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Giovanna Cassese

(b Isola di Caporizzuto, Crotone, Calabria, April 28, 1829; d Rome, Jan 14, 1914).

Italian museum founder and politician . Born into the Calabrian nobility, he had a Classical education and then studied law. He continued his studies in Naples, where he settled in 1849, soon establishing a friendship with the Neapolitan archaeologist Giuseppe Fiorelli (1823–96) that initiated his passion for archaeology. Following the unification of Italy, he embarked on a parliamentary career and moved to Rome; he served as a Deputy (1861–76 and 1880–86) and from 1886 as a Senator. In his dual role as Senator and expert on art, he closely followed Gaetano Koch’s restoration of the seat of the Senate, the Palazzo Madama, Rome, about which he published an essay in 1904.

The proclamation of Rome as the capital of Italy resulted in an intense period of building and excavation, which brought to light a huge quantity of antique sculpture. Barracco had until then been primarily interested in Egyptian art, but now began to collect Classical sculpture, establishing one of the most important private collections of the time. He accumulated Egyptian, Assyrian and Classical sculptures, as well as a few early Renaissance paintings, such as ...


(b Mexico, 1863; d Biarritz, Jan 13, 1953).

Spanish collector. His family was of Basque origin, though he was born in Mexico. After making his fortune in Mexico, he spent the last 40 years of his life in Biarritz, and at his villa Zurbiak he built up a substantial art collection. He had been educated partly in Paris, thereafter retaining a love for France; in 1902 he made a donation to the Cabinet des Médailles of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. His collection of paintings was built up slowly, and he often consulted with museum curators before purchasing works. His tastes were eclectic, covering many periods of art, and determined more than anything by the quality of a work. Often he bought paintings on behalf of the nation so as to prevent them being lost to foreign countries, as was the case with Antoine-Jean Gros’s Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole (1796; Paris, Louvre). His collection was distributed throughout his villa, but for the most distinguished works, those destined for the Louvre, he had a special gallery built. He was a foreign associate of the Académie des Beaux-Arts and a member of the Conseil des Musées Nationaux. After his death 21 important paintings were donated to the ...


Janet Southorn


(b Hamburg, Dec 7, 1865; d London, Dec 7, 1930).

British industrialist, collector and philanthropist of German birth. He became a financier in Britain in 1888. He succeeded to the considerable fortune of his brother Alfred Beit (1853–1906), who had been an industrialist in South Africa, where he had been instrumental in the reorganization of the Kimberley diamond mines. Otto became notable for his philanthropic and educational activities, both in South Africa (foundation of Groote Schuur University, Cape Town) and in Britain (benefactions to the newly-founded Imperial College, London). His services were recognized by the award of a knighthood in 1920 and a baronetcy in 1924.

The Beit collections were begun c. 1888 by Alfred Beit. A small part was dispersed by the terms of his will; it included Lady Cockburn and her Three Eldest Sons by Joshua Reynolds, bequeathed to the National Gallery, London. The rest of the collections were inherited by Otto, who proceeded to enlarge them: both he and his brother benefited from the advice and help of the German art historian ...


Jonathan M. Bloom

revised by Sheila S. Blair

(b Alexandria, 1873; d Athens, 1954).

Greek patron. A Greek cotton merchant, Benaki was born at a time when the memory of the War of Independence (1821–9) inspired strong feelings of nationalism in Greeks living abroad. Benaki assembled a collection of objects—art, crafts and souvenirs—that expresses the historical continuum of Greece and pride in the Greek cultural heritage. in 1926 he moved permanently to Athens where in 1930 he founded the Benaki Museum, inaugurated the following year when Benaki presented his collections, along with what had been the Benaki family home in Athens and substantial funds for its maintenance, to the Greek government. Benaki had supervised the transformation of the house into a museum, wanting to preserve the intimate atmosphere of a family home; he continued to work towards maintaining and enriching the museum until his death. The Benaki Museum’s collections include examples of the antique and Byzantine art for which Greece is traditionally best known, as well as icons from Cyprus, Muslim art representing the Ottoman Empire, souvenirs from the war of independence and examples of national costume from all over the country. The Islamic material—principally ceramics and textiles from Egypt and the Ottoman Empire along with gold jewellery—was spread over two rooms on the first floor and one on the second....


(b 1850; d April 7, 1929).

British banker, connoisseur and collector. He was educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford; in 1887 he married Evelyn Holford, the daughter of the collector Robert Stayner Holford. Earning his fortune as senior partner in the merchant bank Robert Benson and Co., London, he became a trustee of the National Gallery in 1912 and was also a member of the Council of the Royal College of Music. In addition he was a member of the Burlington Fine Arts Club and edited various catalogues for their benefit, notably that of the Holford Collection and an exhibition of the School of Ferrara-Bologna. With his wife, he established an important art collection that was strong in works of the early Italian Renaissance. Among the artists included were Domenico Beccafumi, Giovanni Bellini, Botticelli, Correggio, Piero di Cosimo, Carlo Crivelli, Ghirlandaio, Giorgione, Filippino Lippi, Lotto, Bernardino Luini, Palma il Vecchio, del Sarto, Signorelli, Titian and ...


Etrenne Lymbery

(b Paris, Feb 6, 1849; d Paris, 1931).

French writer. In 1866 he entered the Ministry for the Colonies, which he left in 1886 to devote himself to book collecting, building up a remarkable library of French prints. He was guided by the bibliophile Eugene Paillet, a greater part of whose library he purchased in 1887. Beraldi’s talent and well-developed critical sense were obvious, and he quickly established his reputation. He was the author of numerous works on artists and printmakers, such as L’Oeuvre de Moreau le Jeune (Paris, 1874), published under the pseudonym Draibel, the first catalogue of the works of Jean-Michel Moreau, Les Graveurs du XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1880–82) in collaboration with R. Portalis, and Mes Estampes (Lille, 1884), a catalogue of the prints, portraits and books belonging to him and to his father. He also compiled a catalogue of Paillet’s library, but his most famous book is the invaluable Les Graveurs du XIXe siècle...


José Luis Morales y Marín


(b Madrid, Sept 27, 1845; d Madrid, Jan 5, 1912).

Spanish writer, painter and collector. After pursuing a political career and taking a doctorate in civil and canon law, he dedicated himself to writing on art and produced important studies on Diego Velázquez (1898), Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (1901) and other artists. He travelled extensively and enthusiastically in Europe (France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, England and elsewhere), studying especially the different national schools of painting. On his travels he also painted landscapes. After working for some time as a copyist in the Museo del Prado, Beruete decided in 1873 to concentrate his efforts on painting and on learning to perfect his craft. He enrolled at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid and also studied at the studio of Carlos de Haes. Beruete was among the founders of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, and with its members, and with Carlos de Haes, he made several study trips abroad. In Paris he came to know the painting of the Barbizon school, and in Belgium he assimilated the teaching of the generation of landscape artists who had adopted a form of Realism. The fundamental constants of the Spanish pictorial tradition, however, especially the sketching style typical of Velázquez and Francisco de Goya, became the starting-point for Beruete’s own style, enabling him to record his response to landscape, impressions of light and rural settings. Beruete’s achievement was acknowledged by various national and international awards....


French family of cabinetmakers, antique dealers and collectors. The dynasty was founded by Jean Beurdeley (1772–1853), who, after service in Napoleon’s armies, opened a small antique shop in the Marais district of Paris and in 1830 bought the Pavillon de Hanovre, 28 Boulevard des Italiens, which was the Beurdeley firm’s principal gallery until 1894. His son (Louis-Auguste-) Alfred Beurdeley (1808–82) dealt in antiques and works of art and was also a cabinetmaker specializing in reproductions of 17th- and 18th-century furniture. His clients included Napoleon III and the Empress Eugénie. Alfred Beurdeley’s illegitimate son (Emmanuel-) Alfred Beurdeley (b Paris, 11 Aug 1847; d Paris, 20 Nov 1919) took over the gallery and workshops in 1875 and until 1894 concentrated on making luxury furniture, continuing the models sold by his father. He was one of the most important Parisian cabinetmakers, winning a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in ...


(b Boston, MA, April 11, 1864; d New York, March 12, 1931).

American collector, museum founder and patron. Bliss was born into an affluent family and discovered modern art through her friendship with the painter Arthur B(owen) Davies. In 1907 she purchased her first painting by Davies and eventually had the largest private collection of his work. Bliss toured galleries with Davies and at the Armory Show (1913) purchased, on his advice, two paintings by Redon, two by Renoir, and an oil and a pastel by Degas. She later turned to more avant-garde modernism, acquiring 27 works by Cézanne, and became a great supporter of modern art during the next 15 years, although she was asked by her family not to display her collection in public.

Bliss was one of the co-founders of the Museum of Modern Art , in 1929, and was vice-president at the time of her death. She bequeathed paintings to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the ...


Gretchen G. Fox

(b Frankfurt am Main, April 7, 1858; d New York, June 26, 1941).

American financier, collector, museum official and philanthropist of German birth. He entered banking in Germany and immigrated to New York as a young man, becoming a partner in 1893 in Lazard Frères. He retired in 1925 to devote his time to art collecting and philanthropy, favouring causes connected with the arts, medicine and Jewish social services. His wife Florence, née Meyer (1872–1930), whose family were noted philanthropists, was his partner in these activities. After World War I they formed a foundation for the support of French artists, a model for 20th-century arts funding. A longtime finance officer of the Metropolitan Museum in New York, Blumenthal became its seventh president in 1934, guiding it through the Depression. He and his wife maintained collections in their château near Grasse and in a sizeable home in Paris. Their showplace mansion at 50 E 70th Street (destr. 1943) housed their New York collections. Its central feature was a 16th-century Spanish castle courtyard (now New York, Met., ...



Molly K. Dorkin

[Jones and Bonham; Bonhams & Brooks; Bonhams & Butterfields; Bonhams & Goodman]

Auction house established in London 1793 by William Charles Bonham, a book dealer (also recorded as Walter Bonham), and George Jones, from a gallery founded by Thomas Dodd (1771–1850), a dealer in antiquarian prints. Bonhams originally specialized in sales of prints in the 18th and 19th centuries, at which time the market was robust. By the 19th century Bonhams was also holding sales of antiques, which were advertised in the London press alongside similar offerings from Christie’s and Phillips. In the 1820s Dodd and fellow print dealer Martin Colnaghi catalogued the print collection belonging to Horace Walpole prior to its sale. Dodd and Colnaghi also catalogued the 50,000 works in the collection of Francis Douce for their donation to the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford. By the 1850s Jones’s son Henry and Bonham’s son George had taken over the business, which became known as Jones and Bonham. Paintings had been offered in their sales alongside print collections since the 1840s....


(b Bayonne, June 20, 1833; d Monchy-Saint-Eloi, Oise, Sept 8, 1922).

French painter, collector and teacher. He lived in Madrid from 1846 to 1853, where his father owned a bookshop, and there he studied with both José de Madrazo y Agudo and Federico de Madrazo y Küntz. After moving to Paris in 1854, he entered Léon Cogniet’s atelier at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and competed for the Prix de Rome in 1854, 1855 and 1857. He won second prize in 1857 with the Resurrection of Lazarus (Bayonne, Mus. Bonnat), a painting characterized by the jury as frank, firm and powerful, terms applied to his art throughout his career. His early paintings of historical and religious subjects gave way in the late 1860s to the less esteemed field of genre—scenes of Italian life and the Near East—based on sketches made during visits to Italy (1858–60; see fig.) and the Near East and Greece (1868–70).

Bonnat’s final change of career occurred in the mid- to late 1870s, when he became internationally renowned for his portraits, particularly of members of the European and American establishment. His highly realistic technique reflected his frequent use of photographs as models. The portraits, which cost 30,000 francs each, were so desirable that by the 1880s he had to schedule three to four sittings a day to accommodate his long waiting list....


(b Leiden, May 17, 1871; d The Hague, Jan 16, 1956).

Dutch collector and critic. He began his career as an artist, painting pointillist works such as Landscape with a Windmill (1894; Leiden, Stedel. Mus. Lakenhal), but soon turned to theory rather than practice. From 1895 he was an ardent defender of the anti-naturalist view, considering the role of art to be the representation of the inner life of the artist rather than the imitation of the visible world. He wrote widely on this and related topics in the periodicals Modern Kunstwerke (1903–10) and Beeldende Kunst (1913–38), which he edited: he also lectured extensively, and encouraged and supported young artists. Bremmer was extremely influential in the collecting of art in the Netherlands in the first years of this century, most spectacularly in the building up of the Kröller-Muller museum at Otterlo. He met Helene Kröller-Muller in 1906 and inspired her to transfer her allegiance from Delft china to modern art: over the 30 years during which he guided her buying she acquired notable groups of works by ...


David Prout

(b Birmingham, Sept 19, 1839; d Birmingham, Oct 24, 1922).

English industrialist, philanthropist, patron and newspaper proprietor. He was the third son of John Cadbury (1801–89), a Birmingham tea and coffee dealer, cocoa manufacturer and Quaker. With his brother, Richard Cadbury (1835–99), George Cadbury took over their father’s ailing firm in 1861. Prosperity returned in the mid-1860s, and by 1879 a new factory was needed for cocoa manufacture. They moved to the healthier environment of Bournville, four miles south of Birmingham. Between 1893 and 1900 George Cadbury purchased 300 acres of land adjacent to the new factory and began to build a model village, employing the 22-year-old W. Alexander Harvey as architect from 1897. By 1900 300 houses had been constructed. The Bournville Village Trust was then established to use any profits for the benefit of the experiment in urban planning. Bournville is informally planned, with large public spaces and good-sized gardens. Schools, meeting halls, a Quaker Meeting House and parish church were built between ...



Simon Pepper

(b Dunfermline, Scotland, Nov 25, 1835; d Lenox, MA, Aug 11, 1919).

American industrialist and patron of Scottish birth. Aged 11, Andrew Carnegie immigrated with his parents to Allegheny, near Pittsburgh, PA, where he educated himself while working as an office messenger and telegraph operator, before rising to enormous wealth through railroads, oil, and the iron and steel industries. During his lifetime he gave more than $350 million to a variety of social, educational, and cultural causes, the best known being his support for public libraries, which he believed would provide opportunities for self-improvement without ‘any taint of charity’. Here communities had to pay for the building site and the books, and to commit at least 10 per cent of Carnegie’s initial gift in annual support. As Carnegie struggled to give away money—for ‘to die rich was to die disgraced’—music, fine art, archaeology, and technical schools also became beneficiaries, together with programmes for the education of minorities in recognition of civilian heroism and world peace (still a central concern of the Carnegie Foundation)....


Remus Niculescu

[Carol of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Prince of Romania]

(b Sigmaringen, April 20, 1839; reg1866–1914; d Peleş Castle, Sept 27, 1914).

Romanian ruler, collector and patron. He was the son of Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1811–85), who formed a large collection of German art (Sigmaringen, Fürst. Hohenzoll. Samml. & Hofbib.). Carol, who was elected Prince of Romania in 1866 and crowned king in 1881, benefited from a refined intellectual education enriched by visits to France, Italy, Spain and Portugal. During his brief period as a student at Bonn University in 1862, he was introduced to the history of art by Anton Springer, with whom he maintained contact, inviting him to Romania in 1871. From Carol Pop de Szathmari, his court painter and photographer, Carol commissioned photographic (1867) and chromolithographic (1868, 1883) albums with Romanian views and subjects (Bucharest, N. Mus. A. and Roman. Acad. Lib.).

Under the King’s patronage, the architect André Lecomte du Noüy (1844–1914) restored several religious buildings in Romania, among them the episcopal church of ...


(b Mexico City, Jul 28, 1874; d Mexico City, Mar 30, 1938).

Mexican photographer, journalist, and collector. Casasola initially studied typography before becoming a reporter in 1894. He probably began taking photographs to illustrate his articles and in 1902 traveled to Veracruz to photograph a tour by President Porfirio Díaz. Newspapers that publicly criticized Díaz or his government were often harassed or closed, thus articles and their illustrations often focused exclusively on positive aspects of Mexican life, such as the development of infrastructure, the growth of trade, and the pastimes of the elites living in Mexico City (see Monasterio 2003, 32–41). At the same time, Casasola sometimes photographed scenes of everyday life, traveling, for example, to haciendas near Mexico City to photograph the peasant farmworkers. In these images he took care, lest he attract the ire of the government, to avoid any display of the harsh conditions that characterized life for the majority of Mexicans outside of the capital.

In 1905 Agustín and his brother Miguel were both working as photographers for ...