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Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Boussat, Gironde, July 24, 1845; d Montfermeil, Aug 27, 1926).

French architect. He studied (1865–9) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and had an important career in the Service des Edifices Diocésains, which he joined in 1876. He succeeded Charles Laisné as diocesan architect of Auch in 1879 and subsequently became architect of Meaux, Poitiers and Laval. He finally became inspecteur général adjoint in 1901. At the same time he worked for the Commission des Monuments Historiques. The various buildings he restored included the ancient abbey of Conques (begun 1878) and, in Poitiers, the churches of Notre-Dame-La-Grande, Ste Radegonde and St Hilaire Le Grand, as well as the Palais de Justice. He helped with the excavation (1881–2) of the ruins of Sanxay and restored the abbey of St-Savin-sur-Gartempe, the castle at Chauvigny (all Vienne) and the church at Poissy (Yvelines). Most of his work in the South of France involved the restoration or conservation of Romano-Gallic remains. He became a member of the Monuments Historiques in ...


Barry Bergdoll

(b Paris, Feb 24, 1802; d Paris, Nov 1852).

French architect. He was probably the son of an inspector in the Conseil des Bâtiments Civils during the Bourbon Restoration. In 1822 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, under the aegis of Delespine. He was promoted to the first class in 1823, winning second prize in the Prix de Rome competition in 1829 and first in that of 1830 with a design for a ‘maison de plaisance pour un prince’. He spent the years 1831–6 at the Villa Medici in Rome, participating in the vibrant discussion of the second generation of Romantic classicists such as Victor Baltard and Simon-Claude Constant-Dufeux. This is reflected in his remarkable restoration of the Trajanic port of Ostia in 1834, where buildings and urban planning combined to record historical accretion. Like many of the Romantics, Garrez was drawn to the study of French medieval and Renaissance architecture. He toured France extensively and his travel sketches of Italy, France and Germany were much admired at the Salon in the 1830s and 1840s....


Codruţa Cruceanu

(b Iaşi, Dec 12, 1869; d Bucharest, Dec 16, 1943).

Romanian architect, restorer, architectural historian and teacher. He studied engineering (1889–93) at the School of Roads and Bridges, Bucharest, and later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Victor Laloux, where he obtained a diploma in 1901. After 1906 he was active in the Romanian Historical Monuments Commission, researching the ancient historical architecture of Romania. He was among the promoters of the ‘neo-Romanian’ style, along with Ion Mincu, Petre Antonescu, Constantin Iotzu (1884–1962) and Grigore Cerchez (1850–1927). Ghika-Budeşti’s most significant building is the Museum of National Art (1912–38; now the Romanian Peasant Museum), Bucharest. Built of traditional stone, brick and tiles, it is remarkable both for a compositional balance characteristic of traditional Romanian architecture and for its monumental dimensions. At the same time the human scale is retained by the incorporation of various decorative elements: dogtooth motifs, mouldings, niches, balustrades and ornamental tendrils reminiscent of the Brâncoveanu period (...


(b 1814; d 1881).

French architect. From 1850 he was architect for the Département of Indre-et-Loire and the city of Tours, for which he carried out most of his work; during the same period he was also the conservator for diocesan buildings in Tours. His best-known secular works there are the extensions that he designed for the Musée des Beaux-Arts; the covered markets (1869); and the extension to the Lycée. He is best remembered, however, for his many religious buildings. In Tours he restored the cathedral, repaired the portals of Notre-Dame-la-Riche (1852), and built the churches of Ste Anne (1857), St Pierre-des-Corps (1866) and St Etienne (1873–4) and the chapel of the Petit Séminaire (1849) and the Chapelle des Lazaristes (1861). St Etienne and the Chapelle des Lazaristes are generally considered to be among the best provincial examples of churches of the Romanesque Revival, a style that became fashionable throughout France in the second half of the 19th century. The solid, severe walls of these buildings, their steeply pitched roofs and bold semicircular chancels are reminiscent of 12th-century churches....


(b London, 1808; d Paris, April 27, 1878).

French archaeologist and architectural historian. He came from a noble family of royalist, Catholic lawyers, and studied law himself before embarking on a career in the civil service. At the same time he followed courses at the Sorbonne and Bibliothèque Royale and pursued a career as a scholar and archaeologist. He submitted reports to the Comité des Arts et Monuments, which was drawing up an inventory of French monuments. In 1855 he was asked to record inscriptions in France dating after the 5th century ad, and he spent the rest of his life on this work, which was published from 1873. Guilhermy also published numerous articles dealing mainly with the iconography of medieval historical and literary figures; in other articles he discussed the dispersed collections of the old Musée des Monuments Français (Petits-Augustins).

Guilhermy was admitted to the Commission des Monuments Historiques only in 1860, but very soon he became associated with a number of major restoration workshops. At Saint-Denis Abbey he advised Eugène Viollet-le-Duc on the restoration of the crypts, having joined Charles Lenormant, Prosper Mérimée and Louis Vitet in deploring the anachronisms and incorrect restorations of François Debret. At the Sainte-Chapelle he collaborated with ...


(b Stuttgart, Feb 2, 1789; d Hassfurt, Sept 28, 1865).

German architect, painter, sculptor, printmaker and writer. He belonged to a large family of artists descended from Franz Joseph (Ignatz Anton) Heideloff (1676–1772), who was a sculptor and possibly also a painter. He was trained by the architect Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, the sculptor Johann Heinrich von Dannecker and the painter Johann Baptist Seele. He also studied mural painting as assistant to his father, Victor (Wilhelm Peter) Heideloff (1757–1817). As a young man he became interested in Gothic and Romanesque architecture, and while he was in Mainz in 1814 he made the acquaintance of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (reg 1826–44), who employed him as his architect until 1821. In 1822, having settled in Nuremberg, he was appointed curator of the city’s historical monuments; he used this position to encourage widespread interest in early German art and to rescue many examples from destruction. He also taught at the local Polytechnische Schule from its foundation in ...


Ronald J. Onorato


(b Hartford, CT, Nov 12, 1864; d Wickford, RI, Jan 1, 1943).

American architect, preservationist, and author. Isham was one of the earliest American architects to specialize in the restoration of colonial American structures. He worked on a large number of 17th- and 18th-century structures in New England, wrote several major works on American architecture, conducted archaeological site work, and also designed new, mostly residential buildings.

Most of his private and professional life was spent in Rhode Island with its large number of existing colonial buildings. The state’s extensive collection of early structures influenced his career, as did other Rhode Island architects who helped generate the Colonial Revival style nationally such as Edmund R. Willson (1856–1906), of the prominent Providence firm of Stone, Carpenter & Willson, with whom Isham trained in the late 1880s. About the same time, he received Bachelor and Master degrees from Brown University, and he married Elizabeth Barbour Ormsbee in 1895.

It is impossible to study colonial American architecture without encountering buildings that Isham restored. While some of his preservation methods and decisions have been superceded by more modern approaches and technologies, he notably produced scores of carefully measured drawings, which are still used by preservationists and historians today. His projects included such significant 17th- and 18th-century structures as Newport’s Colony House, Trinity Church, Redwood Library, and Wanton-Lyman-Allen house (all restored in the 1920s), the Stephen Hopkins House and University Hall at Brown University in Providence, Bishop Berkeley’s Whitehall in Middletown, the Eleazar Arnold House in Lincoln, and the Gilbert Stuart Birthplace in North Kingstown, all Rhode Island. His bibliography encompasses surveys of early Rhode Island and Connecticut homes, scholarly studies on specific buildings, such as the First Baptist Meeting House, Providence, and St Paul’s in Wickford and papers on individual architects such as John Holden Greene....


James Bettley

(b Hampstead, London, Dec 21, 1835; d Wimbledon, London, Nov 7, 1924).

English architect and writer. Jackson, the son of a solicitor, was educated at Brighton College and Wadham College, Oxford, of which he became a Fellow in 1865. He served his articles (1858–61) in the office of George Gilbert Scott the elder and then set up practice in London in 1861. His early work—including St Peter’s Church (1872–4), Hornblotton, Somerset —attracted little attention, although his book Modern Gothic Architecture (1873) was widely praised: in it Jackson advocated the use of an eclectic English Renaissance style, which he himself used with few exceptions throughout his career.

In 1876 he made his name by winning the competition for the new Examination Schools, Oxford, and went on to work for no fewer than 11 colleges there. He also carried out restoration or other work on practically every university building and designed the new High Schools for Boys and Girls (...


Radomíra Sedláková

(b Prague, March 12, 1882; d Prague, Aug 1, 1956).

Czech architect, designer, theorist and teacher. He graduated in architecture from the Czech Technical University, Prague, where he studied under Josef Schulz and Josef Zítek, and from 1906 to 1907 he was a student of Otto Wagner at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. In 1908 he worked in Jan Kotěra’s studio in Prague. His early work was influenced by the modernism of Wagner and Kotěra, but he perceived a danger of uniformity in a purely rationalist approach to architecture. In 1911, together with Josef Chochol, Josef Gočár, Vlastislav Hofman (1884–1964), Emil Filla, Václav Špála, Antonín Procházka, Otto Gutfreund and others, he founded the Group of Fine Artists, which sought a more artistic approach to architecture, and in 1912 he and Gočár founded the Prague Art Workshops for the design of arts, crafts and furniture. Within the Group of Fine Artists, Janák developed the principles of Czech Cubism...


Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).

Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.

In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...


(b Arad [now in Romania], Dec 15, 1889; d Budapest, Jan 12, 1980).

Hungarian architect, architectural historian, urban planner, teacher and restorer. He received his architectural degree (1911) and doctorate (1918) from the Imperial Joseph Technical University, Budapest, and then taught planning and architectural history there in 1919 and again from 1926 until 1949. Following study trips to Germany and Italy, he wrote several books on the styles of the Italian Renaissance. In 1925–7 he designed the Franciscan monastery and church at Zalaegerszeg using 18th-century Transdanubian Baroque architectural forms. His design for the Biological Institute (1926–7), Tihany, is eclectic with restrained ornament and evokes Mediterranean architecture with its slightly inclined roofs, terraces and open arcaded galleries and stairways. Other buildings, such as the Regnum Marianum Church (1926–30; destr. 1948), Budapest, are in a neo-Romanesque style, while his Roman Catholic church (1932–3) at Balatonboglár, near Fonyód, is one of the first examples of Modernism in Hungarian church architecture. Next to the reinforced concrete church, which is planned on the shape of a simple horizontal volume, is an asymmetric square tower capped with a graceful cylindrical spire. Kotsis’s houses are influenced by the traditionalist Stuttgart school, primarily Paul Schmitthenner. Although not eclectic, they show a respect for tradition while linking certain modern architectural aspirations with conservatism, as in the family villas (1940s) on Orló Street and Árvácska Street, Budapest. In his restoration (...


Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Littry (Calvados), April 8, 1813; d Sens, Dec 24, 1874).

French architect and writer. He studied with Guillaume Abel Blouet and Louis-Tullius-Joachim Visconti, and worked for the latter for several years as a draughtsman. Early in his career he won first prize in an open competition for a public abattoir. In Paris he was appointed inspector of works at the Palais de Justice (1849), at the workshop of Saint-Denis Abbey (1850), which was then under the supervision of Viollet-le-Duc, and at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers (1854) under Léon Vaudoyer. On the recommendation of Jean-Baptiste Lassus, he was appointed diocesan architect at Sens in 1854 and restored the cathedral’s transepts and the sacristy of the lower choir; he also designed the pulpit (1871), restored the Francis I wing of the Archbishop’s Palace and built the seminary. He replaced Emile Boeswillwald as diocesan architect at Soissons in 1857. He was appointed a member of the commission for lycées and training colleges in ...


Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Paris, March 19, 1807; d Vichy, July 15, 1857).

French architect, designer, architectural historian and restorer. He began his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, but interrupted them to enter the studio of Henri Labrouste. He was among the first of his generation to oppose the hegemony of the Académie and the teaching curriculum based on Greco-Roman tradition. Having become known through the exhibition of several of his projects at the Salon, including a reconstruction (1833) of the Palais des Tuileries as intended by Philibert de L’Orme, and proposed restorations of the Sainte-Chapelle (1835) and the refectory of St Martin-des-Champs (1836), all in Paris, Lassus began his career as an architectural historian, architect and restorer. One of his earliest works was the restoration (1835) of St-Séverin, Paris. In direct contrast with the committed classicists epitomized by Antoine Quatremère de Quincy, Lassus developed a programme based on the assumption that the Early Gothic period produced a rational and functional architecture that marked the high point of national architecture; that later Gothic represented a decline and that the Renaissance introduced foreign and pagan influences; that restoration of Gothic buildings should respect their formal and structural authenticity; and that architects of the 19th century should apply the precepts of Early Gothic in order to find the way towards a new architecture....


Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

(b Caravaggio; d Rome, before June 27, 1543).

Italian architect and sculptor. He was a pupil of the sculptor Andrea di Piero Ferrucci. From c. 1527 to 1532 he was supervisor of the Fonte di S Pietro, Rome. He was conservator of the gilded ceilings of the basilica of S Maria Maggiore until 1541, and from c. 1542 he was also the architect to the Camera Apostolica (Vatican Works Office), a post he held until his death. For Angelo Massimo, Mangone constructed the Palazzo di Pirro (initiated c. 1533). In this, his first architectural work, he appears as a faithful follower of the severe style of Antonio da Sangallo (ii) with whom he worked on the decorations (1534) for the coronation of Pope Paul III and the fortifications (1537–43) of Rome. In 1535 he worked on the palazzo in Rome of Giacomo Simonetta, Cardinal of Perugia, and in 1536 he planned alterations to the convent of the Serviti attached to the church of S Marcello al Corso. In the same year, he executed the monument to ...


Dominique Colmont

(b Paris, May 21, 1819; d Cannes, Feb 24, 1879).

French architect and restorer. He entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1837 and studied under Henri Labrouste. In 1847 he was appointed assistant architect to Viollet-le-Duc in the Commission des Monuments Historiques, and the following year he became architect for diocesan buildings in Troyes (Aube) and Châlons-sur-Marne (Marne). In 1849 he was promoted within the Commission des Monuments Historiques, and thereafter he carried out major restoration work on numerous medieval churches, including St Pierre, Souvigny (Allier), the former abbey church at St Benoît-sur-Loire (Loiret) and Notre-Dame at Paray-le-Monial (Saône-Loire). In 1855 Millet was appointed architect in charge of the château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. On the death of Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus in 1857 he took over the rebuilding of the cathedral at Moulins (Allier), where a Gothic Revival nave was grafted on to a 15th-century choir. In 1863 Millet was appointed Professor of Building at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, but he resigned two years later. In ...


Yvonne Janková

(b Citoliby, nr Louny, Nov 22, 1835; d Prague, Jan 15, 1899).

Bohemian architect and conservator. After graduating from the Czech Technical University, Prague, he went to Vienna, where he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste with Eduard Van der Nüll and August Siccard von Siccardsburg. Later he became a pupil of Friedrich von Schmidt and devoted himself to the study of Gothic art. Schmidt employed Mocker from 1864 to 1869 as a supervisor of his projects, and the two also collaborated from 1863 on the reconstruction and completion of the Stephansdom in Vienna. In 1869 Schmidt sent Mocker to Děčín in northern Bohemia, where he worked for the aristocratic Thun family until 1872. He also designed schools in the area, for example at Litoměřice and Mladá Boleslav, and a railway station in Lovosice.

A turning-point in Mocker’s life came in 1873 with his appointment as master builder for the completion of the cathedral of St Vitus, Prague. This campaign, of great national significance, had been taken up from ...


Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...


G. A. Ol’


(b St Petersburg, July 8, 1883; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Aug 27, 1958).

Russian architect, restorer, urban planner and painter. He studied at the Institute of Civil Engineering, St Petersburg, and during its closure, due to political reasons, worked in 1905–6 with the partnership of Gesellius, Lindgren & Saarinen in Helsinki. His early works reflect their northern Art Nouveau (Rus. modern) approach, notably in the country house (1907–8) of the writer Leonid Andreyev in Vammelsuu and the villa (1909) of D. Nikol’sky at Uusikirkko, both on the Karelian Isthmus. Ol’ graduated in 1910, after which the free compositional approach and expressive use of building materials that had characterized his early work gave way to the influence of Russian neo-classicism, for example in a number of private residences in St Petersburg. After the October Revolution (1917) he began to work on a broader range of projects. In Petrograd (later Leningrad; now St Petersburg) he designed large-scale industrial plants, such as the Red October Power Station and adjacent workers’ quarters (...


Dimitris Tsougarakis

(b Athens, Dec 23, 1887; d Athens, Oct 6, 1979).

Greek architect and archaeologist. He graduated from the National Polytechnic at Athens as an architect in 1908 and gained his doctorate from the University of Athens in 1915, having studied ancient Greek architecture with Wilhelm Dörpfeld (1853–1940), prehistoric archaeology with Georg Karo (1872–1963), archaic sculpture with Rudolf Heberdey and epigraphy with Anton von Premerstein (d 1937). He was the architect for the restoration works (1910–17) on the Acropolis of Athens under Nikolaos Balanos (1852–1933). He served as director of restorations for the ancient monuments of Greece, apart from the Acropolis, from 1920 to 1942, and director of restorations for the monuments of Greece including the Acropolis from 1942 to 1958. He also held posts as professor of morphology and rhythmology at the National Polytechnic (1919–40); professor of the history of architecture also at the Polytechnic (1943–58); and professor of Byzantine archaeology at the University of Athens (...


Mario Bencivenni

(b Siena, May 5, 1842; d Siena, Nov 14, 1895).

Italian architect and teacher. He studied architecture (1857–61) under Lorenzo Doveri (c. 1820–66) and Giulio Rossi (1819–61) at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Siena. At that time the Accademia was an important centre of the Purismo movement, led by the painter Luigi Mussini. On Rossi’s death in 1861, Partini became an assistant teacher at the Accademia. That year he built his first work, a chapel for the Pieri Nerli family at Quinciano in the Val d’Arbia, near Siena. It is a small octagonal temple in a medieval style, decorated internally by contemporary Purismo artists, including Mussini, the sculptor Tito Sarrocchi (1824–1900) and the painter Cesare Maccari. Also in 1861, he took part in a competition to design the new façade of S Maria del Fiore in Florence; although unsuccessful, his tripartite design for the cathedral attracted attention and led to many commissions. These included the funerary monument (...