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Article

Werner Szambien

(b Paris, Sept 18, 1760; d Thiais, Dec 31, 1834).

French architect, teacher and writer. He was one of the most influential teachers of his time, and his radically rationalist approach, which emphasized priority of function and economy of means, was expressed in analytical writings that remained popular into the 20th century. He studied under Pierre Panseron (fl 1736) and from 1776 in the office of Etienne-Louis Boullée. He also took courses with Julien-David Le Roy at the Académie d’Architecture and participated in competitions under the guidance of Jean-Rodolphe Perronet. He twice came second in the Prix de Rome: in 1779 for a museum and in 1780 for a school. During the 1780s he worked as a draughtsman for Boullée and for the engraver Jean-François Janinet. In 1788 construction began in the Rue du Faubourg-Poissonnière, Paris, of his Maison Lathuille, a building with Néo-Grec decoration but with a layout characterized by its extreme simplicity. About 1790 he executed a series of drawings entitled ...

Article

Gilbert Herbert

(Adolf Georg)

(b Berlin, May 18, 1883; d Boston, MA, July 5, 1969).

American architect, industrial designer and teacher of German birth. He was one of the most influential figures in the development of the Modern Movement, whose contribution lay as much in his work as theoretician and teacher as it did in his innovative architecture. The important buildings and projects in Gropius’s career—the early factories, the Bauhaus complex at Dessau (1925–6), the Totaltheater project for Berlin, the housing estates and prefabricated dwellings—were all more than immediate answers to specific problems. Rather, they were a series of researches in which he sought prototypical solutions that would offer universal applicability. They were also didactic in purpose—concrete demonstrations, manifestos, of his theories and beliefs. His theories sought to integrate the individual and society, art and industry, form and function and the part with the whole. He left Germany for England in 1934; three years later he emigrated to the USA, where he continued to teach, write and design for the rest of his life....

Article

Jean-Paul Midant

(b Paris, Dec 25, 1834; d Paris, May 17, 1908).

French architect and teacher. He was an outstanding student for 11 years at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1853–64), where he was taught by Henri Labrouste and Jules André (1819–90). While there he amassed awards and in 1864 won the Grand-Prix de Rome with a project for a hospice in the Alps. The previous year he had found himself at the head of the huge majority of students at the school who opposed the attempt at reform made by Napoleon III’s government. In 1871 he began teaching architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and from 1894 until his death he taught theory there. Although he agreed with Viollet-le-Duc on the principles of a reasoned and analytical study of architecture, Guadet’s vision of architectural education was founded on the relationship of mutual trust between master and pupil within an independent study-group. He believed that ‘in all things the first studies must be classical’ and rejected the idea that the teaching of aesthetics should be obligatory and founded exclusively on the study of medieval architecture. He was also opposed to the exercises in restoration that were imposed on the ...

Article

Luc Verpoest

[Georges]

(b Ghent, Aug 31, 1852; d Leuven, Feb 22, 1925).

Belgian architect and politician. In 1873 he obtained his diploma in civil engineering at the Ecole Spéciale de Génie Civil of the State University of Ghent. In 1874 he was appointed assistant professor and from 1878 to 1907 was full professor at the Catholic University of Leuven (Ecoles Spéciales de Génie Civil, des Arts et des Manufactures et des Mines), where he developed a training programme in architectural engineering. While a student he met Louis Cloquet and was influenced by the Belgian Gothic Revival movement, which was founded by Jean-Baptiste Bethune, also the founder (in 1862) of the St Luke School, Ghent. Helleputte’s architecture is similar to that of the first generation of St Luke architects in its almost undecorated and rather stern style. Its formal characteristics, modelled on the local Late Gothic style and traditional brick and limestone architecture, are strictly determined by constructional and functional needs. His most important works were built in Leuven for the Catholic University: the Anatomy Theatre (...

Article

Mónica Martí Cotarelo

(b Alava, Spain, 1810; d Mexico City, 1872).

Spanish architect, painter and teacher, active in Mexico. He graduated as an architect from the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, but also worked in painting, sculpture and pastel miniatures. In 1836 he worked in Paris under Henri Labrouste, and in 1838 he went to Mexico City, where he opened a school of drawing. As one of the outstanding architects in Mexico at the time, he was made an académico de mérito of the Academia de S Carlos and its director of architecture. His chief work was the Teatro de Santa Anna (1842–4; later Teatro Nacional; destr. 1901), Mexico City, a Neo-classical building that was for a long time the most costly in the city. The principal façade had a portico with four large Corinthian columns rising through two storeys. He also rebuilt the dome (1845–8) of the side chapel of the church of S Teresa la Antigua, Mexico City. His solution was a Neo-classical dome supported by a double drum, producing interesting light effects in the interior. The windows of the upper drum, concealed by an incomplete vault rising from the lower one, illuminate paintings around the bottom of the dome. Few of his other works have survived....

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. 2 Aug. 1941, Damgarten, Germany).

British historian of Islamic art and architecture. Hillenbrand was educated at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, earning his D.Phil. in 1974. Three years earlier he had begun teaching in the Department of Fine Art in the University of Edinburgh, where he occupied the position formerly held by D. T. Rice. He remained there throughout his career, being awarded a chair in 1989. He trained several generations of younger scholars from Europe, the USA and the Middle East. His home in Edinburgh was where he and his wife Carole, a noted historian, entertained scholars in diverse fields of Islamic studies. Holder of visiting professorships at several universities in Europe and the United States, he delivered the 1993 Kevorkian Lectures at New York University. One of the most versatile and eloquent scholars of his generation, his interests focused on Islamic architecture, painting and iconography, with particular reference to Iran and early Islamic Syria....

Article

Michael Spens

(b Fulpmes, Tyrol, March 27, 1886: d Salzburg, June 12, 1983).

Austrian teacher and architect. He was educated at the Technische Hochschule, Vienna, where he was made professor in 1919 at the early age of 32. Although he entered architectural practice in 1914, his reputation rests largely on an influential teaching career. After a period as professor at the Staatsgewerbeschule, Innsbruck, in 1924 he returned to Vienna, becoming professor and head of the master class in architecture at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. He held the professorship at the Kunstakademie, Düsseldorf, from 1928 to 1932, while retaining the Viennese post until he was forced to leave Austria in 1938. In 1940–49 he was a professor of architecture at the Technical School in Istanbul, Turkey, and resumed his professorial post at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, in 1954. The core of his teaching method derived from the master class system, which he pursued in each post he occupied. This was particularly effective at Vienna in the 1950s. His romantic–historical approach, involving emphasis on the geographical and historical context and allowing a degree of irrationality and sensuality in his students’ work, helped to lay the foundations for Austrian architecture in the 1970s and 1980s, when a new era of experimentation and innovation emerged....

Article

Wanda Kemp-Welch

(b Dorpat, Russia [now Tartu, Estonia], April 21, 1908; d Warsaw, Aug 25, 1988).

Polish architect, designer and teacher. He graduated in architecture from Warsaw Technical University (1936) and then received a scholarship to study in Italy. His work in the 1930s included the design of posters in the style of Tadeusz Gronowski (b 1894); he also designed two tourist hostels (1933–5; with Tadeusz Sieczkowski), in Czarnohora, Ukraine, and he won first prize in a competition (1935; with others) for the development of Pole Mokotowskie, the southern quarter of Warsaw, which was not executed. Other work included interior and exhibition design, for example the interior of the Polish pavilion (1939) at the World’s Fair, New York. In 1938 he began a long teaching career at Warsaw Technical University; he first taught architectural design under Rudolf Świerczyński and after 1945 he taught architectural history and industrial design there. In 1945 he also became Director of the urban planning studio at BOS, the Office for the Reconstruction of the Capital. One of his major works was the design (...

Article

Inkhuk  

John E. Bowlt

[Institut Khudozhestvennoy Kultury; Rus.: ‘Institute of Artistic Culture’]

Soviet institute for research in the arts that flourished from 1920 to 1926. Inkhuk was a dominant force in the development of Soviet art, architecture and design in the 1920s. Founded in Moscow in May 1920, with affiliations in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) and Vitebsk, it attracted many members of the avant-garde, especially Lyubov’ Popova and Aleksandr Rodchenko; its key administrative positions were occupied by Vasily Kandinsky (Moscow), Vladimir Tatlin (Petrograd) and Kazimir Malevich (Vitebsk). At one time Inkhuk maintained contact with Berlin (through El Lissitzky and the journal Veshch’/Gegenstand/Objet), the Netherlands, Hungary and Japan, although it never really had the chance to develop these international connections. One of the principal aims of Inkhuk was to reduce the modern movements such as Suprematism and Tatlin’s concept of the ‘culture of materials’ (see Tatlin, Vladimir) to a scientifically based programme that could be used for educational and research purposes—a development analogous to the initial endeavours of the Russian Formalist school of literary criticism, which attempted to analyse literature in terms of formal structures. In its aspiration to elaborate a rational basis for artistic practice, Inkhuk encouraged discussions on specific issues of artistic content and form, such as the debate on ‘composition versus construction’ in ...

Article

Edward McParland

(b ?Cork, c. 1732; d Dublin, Dec 1786).

Irish architect. He was, with Thomas Cooley, the most prominent architect in Dublin in the 1770s. His importance possibly derived less from his buildings than from his post as master of the Dublin Society’s School of Architectural Drawing, where from the early 1760s to his death he instructed many craftsmen and designers in architectural drawing and the rudiments of classical composition.

Ivory’s most important buildings are Kilcarty (c. 1770–80), Co. Meath, and the Bluecoat School (King’s Hospital; begun 1773) and Newcomen’s Bank (c. 1781), both in Dublin. His partly executed designs for the Bluecoat School in the British Library are among the most beautiful Irish architectural drawings of the 18th century. They reveal Ivory’s conservative, even old-fashioned approach, for here, as late as 1773, he proposed a Palladian composition enlivened with Baroque flourishes.

Never reluctant to repeat his designs, Ivory used the same basic layout in the Bluecoat drawings and at Kilcarty, a sophisticated and subtle farmhouse that he self-consciously refused to turn into a villa. The Bluecoat elevations reappear in flawless Neo-classical guise in Newcomen’s Bank, described by Maurice Craig as ‘the only building in Dublin which looks as though it might have been designed by one of the Adams’. Ivory was no innovator but a sensitive exponent of conservative taste. In the 1770s he was upstaged by Thomas Cooley and eclipsed after ...

Article

Alexander Koutamanis

(b Thessaloniki, 1811; d Athens, Oct 5, 1886).

Greek architect and teacher. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Rome (1826–36), and in 1833 he was awarded the first prize in the architectural competition for the design of the Università di Milano. In 1838, after two years in France, he returned to Greece to live in Athens. He exhibited his designs and projects there, among them the monument to the Heroes of the War of Independence of 1821 (unexecuted), for which he had won an award at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. After a period in Turkey (1839–43), he was appointed Director of the Royal School of Fine Arts in Athens in 1844 (later the National Technical University). He was promoted by the wealthiest and most influential of the Greek bourgeoisie, the expatriate merchants who financed most public projects. He contributed enormously to the development of the University and the establishment of Neo-classicism in Greece, both as an ideology and as a viable form of architecture. The austerity and rigour of the Greek version of Neo-classicism corresponded well with his attachment to the classical canon, which he used effectively to create an urban morphology of rhythmical volumes and regulatory grids, an orderly environment that would represent the freedom and progress of modern Greece....

Article

A. Krista Sykes

(b Istanbul, Turkey, May 7, 1936; d Berkeley, CA, Dec 7, 1991).

American architectural historian and professor of Turkish birth. Kostof attended Robert College in Istanbul, an American-sponsored university preparatory school. In 1957 he arrived in the USA to study drama at Yale University, yet he switched to art history, studying under noted historian Vincent Scully and earning his doctorate in 1961. After teaching art history at Yale for four years, Kostof moved west in 1965 to the College of Environmental Design at the University of California Berkeley’s Department of Architecture. While he acted as a visiting professor in various places—including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1970), Columbia University (1976) and Rice University (1986–7)—he served as a professor at Berkeley until his untimely death from lymphoma in 1991.

Known as a dynamic and engaging professor, Kostof for decades had taught “A Historical Survey of Architecture and Urbanism,” a course that laid the foundation for his most well-known text, ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Paris, 1926).

Turkish historian of Islamic architecture. He studied in the faculty of architecture at Istanbul Technical University under Emin Onat, receiving his degree in 1949 for a study of Turkish Baroque architecture. He spent 1954–5 in Italy investigating Renaissance architecture, and 1962–3 in the USA on a Fulbright Fellowship. The following year he was a fellow at Harvard University’s Center for Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, DC, where he studied Byzantine architecture in Anatolia, and for the next decade he was involved in the study and restoration of the Byzantine church known as Kalenderhane Cami in Istanbul. He taught architectural history and restoration at Istanbul Technical University from 1958 until his retirement in 1993 and was dean of the architecture faculty from 1974 to 1977. From 1978 to 1983 he served on the first Aga Khan Award for Architecture, and in 1980–81 he was Aga Khan Professor of Islamic Architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His voluminous scholarship combines a thorough knowledge of European architectural history and theory with a close and intimate reading of Turkish and Islamic buildings and their structure....

Article

Godfrey Rubens

(b Barnstaple, Jan 18, 1857; d London, July 17, 1931).

English architect, writer and designer. The son of a gilder who was a radical and lay preacher, in 1871 he was apprenticed to a local architect and painter, Alexander Lauder, who gave him a thorough training in the building crafts. In 1879 he was appointed chief clerk to Richard Norman Shaw, whose influence was already evident in Lethaby’s architectural drawings. He remained in this post for the next twelve years (the last two part-time), during which he became increasingly responsible for detailing Shaw’s work, and in doing so made an important contribution to his style (e.g. a chimney-piece of 1883 for Cragside, Rothbury, Northumb.). Lethaby’s independent design work up to the mid-1880s was in the Anglo-Dutch style of the 17th century, as for example in his unexecuted design for a silverware salad bowl, illustrated in The Architect (30 June 1883). About 1885 he began investigating the ways in which beliefs concerning the nature of the cosmos had influenced the forms of ancient architecture. This research resulted in a number of designs with complex and often esoteric iconography, such as his stained-glass window depicting the ...

Article

Library  

Virginia M. Kerr, Colum Hourihane and Godfrey Thompson

Building for storage of and access to texts. Over time the format of texts has changed, from papyrus rolls and cuneiform tablets, to codices, to printed books, to microforms, and the technology of storage and the notion of ‘access’ have also changed significantly. Library buildings in turn have evolved.

Libraries have often hosted other activities, including lectures and the display of art and artefacts. These roles extend back to the Hellenistic period (323–31 bc), were revived in the Renaissance and Baroque libraries of Europe, and have found new emphasis in the 20th century.

Libraries also have performed important symbolic roles: they preserve knowledge, inspire scholars, and measure cultural achievement for institutions or entire nations; they also provide an opportunity for enlightened patronage. These symbolic functions have been expressed in various furnishings: for example, gates and chains protect medieval bookcases; allegorical motifs or emblems serve to glorify the arts and sciences; authors’ portraits may inspire readers; and donors’ portraits immortalize their dedication to literature....

Article

Benjamin Flowers

[Thom]

(b Waterbury, CT, Jan 19, 1944).

American architect and educator. Mayne trained at the University of Southern California (BA 1968) and Harvard (MArch 1978) and his work is influenced by the twin traditions of Russian Constructivism and Postmodern deconstruction. Many of his buildings grapple with both questions of form (in particular its relation to program) and the shifting nature of materials. He, along with Frank O(wen) Gehry, is among the best known of a generation of West Coast architects to emerge from the turbulent social and cultural milieu of the late 1960s and early 1970s.

As a young boy Mayne moved with his mother to Whittier, CA, where he was, by his own account, something of a loner and a misfit. Mayne matriculated at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, but soon transferred to the University of Southern California whose faculty at the time included Craig Ellwood, Gregory Ain and Ralph Knowles. After completing his bachelor of architecture in ...

Article

Yuka Kadoi

(b. Vienna, 6 Nov. 1941; d. Berlin, 10 Jan. 1995).

German art historian, archaeologist and museum curator of Islamic art. Meinecke already developed an interest in Islamic art and architecture during his stay in Istanbul at an early age. He read art history, archaeology and Islamic studies in Vienna and Hamburg and completed his dissertation on the ceramic architectural decoration of Saljuq monuments in Anatolia in 1968. A year later he joined the German Archaeological Institute in Cairo, where he undertook an architectural survey of historical buildings in the old city. His magna opus on the study of Mamluk architecture, which was accepted as Habilitationschrift by the University of Hamburg in 1978 and published in 1992, remains a standard in the field of Islamic architectural studies. After a short teaching period at the University of Hamburg between 1977 and 1980, he returned to the Middle East and became involved in the foundation of the German Archaeological Institute in Damascus. He left Syria in ...

Article

Anna Rowland

(b Basle, Nov 18, 1889; d Savosa, Ticino, July 19, 1954).

Swiss architect, theorist and designer. He was born into a family of architects and studied building at the Gewerbeschule, Basle (1905–9). In Berlin he continued his training at the Kunstgewerbeschule and attended classes in urban planning at the Landwirtschafts-Akademie (1909–12). He became increasingly concerned about housing conditions in the modern industrial city and developed a strong interest in urban planning and land reform. In 1912 he went to England where he studied the Co-operative movement and the garden cities of Letchworth, Bourneville and Port Sunlight for a year. After two years’ military service in Switzerland (1914–16), he worked for Krupps Housing Welfare Office and became increasingly interested in using standardized components in the construction of housing estates. In 1919 he set up his own practice in Basle, where he designed and supervised the foundation of the Siedlung Freidorf (Freihof) (1919–24) at Muttenz, near Basle, the first full-scale cooperative housing estate in Switzerland. The client (Verband Schweizerische Konsumvereine) rejected the Constructivist approach that Meyer favoured, so he developed a style based on local Jura building types. In ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

(b Doetinchem, bapt Nov 16, 1738; d Osterholt, nr Kampen, bur Jan 11, 1796).

Dutch architect, teacher, stuccoist and sculptor. He moved to Amsterdam at a young age, possibly with the help of his uncles Hans Jacob Husly and Hendrik Husly (both fl c. 1730–70), who were stuccoists in that city, and he probably trained as a stuccoist in their studio. In 1758 he co-founded an art appreciation society and in 1765 the Amsterdam Academy of Drawing, which, in the absence of an academy of fine art in the city, played an important educational role during the Neo-classical period. He was a director of the academy, where he presented lectures, for example on the use of architecture in painting, which were later printed. He also taught architecture and organized the library. He probably travelled to Paris in 1768, where he is thought to have familiarized himself with contemporary French ideas on architecture. One of his earliest works is the Town Hall (1772...