ames) Stevenson. It had Flemish gables, large chimney-stacks and dormer windows. As a writer Champneys also supported this emerging style and praised vernacular traditions. Oak Tree House (...


Rosamond Allwood

(b Caernavon, 1823; d after 1883).

Welsh furniture designer. He was a cabinetmaker working in Warrington when he designed and made his first major piece, the Warrington State Bedstead (untraced, see Jervis, 1989, pl. vii(a)). This huge oak bed, elaborately carved in a quasi-Renaissance manner, was inspired by the Austrian furniture displayed in the Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition in 1857 (first shown by Carl Leistler at the Great Exhibition in 1851). The bed received national publicity and in 1858 was put up as prize in a lottery that left Charles bankrupt the following year. In 1860 he published the Cabinet Maker’s Monthly Journal of Designs, which includes designs in a number of popular contemporary styles: Renaissance Revival, naturalistic and a Reformed Gothic inspired by A. W. N. Pugin. He moved to London and continued to publish: in 1866 the Cabinet Maker’s Book of Designs of 60 untitled designs for sideboards in a variety of styles and in ...