21-40 of 97 results  for:

  • Greek/Roman Art x
  • 10000–1000 BCE x
Clear all

Article

Gournia  

Gerald Cadogan

Site in eastern Crete, near the northern end of the Ierapetra Isthmus. Set on a low spur overlooking the Bay of Mirabello, it was occupied from Early Minoan (em) ii till Late Minoan (lm) i (c. 2900/2600–c. 1425 bc) and was resettled in lm iiia:2 and iiib (c. 1360–c. 1190 bc). Following the work of Harriet Boyd (later Hawes) in 1901–4, it is the most completely excavated Minoan town in Crete, with a well-preserved system of streets and residential blocks. Finds from Gournia include a clay goddess with upraised arms (lm iiib, c. 1335–c. 1190 bc; Herakleion, Archaeol. Mus.), a bronze figurine of a male worshipper (lm i, c. 1600–c. 1425 bc; Herakleion, Archaeol. Mus.) with hand on chest and hair tresses comparable to those of the ‘Boxing Boys’ fresco from Akrotiri on Thera (...

Article

Louise Schofield, C. D. Fortenberry, Stefan Hiller, O. T. P. K. Dickinson, Lyvia Morgan, D. Evely, Reynold Higgins, Margaret A. V. Gill and Susan Sherratt

Culture that flourished during the Greek Bronze Age (c. 3600–c. 1050 bc) in central and southern mainland Greece, excluding most of Thessaly (see fig.); only during the late Middle Helladic and the Late Helladic periods did coastal Thessaly become an integral part of the Helladic world. During the Bronze Age period this region, which had been inhabited probably since the Middle Palaeolithic period, developed styles of art and architecture influenced by those of the Aegean islands of Crete (see Minoan) and the Cyclades (see Cycladic). By the Late Helladic II–III period the mainland Mycenaeans dominated the whole of the Aegean. Throughout the area they created a community of cult, customs, language, art forms and techniques. In the process they assimilated several diverse tribes, races and regional cultures and merged them into a homogeneous civilization. This first Greek culture contained in embryo all the elements on which Hellenic and, later, Western thought were nurtured and grew to maturity....

Article

Louise Schofield, C. D. Fortenberry, Stefan Hiller, O. T. P. K. Dickinson, Lyvia Morgan, D. Evely, Reynold Higgins, Margaret A. V. Gill and Susan Sherratt

In 

Article

J. Lesley Fitton, Keith Branigan, C. D. Fortenberry, Philip Betancourt, Lyvia Morgan, D. Evely, Margaret A. V. Gill, Reynold Higgins, P. M. Warren and Susan Sherratt

In 

Article

R. S. Merrillees

In 

Article

R. S. Merrillees

In 

Article

Louise Schofield, C. D. Fortenberry, Stefan Hiller, O. T. P. K. Dickinson, Lyvia Morgan, D. Evely, Reynold Higgins, Margaret A. V. Gill and Susan Sherratt

In 

Article

C. D. Fortenberry

In 

Article

A. Papageorghiou

In 

Article

O. T. P. K. Dickinson

In 

Article

Philip Betancourt

In 

Article

Iolkos  

Susan Langdon

[now Volos]

Site in Thessaly on the north-eastern coast of Greece. Iolkos is located on a mound within the boundaries of modern Volos near Mt Pelion on the Gulf of Volos. Systematic excavations carried out in 1921–2 by A. Arvanitopoulos and in 1956–61 by D. Theochares revealed intriguing archaeological correspondence for Iolkos’ legendary fame as the point of departure for the voyage of the Argonauts. The site comprises an artificial mound evincing continuous occupation from Early Helladic (c. 3600/3000–c. 2050 bc) to Late Helladic (lh, or Mycenaean; c. 1600–c. 1050 bc) and Protogeometric (c. 1000–c. 900 bc) times. Among the abundant pottery remains was a Middle Helladic (c. 2050–c. 1600 bc) Matt-painted sherd decorated with ships that prefigured both the later maritime importance of Iolkos as Thessaly’s best port and the launching of the Argo. The mound also revealed a Mycenaean palatial structure with fine white-stuccoed floors and frescoed walls preserved over 1 m high, recalling the palace of King Pelias, who sent Jason on the quest for the Golden Fleece. The building was constructed in ...

Article

Michael D. Willis

In 

Article

Lyvia Morgan

In 

Article

Article

D. Evely

In 

Article

J. Lesley Fitton, Keith Branigan, C. D. Fortenberry, Philip Betancourt, Lyvia Morgan, D. Evely, Margaret A. V. Gill, Reynold Higgins, P. M. Warren and Susan Sherratt

In 

Article

S. L. Petrakis

[Nestora]

Site in Triphylia, south-western Greece, which flourished in Late Helladic (lh) i and ii (c. 1600–c. 1390 bc). Excavated by Wilhelm Dörpfeld in 1906, it is chiefly significant for the discovery there of pottery, and ornaments made from exotic materials, related to Minoan works of the same period. These objects are now in the Museum of Pylos and the National Archaeological Museum at Athens. On a small acropolis Dörpfeld uncovered stretches of a possible circuit wall built of large stones, and the remains of a building complex containing storage rooms and a courtyard, which he identified as a small palace. A considerable ‘lower town’ of the same period was also found in 1961, extending down the slopes. On a nearby ridge are three plundered tholos tombs, from which Dörpfeld salvaged fragmentary weapons, ornaments of bone, ivory and gold, and jewellery of Baltic amber, gold, glass and iron. A series of locally made jars of the ‘Palatial’ class, finely decorated with floral and marine subjects of Minoan derivation (...

Article

Kalydon  

R. A. Tomlinson

[Calydon]

Site of ancient Greek city in Aitolia on the northern side of the Corinthian Gulf, situated on two hills overlooking the plain of the River Euenos. It flourished from the Late Bronze Age until 30 bc, when its inhabitants were transferred to Nikopolis. It featured in Greek mythology as the home of Oineus and his sons Tydeus and Meleager and as the location of the Kalydonian boar-hunt, while the more northerly of its two hills was a Mycenaean acropolis and bears traces of possible Late Bronze Age fortifications. The area has also produced Late Bronze Age pottery, and Dark Age (12th century bc) pottery, including Protogeometric work (c. 1050–c. 900 bc), occurs in its tombs. Although Kalydon’s site was strategically important and Strabo (Geography X.ii.3) called it an ornament to Greece, it had little impact on Greek history. The Classical city remains unexcavated, although traces of its fortifications survive, extending for some 4 km. Only a section in the south-west has been published on a contoured plan, along with details of the west gate. The wall forms a series of jogs rather than a continuous straight line, and has square towers, suggesting an early Hellenistic date....

Article

Kamares  

D. Evely

Minoan sacred cave in central Crete, which flourished c. 2050–c. 1650 bc. Situated at the west end of the Mesara Plain, beneath the eastern summit of a twin-peaked mountain on the south flank of the Ida massif, around 1700 m above sea-level, the Kamares cave is impressive and remote, and the vast arch of its entrance is visible even from the plain, especially against the snows of winter. It was explored by Antonio Taramelli in 1904 and more extensively by Richard MacGillivray Dawkins in 1913.

The cave descends quite steeply for some 100 m, forming two main chambers; some built walls may have supported terraces. No clear focus of worship has been detected: the finds seem scattered without pattern. The earliest material found is Final Neolithic (c. 4000–c. 3500/3000 bc), although whether this represents habitation or is the result of some religious impulse is undetermined; the same may be true for the scanty Pre-Palatial ...