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Gordon Campbell

Modern term for a type of 18th-century American mirror, sometimes given as a courting gift and often hung in hallways for last-minute grooming; early examples were imported (sometimes from the Netherlands), but thereafter most were made in New England. The frame typically consisted of painted glass strips, often in a metal moulding; some were surmounted with a crested area containing a picture....

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Alsace, March 16, 1828; d White Mills, PA, 1915).

American glass manufacturer of French birth. He was apprenticed to his uncle at the age of ten to learn glassmaking at the Compagnie des Verreries et Cristalleries de St Louis in eastern France and in 1846 moved to the USA with his family. He first worked in a small glasshouse in Philadelphia. Between 1852 and 1860 Dorflinger built three glasshouses in Brooklyn, NY, each larger than the one before, for the manufacture of lamps, of glass tubes for table lamps and later of blanks for other factories. In his third factory, the Greenpoint Glass Works, he produced blown, cut and engraved tableware of such superior quality that in 1861 it was chosen for use in the White House, Washington, DC, by Mrs Mary Todd Lincoln (1818–82).

In 1863 Dorflinger moved to a farm in White Mills, PA, where in 1865 he built a small glasshouse. Experienced glass workers from Greenpoint taught local farm boys their craft, and French glass artists from St Louis were invited to work there. About ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Ehden, Lebanon, Sept 14, 1912; d 1994).

American painter and stained-glass artist, of Lebanese birth. After an apprenticeship with the Lebanese painter Habib Srour (1860–1938) in Beirut, he studied from 1932 to 1936 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. In 1934 he received the top award for drawing at the school and later exhibited his work at the Salon des Artistes Français. After graduating in 1936, he returned to Lebanon, opening a studio in Beirut, and becoming well known in the early 1940s for his frescoes in the Maronite church at Diman. At the same time his paintings of Lebanese life and the countryside came to public notice when he exhibited at the gallery of the Hotel St–Georges, Beirut, though by the late 1940s he had begun to simplify the style of his work. In 1950 he moved to New York, where his paintings became increasingly abstract, consisting of flat forms of brilliant colour with hard straight edges. Although he was influenced by the artistic life around him, and by his acquaintance with Rothko, Hans Hofmann and Ad Reinhardt, he did not join any group or movement. He became an American citizen in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American glasshouse established in Philadelphia in 1773 as the Kensington Glassworks; in 1831 the company was acquired by Dr T. W. Dyott and was thereafter known as the Dyottville Glass Works. The factory produced flint-glass table ware and a variety of bottles (notably cylindrical whiskey bottles in the third quarter of the 19th century); it specialized in pictorial flasks, some with historical themes. Dyott withdrew from the company on being declared bankrupt in 1838, but the firm continued to produce glass (including coloured glass from the 1840s) until the end of the century.

T. W. Dyott, J. Sergeant and M. Carey: An exposition of the system of moral and mental labor: Established at the glass factory of Dyottville, in the county of Philadelphia: Embracing a description of the glass factory, together with the system of industry therein pursued, with the report of the committee chosen to investigate the internal regulations of the place...

Article

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...

Article

Robert M. Craig

[New Formalism]

Architectural movement of the 1950s and 1960s. New Formalism was a reaction to the so-called “Miesian” aesthetic of corporate America during the 1950s; the architecture of the glass curtain wall. Rejecting the modernist generation’s abstract functionalist design based on volume and surface skin, Formalist architects instead sought a more articulate, representational, and expressive language of architecture. They reshaped building elements, both structural and formal, and reintroduced historic references and styles to the design of buildings. When fashionably adorned with a “new ornamentalism,” the more stylized Formalist buildings became Mannerist in expression.

In 1961, Nikolaus Pevsner recognized a “return to historicism” in architecture, which demonstrated that even pioneer modernists had become sources for revivalist interest and architectural form-making by the third quarter of the 20th century. Stimulated by New Formalism, a younger generation soon brought forth a “post-modern” language of design, sometimes disturbingly artificial and weak, sometimes “complex and contradictory,” but always seeking to be newly validated by history. Its best expressions constituted a “new classicism”; its worst evidenced by what Charles Jencks described as the “carnivalesque” in architecture....

Article

(b Geneva, Jan 29, 1761; d Astoria, NY, Aug 12, 1849).

American politician and glassmaker of Swiss birth. Gallatin is best known for his public roles as Secretary of the Treasury under President Jefferson and President Madison, but he was also an important glass manufacturer. He moved to America in 1780, and in 1797 founded the New Geneva Glassworks in Western Pennsylvania. The factory began production in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American glasshouse founded in Philadelphia in 1861 by William Gillinder, an English glassworker who had moved to America in 1854. For the first few years it was called Franklin Flint Works, and manufactured glass chimneys and glassware. When William’s sons, James and Frederic, joined the company in 1867, the name was changed to Gillinder & Sons and the product range expanded. In 1876 the company built and operated a complete glass factory on the Centennial International Exhibition in Philadelphia, making and selling popular pressed souvenir pieces as well as cut and engraved glass. The attention that Gillinder's displays of cut glass attracted at the exhibition led to a boom in the cut-glass industry. In 1912 the brothers William and James Gillinder bought the Bronx and Ryal glasshouse in Port Jervis, NY, and operated there as the Gillinder Brothers. The Philadelpha glasshouse closed in the 1930s, but the Port Jervis factory continues to produce fine glass....

Article

Gordon Campbell

American glasshouse established in 1885 in Meriden, CT by Philip Handel (1866–1914); in 1900 a second factory was opened in New York City. The company was best-known for its Art Nouveau shades for gas and electric lamps; some shades were leaded and some reverse-painted with plants, animals and landscapes. In ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass manufactory. In 1845 the firm of Barnes, Hobbs & Co. was established in Wheeling, WV, by John L. Hobbs (1804–81) and James B. Barnes (d 1849), who had both worked for the New England Glass Co. In 1863 the firm became Hobbs, Brockunier & Co., and comprised Hobbs, his son John H. Hobbs, company bookkeeper Charles W. Brockunier and a silent partner, William Leighton sr (1808–91), son of Thomas H. Leighton (1786–1849) of the New England Glass Co. William Leighton was a scientist and superintendent of the firm, and his son William Leighton jr (1833–1911) succeeded him on his retirement in 1867.

By 1879 Hobbs, Brockunier & Co. was one of the largest glass factories in the USA and was making fine cut and engraved lead crystal, as well as an extensive range of pressed glass using the soda-lime formula developed by Leighton sr. This formula revolutionized pressed-glass making after ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Margaret Moore Booker

(b El Paso, TX, Jul 30, 1940; d Hondo, NM, Jun 13, 2006).

Hispanic American sculptor and printmaker. He specialized in larger-than-life, vibrantly colored, fiberglass, and epoxy sculptures that celebrate humanity and reflect his Mexican American heritage. He was also an accomplished printmaker (lithographs and etchings) and draftsman (colored-pencil drawings). As the “Godfather” of Chicano art, the artist of working-class people and mentor to numerous Hispanic artists, he played an important role in bringing Chicano sensibilities into mainstream art.

Born the son of an illegal immigrant, Jiménez grew up in El Paso, TX, where he learned to weld, wire, and airbrush in his father’s neon-sign shop. After receiving a BFA in 1964 at the University of Texas at Austin, and a brief stay in Mexico City, he moved to New York City where he worked with Seymour Lipton (1903–1986) and found success parodying 1960s American pop culture in his work.

In the early 1970s he returned to the Southwest (eventually dividing his time between El Paso and Hondo, NM), where he gained success and controversy as a sculptor of outdoor figures. Drawing inspiration from the social realist Mexican and Works Progress Administration (WPA) murals, he combined large scale, color, and pose to create a dramatic and heroic effect in his work. Like the New Mexican ...

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b New York, May 31, 1929; d Los Angeles, CA, Feb 5, 1999).

American painter. Krushenick studied at the Art Students League, New York (1948–50), and Hans Hoffman School, New York, and organized window displays at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1951–7), before running an art gallery (1958–62). He experimented with various styles as a student, from Expressionist and Picasso-esque abstraction to figuration, but he began to be recognized in the early 1960s for comical, hard-edged abstraction, executed in vivid acrylics. These were clearly influenced by Matisse’s cut paper collages of the 1950s, but Krushenick’s interest in Abstract Expressionism also led him to suggest the extension of his forms beyond the edges of the canvas. Typically, his pictures of this period included weaving motifs reminiscent of netting; these were boldly defined by thick black lines that divided the pictures into animated shapes filled with areas of syncopated primary colour. Untitled (1962; see 1972 exh. cat., p. 33) is typical in its combination of webbing with a looping line. Toward the end of the 1960s he began to experiment with shaped canvases: ...

Article

Henry Adams

(b New York, March 31, 1835; d Newport, RI, Nov 14, 1910).

American painter, decorative artist, and writer. He grew up in New York in a prosperous and cultivated French-speaking household. He received his first artistic training at the age of six from his maternal grandfather, an amateur architect and miniature painter. While at Columbia Grammar School, he learnt English watercolour techniques and afterwards studied briefly with George Inness’s teacher, the landscape painter Régis-François Gignoux. In 1856, while touring Europe, he spent a few weeks in Thomas Couture’s studio. Returning to New York via England, he was impressed by the Pre-Raphaelite paintings at the Manchester Art Treasures exhibition of 1857 and later said that they had influenced him when he began to paint. In 1859 he decided to devote himself to art and moved to Newport, RI, to study with William Morris Hunt.

Unlike Hunt, who never broke away from the manner of Couture and Jean-François Millet, La Farge rapidly evolved a highly original and personal style characterized by free brushwork, unusual colour harmonies, and great delicacy of feeling (...

Article

Gordon Campbell and Jane Shadel Spillman

(b 1910; (d 1987).

American glassmaker. He worked in the glass industry, where he invented the fibre used for the insulating tiles that cover the Columbia space shuttle. In 1965 he left the industry and established a studio in Grand Rapids, OH, where he made blown-glass pieces, many of them with extraordinary colour effects made possible by his knowledge of glass chemistry. He was, together with ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Pressed glass made in the USA (mostly by Bakewell & Co. and Boston & Sandwich Glass Co.) from c. 1825 to c. 1845; it is a thick glass decorated with relief patterns on the surface.

L. W. Neal and D. B. Neal: Pressed Glass Salt Dishes of the Lacy Period, 1825–1850...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Yves Lacasse

(b Quebec City, March 10, 1795; d Quebec City, June 21, 1855).

Canadian painter, collector and politician. After studying briefly at the Quebec Seminary, in 1812 he was apprenticed to the painter and glassmaker Moses Perce (fl 1806–48). The sale in Quebec City in 1817 of part of the collection of Louis-Joseph Desjardins (1766–1848), which comprised altogether about 200 European Old Master paintings, had a decisive effect on Légaré’s career. He bought a number, which he cleaned and restored himself, and, as an almost entirely self-taught artist, found them a valuable source of inspiration, technical example and income: many of his early commissions were for large copies of religious pictures from the collection. He painted about 100 religious works but in 1828 won an honorary medal for an original secular composition, the Massacre of the Hurons by the Iroquois (Quebec, Mus. Qué.)

Légaré’s oeuvre (over 250 oils on canvas and on paper) was considerably more diverse and ambitious in subject-matter than that of such contemporaries as Jean-Baptiste Roy-Audy, Antoine Plamondon and Théophile Hamel, who favoured portraiture and religious painting. He was the first Canadian-born painter to specialize in landscapes, for example ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass factory founded by William L. Libbey (1827–83), who had owned the New England Glass Co. in Cambridge, MA, since 1872. In 1888 his son Edward Drummond Libbey (1854–1925) decided to close the factory during a long strike and to take advantage of the natural gas available in the Midwest. When the firm again made glass in 1888, it was as the W. L. Libbey & Son Co. of Toledo, OH; in 1892 it became the Libbey Glass Co. The success of the Libbey Glass Co. enabled Edward Drummond Libbey to help found the Toledo Museum of Art, OH, in 1901 and to bequeath to it his collection of European paintings, supplemented by a trust provided by his estate.

Many fashionable cut-glass patterns were produced at Libbey during the so-called ‘Brilliant period’ between 1880 and 1915, and Libbey produced some magnificent exhibition pieces, including a cut-glass table 813 mm high and a cut-glass floor lamp nearly 1.5 m high. The firm’s major product was a more popular line of goods made from blanks; these had previously been pressed in a metal mould in the pattern to be cut, thus avoiding the expense of mould-blowing blanks and marking them for cutting. As one of the most important American cut-glass factories at the time, the firm erected a large crystal palace for the ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Corning, NY, June 14, 1922; d Spruce Pine, NC, Dec 13, 2013).

American glassmaker, potter and teacher. He was introduced to glass science and technology by his father, Jesse Littleton, director of research for the Corning Glass Works, and had an academic art education under the sculptor Enfred Anderson at the Corning Free Academy. He studied industrial design at the University of Michigan (1947) and then sculpture and ceramics at the Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI. During summer vacations he worked at Corning. Despite some early experiments in glass casting from ceramic models, Littleton worked primarily in ceramics from 1946 until the late 1950s, when he gradually realized that glassblowing could be carried out in small art studios and did not need to be confined to factory production. In 1962 in his workshop at the Toledo Museum of Art, OH, he demonstrated this idea to young artists with Dominick Labino (1910–87). He thus provided the foundation for forming studio glass courses in American universities; the first was set up in ...