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O. Lohr

(b Dresden, Dec 10, 1625; d Dresden, Nov 12, 1672).

German sculptor, ivory-carver and ?master builder . He probably started his training with his father, the sculptor Hieronymus Barthel (fl 1625; d c. 1640), and completed his apprenticeship (c. 1640–45) with Johann Boehme (d 1667). There are records of various journeys he made to Augsburg, Ulm, Venice and Rome. He lived in Venice for 17 years, during which time he made sculptures for the tomb of Doge Giovanni Pesaro (d 1659) (1669; Venice, S Maria Gloriosa dei Frari), based on a design by Baldassare Longhena, a statue of St John the Baptist (Venice, Chiesa degli Scalzi), a Crucifix (Venice, S Bartolomeo) and a mourning female figure for the tomb of the painter Melchiore Lanza (Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo). From Venice, Barthel returned to Dresden, where he was appointed court sculptor in 1670. No large works are known from his time in Dresden. His works in ivory include copies (large col., Dresden, Grünes Gewölbe) of groups from Classical antiquity. No evidence of his work as a master builder has survived....


Louise Rice

(fl Rome, 1620).

Italian jurist and amateur architect . A learned dilettante active during the reign of Pope Paul V, he wrote and illustrated a series of proposals for the improvement and embellishment of St Peter’s, Rome. His Discorso was composed in 1620, and in 1623, following the election of Urban VIII, his designs were published at the expense of his nephew Simone Bartoli in a set of four engravings by Matthäus Greuter. Bartoli proposed the construction of an elaborate pontifical choir in the crossing of St Peter’s, to be built in the form of a navicella (a ship symbolic of the Church) and to encompass within its complex iconography the tomb of the Apostles, the papal high altar and the chair of St Peter. He also advocated transforming St Peter’s from a three-aisled to a five-aisled basilica by modifying the chapels on either side of the nave; demolishing the attic storey of Carlo Maderno’s façade in order to restore a view of Michelangelo’s drum and dome; and regularizing the piazza in front of the church by means of a vast three-storey arcuated portico built on an elongated rectangular plan. Bartoli’s projects, costly and impractical, were never executed and are chiefly of interest as precedents to Bernini’s great works at St Peter’s....


Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Murcia, 1594; d Madrid, May 20, 1679).

Spanish architect. He entered the Jesuit Order at 16 as a lay brother and began his career as a carpenter and assembler of retables. His earliest work included the Mannerist retable in the church of the Jesuit college of Alcalá de Henares and the tabernacle in Juan Gómez de Mora’s Bernadine church (c. 1624–30) in the same city. The latter is an empty, free-standing feature, placed on the altar, quite distinct from the traditional Spanish retable, which rests against the rear wall of the sanctuary. In 1633 he replaced the lay brother Pedro Sánchez (1568–?1633) as master of the works at the church of the Colegio Imperial in Madrid, now the cathedral of S Isidoro. There he built the vaults and the dome over the crossing, the latter being the first instance of the ‘cúpula encamonada’, a dome constructed using a timber frame (‘camón’), roofed in slate and plastered inside, with a brick drum. The ease of construction of this type of dome, its low cost and its structural stability made it the prototype of Madrid domes in the Baroque period. Bautista reduced the height and width of the nave arcades in S Isidoro and replaced the capitals and entablatures of the façade columns and paired pilasters of the nave with others of his own particular invention. The capitals featured Corinthian foliage surmounted by an egg-and-dart moulding, while the entablatures displayed paired triglyph consoles....


W. Georg Rizzi

(Maria Nicolao)

(b Bologna, 1675; d Vienna, March 4, 1735).

Italian architect, decorative artist, stage designer and painter, active also in Austria. He trained as a quadratura painter in Bologna, where he was a pupil of Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole. He was recorded as working as a figure and quadratura painter in Vienna for Prince Montecuccoli in 1695, and shortly afterwards for Count Heřman Jakub Czernin in both Vienna and Prague. He soon became a project designer, when his responsibilities expanded to include architecture. Beduzzi’s first project was probably the design of furnishings for the summer sacristy of Melk Abbey Church (from 1701; see Melk Abbey, §2), which matched the European High Baroque style of the building. Later he designed furnishings and frescoes for the abbey church itself (1711–22) although, contrary to common belief, he did not design the high altar and doorway. He initially painted his frescoes himself, but later these were entrusted to his associates, as in the case of the pilgrimage church of Maria Taferl, near Melk, or to specialists employed by those commissioning the work. Beduzzi’s design for the illusionistic decoration of the church of St Peter (...


Riccardo Lattuada

(b Fossano, nr Turin, 1636; d Naples, Sept 28, 1688).

Italian painter, engraver and draughtsman. He studied with Esprit Grandjean (fl 1642–55), a painter working at the court of Savoy in Turin from 1642, and won the protection of Christina, Duchess of Savoy (1606–63). By 1652 Beinaschi had settled in Rome. This date appears on the engraving he made (b. 20) of Giovanni Domenico Cerrini’s Rest on the Flight into Egypt (untraced). As a pupil of the engraver Pietro del Pò (1610–92), Beinaschi made copies after Annibale Carracci’s frescoes in the Galleria Farnese, Rome, after Giovanni Lanfranco’s frescoes in S Andrea della Valle and S Carlo ai Catinari, and after the Classical sculptures in the Belvedere in the Vatican. Beinaschi was deeply attracted by Lanfranco’s illusionism, and it seems likely that he made a journey to Parma to study the frescoed domes executed by Correggio (de Dominici). His earliest works, the St John the Baptist Preaching in the Desert...


Phyllis Dearborn Massar

(b Florence, May 17, 1610; d Florence, July 1664).

Italian etcher and draughtsman, active also in France. He was a prolific artist: 1052 prints are described in the catalogue raisonné (de Vesme; rev. Massar, 1971) and thousands of his drawings are in public and private collections. He was one of the greatest Italian etchers, whose prints of battles and sieges, harbours, festivals, plays and operas are filled with tiny figures and vividly suggest many features of 17th-century urban and rural life. Della Bella’s landscape etchings were an important influence on the prints of the Lorraine artists François Collignon and Israël Silvestre (i). His work was overlooked in the 19th century but in the 1960s and 1970s became well known through exhibitions and scholarly publications, distinguishing his work from that of Jacques Callot.

On the premature death of his father, Francesco della Bella (d 1612), a sculptor who had worked with Giambologna, and following his older brothers, also artists, della Bella was apprenticed at an early age to the goldsmith ...


M. Newcome

(b Pieve di Teco, Oct 30, 1592; d Pieve di Teco, Nov 6, 1668).

Italian painter and draughtsman. Around 1605 he came to Genoa, where he presented himself to a leading patron of the arts, Gian Carlo Doria, who gave him lodging and recommended him to Giovanni Battista Paggi, in whose influential studio he trained. Students were required first to copy sketches, then paintings and reliefs and, finally, to draw from nature. Benso made many copies after a variety of source material, among them the Sacrifice of Abraham (Florence, Uffizi) after Luca Cambiaso and the Joseph Sold into Slavery (Berlin, Kupferstichkab.) after Raphael. While still with Paggi, Benso produced ‘bizarre sketches of great number and variety, as he had a fertile mind along with a lively and vigorous imagination’ (Soprani, p. 280). In order to learn perspective he constructed architectural models, which were greatly admired; they enabled him to achieve formidable feats of aerial perspective in his paintings, in which figures and ornament are boldly foreshortened....


Hans-Peter Wittwer


(fl late 17th century–early 18th).

Swiss-Italian stuccoist and architect. He drew up the plans for the abbey church of Muri (1694–7), Switzerland, which is regarded as the consummation of the centrally planned church and one of the most beautiful Baroque buildings in Switzerland. Bettini’s scheme involved reconstructing the cruciform Romanesque abbey church. The twin towers and the low choir spanned by a Gothic lierne vault were retained, but the nave was converted into an octagonal rotunda with transeptal chapels. The ends of the former aisles, at the west and east, lie outside the octagon and are used to form galleries. The eight arches defining the octagon are of equal height but unequal width. Uniformity of height is obtained in the narrower, diagonal arches by raising the imposts rather than by stilting the arches. A large saucer dome, with stucco ornamentation by Bettini, covers the rotunda, admitting light, via penetrations, from semicircular windows set on a slightly curving entablature inside, supported by folded pilasters. Bettini’s reputation is based on evidence that he produced designs for the building, while the more famous architect ...


George L. Gorse

(b Pieve di Balerna, nr Como, before 1579; d Genoa, 1640).

Italian architect and urban planner. He was the leading architect and urban planner in Genoa during the first half of the 17th century, serving the Genoese republic, noble patrons and the Counter-Reformation Church. He probably arrived in Genoa with his father, Cipriano, and his uncle, Battista, in 1597–8, when they were documented as working on the church of the Discalced Augustinians of Carbonara. On 20 October 1602 Bartolomeo was documented as entering the guild of the Maestri Lombardi dell’Arte dei Muratori. His apprenticeship with his father, early practice and position within the guild as a consul in 1609 place him firmly in the tradition of the ‘Maestri Antelami’ of Genoa—the Lombard stone masons, sculptors and architects. At that time the Genoese nobility saw themselves as living in a ‘New Rome’, a major banking and trading centre, competing with other European capitals for political and economic influence. For their buildings, architects adopted the monumental style developed by Galeazzo Alessi to symbolize their wealth, power and nobility, and this style was perpetuated in the later 16th century by such Lombard masters as Bernardino Cantone, Giovanni Battista Castello (i), Domenico and Giovanni Ponzello and Bernardo Spazio. But more than any other Genoese architect, Bianco translated this style into the Baroque idiom of the early 17th century. Most of his early commissions involved the design and construction of suburban villas. Extant examples include the villa of ...


Peter Fidler

(b Lanzo d’Intelvi, 1580; d Krems, June 2, 1636).

Italian architect, active in Austria. In 1606 he was engaged on reconstructing the bridge over the River Mur near Kapfenberg in Styria. During 1610–11 he was involved in building work at Seckau Abbey, and in 1613 there are records of him in both Graz and Bruck. He subsequently moved to Lower Austria, settling in Krems, where he was in charge of building the parish church of St Veit (from 1616), probably to his own designs. This is one of the earliest Baroque churches in Austria of the wall pillar type, with a four-bay nave, narrower apsidal choir and single tower. Between 1624 and 1627 Biasino, as one of the representatives of Italian builders working in Vienna and Lower Austria, successfully took part in negotiations over admission into the masons’ guild, which was controlled by ‘German’ masters. In 1631–4, together with Johann Jakob Spazio and Antonio Canevale, he supervised the building of the Dominikanerkirche in Vienna, to the designs of ...


Federica Lamera

(b Genoa, bapt April 14, 1629; d Genoa, 1657).

Italian painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was taught by his father, Giovanni Andrea Biscaino, a mediocre landscape painter, and entered the workshop of Valerio Castello (ii), probably at the end of the 1640s. The chronology of his oeuvre, truncated by his early death in a plague, is hard to reconstruct. Only two paintings bear early documentation: St Ferrando Imploring the Virgin (Genoa, Pal. Bianco) and an untraced Flaying of Marsyas (see Manzitti, 1971, pl. 31). However, his graphic work had a continuing reputation: he was called a ‘great draughtsman’ by Pellegrino Orlandi in his Abecedario pittorico (1704), and his etchings, of which over 40 are catalogued in Bartsch, were ‘very favourably received’, according to Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville (1762). About half the etchings are signed or initialled, and two are dated (Nativity, 1655, b. 22; St Mary Magdalene in the Desert, 1656, b. 38). From them it is possible to attribute further works, mostly small canvases, to Biscaino, and to characterize his development....


John Varriano

(b Rome, April 13, 1655; d Rome, Feb 1721).

Italian architect. According to Missirini, he trained in the studio of Carlo Fontana (iv). There is also reason to suppose that Bizzacheri was associated early in his career with the late work of Carlo Rainaldi, such as S Maria di Montesanto, Rome, executed at a time when the elderly Rainaldi had himself repudiated the livelier style of his earlier years. In spite of these formative experiences Bizzacheri’s work seems relatively unencumbered by the exacting academic style of either Fontana or the late work of Rainaldi. Instead, in early commissions such as the Vivaldi Chapel (1679) in S Maria di Montesanto or the convent of S Maria Maddalena (1680–84), both in Rome, there are echoes of the works of Francesco Borromini. Bizzacheri was one of the first architects to adopt the freely handled pediments and rich ornamental vocabulary of Borromini’s Oratory of S Filippo Neri or S Carlo alle Quattro Fontane—motifs that eventually achieved widespread popularity among Rococo architects of the 18th century. In the corridor leading to the convent of S Maria Maddalena, Bizzacheri demonstrated his fondness for penetrating solids and moulding space with superimposed arches, curved walls and stucco in a manner equally prophetic of the Rococo. His perforated and imaginatively embellished screen wall (mid-1690s) at the Villa Aldobrandini, Frascati, is another example of his ability to infuse utilitarian structures with a sprightly character....


Lucie Galactéros-de Boissier

(b ?Paris, 1614; d Lyon, June 21, 1689).

French painter, draughtsman, architect, sculptor and printmaker. He trained in Paris, where he came into contact with Jacques Sarazin, who advised him to study painting rather than sculpture. He probably studied (c. 1637–45) with Simon Vouet, becoming familiar with perspective, the Mannerism of the School of Fontainebleau and the Baroque, then newly introduced to Paris. Around 1645 he arrived in Rome; during his stay there (which ended in 1653) he worked with artists who were members of Nicolas Poussin’s circle and frequented the studios of Andrea Sacchi, Pietro da Cortona and Gianlorenzo Bernini (who thought highly of him). He executed paintings for Niccolo Guido di Bagno (1584–1663). His engravings of antique tombs and his prospettive were much admired. In 1654 he created a mausoleum for René de Voyer d’Argenson, Ambassador of France in Venice, in S Giobbe, Venice.

In 1655 Blanchet returned to Lyon, having been summoned to carry out the decoration, both painted and sculpted, of the Hôtel de Ville. In ...


Volker Helas

(b Paris, Oct 1670; d Dresden, Jan 3, 1745).

French architect and engineer, active in the Netherlands and Germany. He trained as a civil and military architect in Paris, although it is not known who taught him. As a Protestant he left France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) and went to the Netherlands, where he entered the service of William III, Prince of Orange (reg 1672–1702). After William’s accession to the throne of England he followed him there (1689) and became a captain in the artillery and engineering corps, in which capacity he was present at the Battle of the Boyne (1690); he also devoted himself to the study of civil architecture and produced a scheme for Greenwich Hospital (?1694–5; unexecuted) influenced by Libéral Bruand’s plan for the Hôtel des Invalides (1671–6), Paris.

In 1699 de Bodt accepted an invitation to serve Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, who became Frederick I, King of Prussia, in ...


Hans Vlieghe

[Bockhorst, Johann; Lange Jan]

(b Münster or Rees, c. 1604; d Antwerp, April 21, 1668).

Flemish painter and draughtsman of German birth. Around 1626 he moved to Antwerp. According to de Bie and Filips Rubens (Vita Petri Pauli Rubenii, 1676), he became a pupil or assistant of Jacob Jordaens and Peter Paul Rubens; the style of his work bears this out. A document of 1655 reveals that Boeckhorst painted a ‘Silenus’, which was subsequently retouched by Rubens and which must have been made under his supervision (i.e. Rubens’s typical workshop practice). Boeckhorst must have had a good relationship with Rubens during the 1630s, as he was one of those who contributed to the large series of paintings Rubens was then working on for the decorations of the Pompa Introitus Ferdinandi (1635; destr., see Martin, p. 134) and for the Torre de la Parada (1637–8; see Alpers, p. 218). Between 1635 and 1637 he toured Italy, and in 1639 he returned there especially to visit Rome. As an independent painter he also executed a number of commissions in the 1630s, such as the 26 scenes, mostly biblical, for the Falcon Monastery in Antwerp, commissioned by a merchant named ...


Cynthia Lawrence


(b Mechelen, c. 1650; d Mechelen, 1734).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he absorbed the influence of Rubens. Boeckstuyns became a master in the Mechelen Guild of St Luke in 1680 but may have continued to collaborate with Faydherbe. Among his commissions for Mechelen churches are three wooden confessionals with allegorical figures (1690) and the wooden gable (1712) for Faydherbe’s earlier high altar for the basilica of Onze-Lieve-Vrouw van Hanswijk and numerous works for the Begijnhof Church, including the north interior portal (c. 1700), the communion rails (1710) and the wooden confessionals (also attributed to Faydherbe). In 1690 he collaborated with the Mechelen sculptors Frans Langhemans and Adam Frans van der Meulen on the wooden high altar of Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-over-de-Dyle. Boeckstuyns was perhaps responsible for the wooden pulpit in St Rombouts (also attributed to Michiel van der Voort I) as well as the wooden tabernacle for the altar of the Holy Sacrament (...


(b ?1582; d Poznań, between Sept 22, 1667 and Jan 25, 1670).

Italian architect, active in Poland. His presence is first recorded c. 1622 in Wielkopolska, where he supervised the rebuilding of the Dominican friary in Poznań (partially destr.). He built churches and palaces (the latter destr.), particularly for various members of the landowning Opaliński family. His first important work, the Minorite church in Sieraków (1624–39), owes its cruciform plan and dome to its function as the Opaliński family mausoleum. The articulation of the church develops the post-Renaissance stylistic tradition brought to central Europe by Lombard master masons. Bonadura’s most distinguished work, the church in Grodzisk Wielkopolski, is Mannerist in style; it was founded in 1626 by the politician and intellectual Jan Opaliński (d 1637), consecrated in 1649 and completed in 1672. The nave is flanked by pairs of domed side chapels, all of equal height, and there is a huge octagonal dome over the chancel. The latter’s shape and figured finials have Venetian and Paduan antecedents. The interior is lent additional dynamism by means of giant pilaster-herms set against the piers. These derive from Netherlandish and north German types and frequently recur in Bonadura’s works. There is a single west tower. In ...


Matilde Amaturo

(b Ferrara, 1569; d Ferrara, Sept 3, 1632).

Italian painter. He was among the last great painters of the Ferrarese school, his style uniting warm Venetian colour with the lyrical effects of light and elegant draughtsmanship of Ludovico Carracci. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Mazzuoli (c. 1536-89), but his early activity is little documented. The Martyrdom of St Paul (Pommersfelden, Schloss Weissenstein), which is indebted to Mazzuoli and combines elements of Ferrarese and Venetian traditions, may represent the earliest phase of his development. Later, through a study of the art of Ludovico Carracci, modified by a response to Dosso Dossi and to Correggio, he developed a more individual style. An altarpiece of the Virgin with SS Maurilius and George (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.) is unanimously dated before 1600. It is probable that Bononi made study tours to Bologna, Parma, Verona and Venice. Between 1605 and 1610 he spent two years in Rome (Baruffaldi), a visit confirmed by three paintings of scenes from the ...


Alfonso E. Pérez Sánchez

(b Rome, c. 1575; d Rome, Jan 15, 1616).

Italian painter and etcher, also active in Spain. He was the son of a Florentine carpenter and stepbrother of the sculptor and architect Giulio Lasso. He accompanied Lasso to Sicily, and his earliest known work is a modest painting, in a Mannerist tradition, of St Gregory in his Study (1593; Catania, Villa Cerami, see Moir, pl. 48). He finished his training in Rome, and his study of the art of ancient Rome is evident in his early paintings, both in his use of Classical ruins and in the sculptural folds of his drapery. He must also have painted from nature and responded to the naturalism of Caravaggio. About 1598 Borgianni was in Spain and in 1601 he was in Pamplona. He stayed at least until June 1603, when he signed a petition for the establishment of an Italian-style academy of painting in Madrid. Among the other signatories was the Madrid-born Eugenio Cajés, whom Borgianni may have met in Rome, since Cajés was in Italy about ...


Peter Stein and Lin Barton

(b Bissone, nr Lugano, Sept 25, 1599; d Rome, Aug 2, 1667).

Italian architect. His name, with that of his contemporary and rival Gianlorenzo Bernini (see Bernini family, §2), is synonymous with the main phase of Roman High Baroque architecture between c1630 and 1665. Their working methods and perception of art were regarded as incompatible by their contemporaries, but later their work was synthesized to form the basis of late Baroque architecture in Rome and the Catholic areas of Central Europe (Austria, Bavaria, Bohemia, and Silesia). In western Europe, on the other hand, a classical Baroque style evolved, and Borromini’s style was rejected as odd and contrary to the rules.

Like most artists of the Baroque period who made their mark in Rome, Borromini was not a native Roman, but his career was confined to the city and its neighbourhood. While he was still a child he started a mason’s apprenticeship at the cathedral workshop in Milan and moved to Rome in ...