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Thomas Martin

(b Padua, c. 1559; d Pisa, between 27 July and Nov 3, 1606).

Italian sculptor . After Girolamo Campagna, he was the leading sculptor in Venice at the end of the 16th century and was particularly gifted in working bronze.

Aspetti came from an artistic family: his grandfather Guido Minio (fl 1511–16), called Lazzaro, was a founder, while his uncle Tiziano Minio was a stuccoist and sculptor. Aspetti probably received his earliest training in the family workshop and may also have collaborated with Campagna. Doubtless through family connections, in 1577 in Venice Aspetti entered the service of Giovanni Grimani, Patriarch of Aquileia. Grimani was a distinguished patron of contemporary art, and his palazzo housed the finest and most extensive collection of antiquities outside Rome. Aspetti worked for the Patriarch for 16 years and hence, unlike any other Venetian artist of his day, began his career as a kind of court artist serving one particular patron. The Grimani were partisans of central Italian Mannerist art, and the family palazzo at S Maria Formosa in Venice contained stuccos and frescoes by Giovanni da Udine, Federico Zuccaro and Francesco Salviati. Because of its collection of antiquities, the palazzo was one of the principal sights for any 16th-century tourist; Aspetti was the house sculptor and restorer of the collection (a project in ...


Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff


(b Brussels, c. ?1570–80).

Flemish goldsmith, draughtsman, sculptor, copper engraver and embosser, active in Germany . As a skilled goldsmith from Brussels, he is documented at Augsburg between 1598 and 1604, and from 1603 as a tax-paying citizen; before this he was probably living in Friedberg nearby. After he is recorded as paying taxes three years in advance, traces of Aspruck fade away in 1604. Since he was not accepted as a master craftsman by the Augsburg goldsmiths’ trade, he worked with them as a ‘free artist’. His skills included draughtsmanship, modelling and casting as well as copper engraving, which he also taught to goldsmith apprentices and journeymen. Aspruck’s drawings from 1597 to 1601 show an individual style influenced by Hendrick Goltzius and Bartholomäus Spranger, for example Venus and Amor (1598; Hamburg, Ksthalle). He also sketched for other engravers, as is known, first of all, from the surviving publishing production of the Antwerp engraver Dominicus Custos in Augsburg. In ...


Isabel Mateo Gómez

(b ?Toledo; d 1595).

Spanish painter, miniaturist, sculptor, architect and writer. He belongs to the Toledan school of the second half of the 16th century. The son of the painter Lorenzo de Ávila, he developed a Mannerist style that is smooth and delicate and derives from his father’s and from that of Juan Correa de Vivar and of Francisco Comontes (d 1565). He worked as painter to Toledo Cathedral from 1565 to 1581 and was painter (Pintor del Rey) to Philip II from 1583. He acted frequently as a valuer for the work of other artists.

Between 1563 and 1564, in collaboration with Luis de Velasco, Hernando de Ávila painted the retable of the church of Miraflores (Madrid Province) with the Life of Christ and the Life of the Virgin (untraced); these are probably among his earliest works. He was commissioned to paint the retables of St John the Baptist and the ...


(b Cefalù, Sicily, c. 1572; d Naples, Dec 12, 1645).

Sicilian painter and sculptor. He was probably trained in Sicily, yet he is recorded in Naples from 1594, and his artistic roots are Neapolitan. The painting of the Presentation in the Temple (1599; Naples, S Maria la Nova) is his earliest datable work. It demonstrates that Azzolino was already aware of trends in late 16th-century Neapolitan painting and that he knew the art of Belisario Corenzio, Fabrizio Santafede and Luigi Rodriguez (fl 1594–1606). He took his lead at first from Corenzio and was, like him, an expert fresco painter. In 1599 Azzolino was commissioned to execute the decoration (untraced) for the church of the Spirito Santo, Naples. In the canvases and frescoes that he painted between 1606 and 1610 for the church of Gesù e Maria, Naples, and in the earlier Pentecost for the church of S Francesco at Caiazzo (in situ; his only signed work) it is possible to discern the influences of both Corenzio and Santafede. An awareness of the new clarity and naturalism of the Florentine reformers Lodovico Cigoli, Agostino Ciampelli and Domenico Passignano had spread in Naples through Santafede, whose role in the development of Azzolino’s style was fundamental. Both artists subsequently remained faithful to the devotional art of the Counter-Reformation, although they later demonstrated an awareness of the innovative work of Caravaggio. Azzolino countered both the excessive intellectual subtleties of Mannerism and the experimental naturalism of Caravaggio with serene and familiar renderings of sacred stories such as the ...


Bruno Tollon

(b Arras, 1500; d Toulouse, 1557).

French sculptor, mason and architect . He was the dominant sculptor and architect of 16th-century Toulouse and deserves to be placed after Pierre Lescot and Philibert de L’Orme (both primarily active in the Ile de France) among the creators of the French classical style in architecture. His training as a sculptor probably took place in Arras, then a Spanish province in direct contact with Italy, and he probably also studied in Italy before arriving in Toulouse c. 1532. The exceptional quality of his work won him an immediate admiration that lasted into posterity. His origins and training were rapidly surrounded with legends, repeated by Dupuy du Grès in his Traité de peinture (1699), in which Bachelier is described as a pupil of Michelangelo. In the 19th century all important Renaissance monuments between Pau and Cahors were unhesitatingly ascribed to him.

Bachelier’s first employment was as a sculptor, and such works as his carved stone retables and altars in the churches of Toulouse, including the cathedral of St Etienne (...


Philippe Rouillard

French family of sculptors. Jacques Bachot (fl 1493–1526), Marc Bachot (fl 1517–40) and Yvon Bachot (fl 1524–34) originated in Troyes, one of the main centres of sculptural production in France in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance (see Troyes, §2). Their precise relationships have not been established. Jacques Bachot seems to have been one of the last great Gothic sculptors of the Champagne region, to judge from the scale of his earnings and the extent of his activities, although none of his work is known to survive. He was in Troyes in 1493 as one of the sculptors of the Belle Croix (1484–97; destr. 1790s), a bronze monumental crucifix with numerous figures around the base. He is subsequently recorded as being in charge of the carving of marble and the erection of tombs ordered by Henri de Lorraine, Bishop of Metz, for St Laurent, Joinville (Haute-Marne). The chief parts of this ensemble, executed between ...


Marjorie Trusted

(b ?Palencia, 1488–93; d ?Palencia, after 1561).

Spanish sculptor. He is first recorded assisting Giralte de Bruselas (fl 1511–23) on the retable of the high altar of Oviedo Cathedral from 1516 to 1518 and is documented as carving one of the reliefs, the Incredulity of Thomas. In 1519 Balmaseda completed a Calvary group to surmount Felipe Vigarny’s retable in Palencia Cathedral. Late Gothic in style, the expressionistic figures are fine examples of the anti-classical tradition that continued late into the 16th century in Spanish sculpture. The angular folds of drapery and twisted locks of hair are characteristic of Balmaseda’s work. Connected to this group stylistically are a Crucifixion group completed for León Cathedral and a pair of figures of the Mater dolorosa and St John (Madrid, Mus. Lázaro Galdiano), for all of which no dates are known. In 1520 Balmaseda was in Burgos, where he was influenced by the work of Diego de Siloe, and where wooden reliefs on the doors of the Hospital del Rey have been attributed to him. Between about ...



Maria Teresa Fiorio

[Busti, Agostino]

(b ?Busto Arsizio, c. 1483; d Milan, June 11, 1548).

Italian sculptor. The earliest documentary information on the artist, an application by Agostino Busti and his brother Polidoro for employment as sculptors in the workshop of Milan Cathedral, dates from 1512, when he was about 30. The reply, though it refers to him as a master, shows that Agostino was not yet well known in Milan, for he was asked to produce a statue to show his skill. The application describes the brothers as ‘of Busto’, which suggests that they came from Busto Arsizio in Varese. According to Vasari, Agostino was known by the nickname Bambaia (under which name he generally appears in the literature). It is likely that Agostino began his training with Benedetto Briosco, as Vasari referred to his work for the Certoso di Pavia, where Briosco worked for years. Vasari also mentioned that he was ‘greatly helped’ by Bernardo Zenale.

The first work generally attributed to Bambaia is the funeral monument to the Milanese poet ...


Charles Avery

[Brandini, Bartolomeo]

(b Gaiole in Chianti, Oct 17, 1493; d Florence, Feb 7, 1560).

Italian sculptor, painter and draughtsman . He was the son of Michelagnolo di Viviano (1459–1528), a prominent Florentine goldsmith who was in the good graces of the Medici and who taught Cellini and Raffaello da Montelupo. Baccio remained loyal to the Medici, despite their being in exile from 1494 to 1513, and this led to a flow of commissions after the elections to the papacy of Leo X (Giovanni de’ Medici) in 1513 and of Clement VII (Giulio de’ Medici) a decade later; after Cosimo de’ Medici became Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1537, these increased still further. This political stance made him unpopular with most Florentines, including Michelangelo, who were Republican at heart, and this lay at the root of much of the adverse criticism—not always justified—that greeted Bandinelli’s statues.

Baccio seems to have had an ambitious and impatient temperament, which led to frequent changes of master and of direction when he was learning his art. Until ...


Corinne Mandel

(di Benedetto) [Giovanni dell’Opera]

(b Castello, 1540; bur Florence, April 18, 1599).

Italian sculptor . His apprenticeship in Baccio Bandinelli’s Florentine workshop probably began c. 1555. With his master’s death in 1560, he was asked to complete the choir-screen of Florence Cathedral, begun by Bandinelli in 1547; he executed the bas-reliefs on the western side of the screen, completed in 1572 (in situ). Also in 1572, he sculpted a portrait bust of Cosimo I de’ Medici, placed over the entrance to the Cathedral Works (Opera del Duomo), and began two column statues of Apostles for the cathedral: St James the Lesser (1576) and St Philip (1577), all in situ. From his many years of service to the Cathedral Works, Bandini came to be known as Giovanni dell’Opera. He achieved recognition early in his career. In 1563 he became a member of the newly established Accademia del Disegno in Florence and the following year was asked to create the personifications of ...


[Florentin, Dominique ; Riconucci, Domenico]

(b ?Florence, c. 1506; d Paris, 1565).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist, painter, engraver and mosaicist, active in France . He is mentioned for the first time between 1537 and 1540 in the accounts of the château of Fontainebleau, working on mosaics with Jean Picard (Jean Le Roux, fl mid-16th century). Barbiere rose to prominence rapidly in the team of artists assembled by Francesco Primaticcio on the royal works at the château and worked also at Troyes, where he lived for periods during his career. It is not clear, however, if he went to Troyes as a young man and established his profession there before going on to Fontainebleau with other sculptors from Troyes, such as the Julyot family (fl 16th century) and Nicolas Cordonnier, or whether he went initially to Fontainebleau in the footsteps of his fellow Florentines Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio and then went on to Troyes, a long-established centre of sculpture production, with craftsmen he had met at Fontainebleau (...


Robin A. Branstator

(b ?Florence; fl 1574–88).

Italian sculptor . Documents suggest that, although primarily a sculptor in bronze, he may also have executed works in stone, ivory and silver. A Tuscan, he worked in Rome for Cardinal Ferdinando de’ Medici (later Ferdinando I, Grand Duke of Tuscany): his identity is sometimes confused with the humanist scholar Pietro Angeli da Barga, who was also a member of the Cardinal’s court at approximately the same time. The Cardinal, an avid collector of antique works, employed Pietro da Barga to create small-scale bronze copies of sculptures unobtainable in the original. The Medici Inventario di guardaroba lists Barga’s sculptures for the years 1574–88. Many of these statuettes ornamented the Cardinal’s studiolo and door-lintels at the Villa Medici on the Pincio Hill. Barga maintained a workshop near the villa: a Maestro Bastiano Tragittore cast the bronzes from Barga’s models.

Among the works securely attributed to Barga are the reduced-size copies (Florence, Bargello) of the ...


Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina




(b ?Schwäbisch Gmünd, c. 1540; d Tübingen, March 1, 1604).

German sculptor. He was probably the brother of Veit Baumhauer who worked in Würzburg. Lienhardt worked in Tübingen with Jacob Woller (d 1564), who was probably also his teacher. The choir of the Stiftskirche of St Georg in Tübingen had in 1550 become the burial place of the ducal family of Württemberg. Baumhauer and Woller collaborated on a stone tomb there for Duke Christopher (d 1568), his wife Anna (d 1589) and Prince Eberhard (d 1568). Although the tomb bears Woller’s master’s symbol, most of the work was done by Baumhauer. Most of his work consisted of making tombs in stone, mainly in the form of wall monuments with statues. In 1561 he made a tomb for Ritter Jerg von Ehingen in the parish church in Kilchberg (nr Tübingen). The tomb of Hans Herter von Herteneck (d 1563) in the Stiftskirche of the Heilige Kreuz at Stuttgart has Baumhauer’s initials on it....


Werner Broda

(b ?Schwäbisch Gmünd; fl 1563; d before 1600).

German sculptor. He was probably the brother of Lienhardt Baumhauer. In 1563 he was accepted as a member of the Guild of St Luke in Würzburg. In 1571 he was commissioned by the guild’s senior council to prepare a model for sculptors’ masterpieces. The only definite source of information about his work concerns the building of the Rathaus in Schweinfurt: c. 1571 he made 22 figures (untraced) to be placed on the gables of the Rathaus. Most of the sculptures that are linked with Baumhauer are funerary monuments, mainly in stone. The tomb of Georg von Lichtstein and his Wife in the crypt of Würzburg Cathedral (1569) bears Baumhauer’s initials. The tomb of Barbara Betzold (d 1566) in the Marienkapelle at Würzburg, that of Ritter Mathes von Rotenham (d 1569) in the parish church at Ebern and the tombs of Friedrich von Wiesenthau and his Wife...


Anne Bergmans

(b Lorraine, c. 1500; d Elvillar de Alava, nr Vitoria, 1549).

South Netherlandish sculptor of Lorraine origin. Beaugrant was one of the first Renaissance sculptors in the southern Netherlands. He is frequently associated with Jean Mone of Metz. The two artists’ work exhibits considerable kinship, and the commissions that Beaugrant executed show that, like Mone, he enjoyed a high reputation. In 1526, while living in Mechelen, he carved, for St Jacob-op-de Coudenberg in Brussels, the marble mausoleum (destr. 1773) that had been commissioned by Margaret of Austria for her brother Francis, who had died young. The type and disposition of the mausoleum, known only from an 18th-century engraving, were wholly Late Gothic in character; the formal language in which the decorative details were executed was that of the Renaissance.

From 1529 to 1531 Guyot de Beaugrant worked in Bruges on the massive ornamental chimney-piece in honour of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, which covered a whole wall in the Schepenzaal (aldermen’s chamber) of the Bruges Vrije (...


Fiorella Sricchia Santoro

(di Giacomo di Pace)

(b Cortine in Valdibiana Montaperti, 1484; d Siena, between Jan and May 1551).

Italian painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker and illuminator. He was one of the protagonists, perhaps even the most precocious, of Tuscan Mannerism, which he practised with a strong sense of his Sienese artistic background but at the same time with an awareness of contemporary developments in Florence and Rome. He responded to the new demand for feeling and fantasy while retaining the formal language of the early 16th century. None of Beccafumi’s works is signed or dated, but his highly personal maniera has facilitated almost unanimous agreement regarding the definition of his corpus and the principal areas of influence on it. However, some questions concerning the circumstances of his early career and the choices available to him remain unanswered. The more extreme forms of Beccafumi’s reckless experimentation underwent a critical reappraisal only in the later 20th century.

The primary sources of information concerning Beccafumi are Vasari’s biography (1568) and archival findings, mostly 19th century, relating to the artist. Vasari, although a direct acquaintance of Beccafumi in his last years and in a position to gather information from mutual friends, was, predictably, unreliable in regard to his early career. According to Vasari, Mecherino, the son of a poor farmer named Giacomo di Pace, became the protégé of ...


J. J. Martín González

(b ?Baeza, c. 1520; d ?Madrid, Feb 1568).

Spanish painter and sculptor, also active in Italy. He was a major figure in Spanish art during the third quarter of the 16th century; he went to Italy around 1545 and, although there is no evidence that he collaborated with Michelangelo, he undoubtedly studied his works, and he was responsible for introducing into Spain Michelangelo’s painting style as seen in the Last Judgement (Rome, Vatican, Sistine Chapel) and in the Pauline Chapel in the Vatican Palace, Rome. There are two drawings by Becerra (Madrid, Bib. N. and Prado) of the Last Judgement executed between his marriage in Rome on 15 July 1556 and his return to Valladolid in 1558. According to Juan de Arfe, Becerra introduced to Spain ‘figures more fleshy than those of Berruguete’, and Francisco Pacheco wrote that he followed Michelangelo in painting ‘figures that are larger and fuller’. Becerra was also a follower of Vasari, although his style was rather more restrained and with a distinctive Spanish flavour (Post). According to ...


Vincent Mayr

[Beirlin; Beuerlein; Beurlin; Päuerlin; Peierlin; Peuerlin; Peurlin]

German family of sculptors. Liedke (1987) has established that there were three Augsburg sculptors of the same name, of whom Hans Beierlein the elder (c. 1460–1508) was the most important. He probably took over the workshop of his father, Hanns Peurlin (b c. 1436; d 1482), who made the monument (1467) for Cardinal Petrus of Schaumberg in Augsburg Cathedral. Hans Beierlein the younger (d 1523–4) became a master craftsman in 1511 and made several tomb slabs in Augsburg.

Like such Late Gothic sculptors as Conrat Sifer, Veit Stoss and Adam Kraft, towards the end of the 15th century Hans Beierlein the elder showed renewed interest in the monumentality of stone, as opposed to the freedom for carving provided by wood. The durability of stone represented an association with the eternity of death, commemorated by tomb slabs. Beierlein in particular favoured the precious surface of polished red marble. His mark appears on several tomb slabs: those of ...


Donald Myers

Italian family of artists. The family, active mainly in Bergamo, was headed by Giovanni Belli di Ponteranica (c. 1482–c. 1530). In 1516 he made a lectern for S Maria Maggiore in Bergamo and in 1521 constructed a wooden model for its high altar (destr.): this was to have been executed by such artists as Andrea Riccio and Lorenzo Lotto but was unfinished by 1581. Giovanni is best remembered for his part in the elaborate wooden choir and presbytery of S Maria Maggiore, for which he was engaged as carpenter, clerk and intarsia maker. The enterprise was begun in 1522, under the project’s master of works Gianfrancesco Capoferri di Lovere (c. 1497–1533/4), also an intarsia maker. A payment was made in 1530 to ‘Master Giovanni or his sons’ for work on this early stage of the choir and presbytery.

After Giovanni’s death, his eldest son Alessandro Belli (...