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(b Belluno, Jan 7, 1724; d Venice, July 28, 1787).

Italian printmaker . A highly prolific engraver and etcher, he frequented the Venetian workshop of the engraver and print publisher Joseph Wagner (1708–80), later succeeding Giuliano Giampiccoli as the head of the Remondini workshop at Bassano. Gifted with considerable technical ability, Baratti had a part in illustrating a great number of costly publications, mostly Venetian, and he engraved almost one thousand plates for the Livorno edition of the Encyclopédie (1770–79). His most famous prints are the four sheets illustrating the celebrations held in Venice in 1782 to honour the visit of the Comte and Comtesse du Nord (Grand Duke Paul and Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna of Russia). He collaborated with other artists on the Via Crucis published by Wagner in 1779, engraved numerous portraits of artists and scholars and also executed religious subjects after Guido Reni, Veronese, Giovanni Battista Piazzetta and Francesco Vanni, genre subjects after Giorgio Giacoboni (...


Olivier Michel

(b Viarmes, nr Chantilly, Aug 1, 1718; d Rome, May 28, 1762).

French painter and engraver . A pupil in Paris of Jean Restout II, in 1745 he failed to win the Prix de Rome and at his own expense went to Rome early in 1747. The following year, by which time he was a member of the circle of Paolo Anesi, Philothée-François Duflos, Jean-Laurent Legeay and Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Barbault made engravings for the Varie vedute di Roma antica e moderna published in Rome. As a painter he was encouraged by Jean-François de Troy, director of the Académie de France, who commissioned from him 20 small pictures representing characters from the Turkish masquerade organized by the pensionnaires for the carnival of 1748, of which 11 survive (Beauvais, Mus. Dépt. Oise; Narbonne, Mus. A. & Hist.; Paris, Louvre; Venice, Col. Cini; and elsewhere). When, by special favour, he became a pensionnaire at the Académie (1749–53), he made a copy (Lille, Mus. B.-A., destr. ...


P. Knolle

Dutch family of artists, originally from Flanders. The five known generations of this family start with the history painter Anthonie Barbiers (bapt Rousselaere, 14 May 1676; d Amsterdam, 1726), who was in Rome at the same time as Pieter van Bloemen and returned to the northern Netherlands, settling in Amsterdam. His younger brother Balthazar Barbiers (bapt Antwerp, 5 Dec 1685; d Antwerp, c. 1728) worked in Antwerp, where his painted ceiling decorations for the municipal council chamber are still in situ.

Anthonie’s son and pupil Pieter (Anthoniesz.) Barbiers (b Amsterdam, 1717; d Amsterdam, 7 Sept 1780) worked as a painter, draughtsman and engraver, although none of his paintings has survived. He had a wallpaper factory and designed decorations for rooms and gardens. He was particularly interested in the theatre, and his stage designs were used by theatres in Amsterdam, Leiden, The Hague and Rotterdam. Some of his work for the Amsterdam theatre was engraved by ...


Elizabeth Miller

(b Paris, 1696; d London, Jan 22, 1762).

French engraver active in England . He was the pupil and son-in-law of Nicolas-Henry Tardieu. In 1712 the French engraver Claude Du Bosc (fl c. 1711–40) brought Baron to London to assist with the engraving of murals at Marlborough House. In 1724 Baron engraved eight plates of the Life of Achilles after Rubens (Meyer, nos 16–24). Five years later he returned to Paris where he engraved L’Accord parfait (m 51), the first of his four prints for the celebrated Recueil Jullienne collection of the works of Antoine Watteau. Two of the other Watteau paintings that he engraved (m 52 and 54) belonged to the painter’s English physician Dr Richard Mead and the fourth, Les Deux Cousines (m 53), Baron owned himself. A drawing by Watteau of an engraver at work (London, BM) is believed to depict Baron. While in France, Baron also engraved Titian’s Pardo Venus...


William L. Pressly

(b Cork, Oct 11, 1741; d London, Feb 22, 1806).

Irish painter, draughtsman, printmaker and writer.

He was the son of a publican and coastal trader and studied with the landscape painter John Butts (c. 1728–65) in Cork. Early in his career he determined to become a history painter: in 1763 he went to Dublin, where he exhibited the Baptism of the King of Cashel by St Patrick (priv. col., on loan to Dublin, N.G.) at the Dublin Society of Arts, by whom he was awarded a special premium for history painting. He studied under the portrait and history painter Jacob Ennis (1728–70) at the Dublin Society’s drawing school. He attracted the attention of Edmund Burke, who in 1764 found work for him in London preparing material for volumes of the Antiquities of Athens with James ‘Athenian’ Stuart. From 1765 to 1771 Barry travelled in Europe, financially supported by Burke. He was mostly in Rome, where he moved in the circle of the Scottish painters John and Alexander Runciman and the sculptor Joseph Nollekens; he seems also to have known the Swedish Neo-classical sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel. In ...


Bernt von Hagen



M.-E. Hellyer

(b Paris, Oct 23, 1723; d ?Paris, Jan 12, 1797).

French engraver, print-seller and dealer . His father was Claude-Pierre Basan, a wine merchant in Paris. Pierre-François received his first lessons in drawing and engraving from his cousin Etienne Fessard (1714–77); he then studied under Jean Daullé. From 1747 he worked for the print-seller Michel Odieuvre (1687–1756), for whom he engraved 58 portraits. Between 1750 and 1754 he contributed to the engraving of the paintings in the Saxon royal collection in Dresden (Galerie royale de Dresde, 1753–7) and in the collection of Heinrich, Graf von Brühl (Galerie … [du] Comte de Brühl, 1754). He also engraved 14 illustrations for the Histoire naturelle of Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1749–67; Paris, Bib. N. cat. nos 272–85).

However, it is as a print-seller rather than as an engraver that Basan is best remembered. By his own admission, he had too much ‘vivacité de caractère’ for the exacting task of the engraver, and in ...


David Alexander

English family of engravers. Isaac Basire (1704–68) worked as an engraver in London. His son (John) James Basire (i) (b ?London, 6 Oct 1730; d London, 6 Sept 1802) became known as an engraver of architecture and was employed on the first volume of James Stuart’s and Nicholas Revett’s The Antiquities of Athens (1762). In 1763 he travelled in Italy; around that time he succeeded George Vertue as Engraver to the Society of Antiquaries, and he became Engraver to the Royal Society in 1770. He contributed fine prints to Vetusta monumenta, produced for the Antiquaries, and other publications; he also engraved many individually issued prints, notably one after Benjamin West’s Pylades and Orestes (1766), one of the first prints of a contemporary painting published by John Boydell. This was shown in London in 1770 at the Free Society of Artists exhibition; between ...


Laura Suffield

(b Sion Hill, Worcs, Jan 28, 1706; d Birmingham, Jan 8, 1775).

English printer and publisher . He developed skills in calligraphy and monumental inscription–cutting apparently without an apprenticeship. Aged 19 he went to Birmingham to teach writing and bookkeeping and also to cut tombstones. Around 1740 he entered into business as a manufacturer of japanned goods, at which he proved highly successful. The proceeds enabled him to purchase a large house outside Birmingham and to start experimenting with type-founding c. 1750. Baskerville entered into partnership with the London bookseller Robert Dodsley (1733–64), and he published an edition of the works of Virgil as his first book in 1757; it met with praise but also with the criticism that was to follow him throughout much of his career: the print was too dazzling, the strokes too narrow and the paper too glossy. Baskerville’s types achieved their effect by his modification of the stress nearer the vertical; the transition between thick and thin strokes was more pronounced than in previous types, and the general effect was of greater precision. He may not have set up his own paper mill, as has been suggested, but he certainly exploited the properties of the newly developed wove paper and pressed it to achieve a crisp finish (...



(b Paris, Dec 11, 1715; d Paris, 1797).

French soldier, amateur printmaker and collector. He was sometimes called ‘Comte’, probably an assumed title. He was raised by his grandfather Jean Baudouin des Pacauds (d 1722), a tobacco merchant and collector of maps and mathematical instruments, whose wealth he inherited. In 1736 Baudouin joined a regiment of the Gardes Françaises as a gentilhomme à drapeau. He was an amateur printmaker of limited technical skill; in 1757 he published L’Exercice de l’infanterie française, a book of 62 prints. He presented it to Louis XV and was rewarded with 20,000 francs. The book was republished in 1759, with the plates re-engraved by Augustin de Saint-Aubin. Baudouin was a considerable collector, particularly of Dutch and Flemish paintings, which served as models for many of his prints. In 1779 he sold 115 paintings from his collection to Catherine the Great, having had copies made of 92 of them. Many of the works he sold, including ...


Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...


Véronique Meyer

French family of printmakers and print-publishers. Jacques-Firmin Beauvarlet (b Abbeville, 25 Sept 1731; d Paris, 7 Dec 1797) was an etcher, engraver and print-publisher. He came to Paris in 1750 and trained in turn with Robert Hecquet (1693–1775), Charles Dupuis and Laurent Cars. In 1762 he was appointed Graveur du Roi and in the same year was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale, although he was not made a member (reçu) until 1776; his morceau de réception was a portrait of Edme Bouchardon after the painting by François-Hubert Drouais (Paris, Louvre). In 1761 Beauvarlet married Catherine-Françoise Deschamps (b Paris, 1737; d Paris, 7 July 1769), an engraver and etcher. Her small body of work (around 15 pieces) was mostly published by her husband between 1761 and 1769. She engraved genre scenes after Greuze, such as the Coal Merchant and the ...


Alden R. Gordon

(b Paris, Feb 23, 1726; d Paris, Feb 27, 1786).

French engraver and writer. He won the Prix de Rome in architecture in 1747 and, under the sponsorship of the Abbé Ulrich-Frédéric de Lowendal (1694–1754), departed from Paris late in 1748 to take his place as a scholar at the Académie de France in Rome, where he became actively involved with the antiquarian movement. In 1750 he contributed views of Rome to Ridolfino Venuti’s guidebook Roma and also collaborated with Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Jean-Laurent Legeay and Philotée-François Duflos (?1710–46) on producing etchings for Piranesi’s Varie vedute di Roma antica e moderna. Bellicard was chosen as travelling companion to Abel-François Poisson de Vandières, Marquis de Marigny, in 1750–51, replacing Jacques-Germain Soufflot who had become ill and returned to Lyon to convalesce. Collaborating with Charles-Nicolas Cochin II, another of Marigny’s companions, Bellicard wrote the Observations sur les antiquités de la ville d’Herculanum, which were the first illustrated accounts of the archaeological sites near Naples and were a great success, being published in three English-language editions in London and in three French editions in Paris. As Directeur-Général des Bâtiments, ...


Maxime Préaud



(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...


(b Türkheim, bapt April 15, 1688; d Augsburg, April 2, 1762).

German painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. His frescoes and altarpieces and his teaching established him as the dominant figure in the art life of Augsburg in the earlier 18th century. He came from a family of well-known Swabian sculptors, cabinetmakers and painters, with whom he probably initially trained. The Bavarian Duke Maximilian Philip paid for him to study (1702–8) with the Munich court painter Johann Andreas Wolff, after which he was summoned by the Elector of the Palatinate to decorate the court church of St Hubertus in Düsseldorf (1708–9; destr.). In 1710 or 1712 Bergmüller frescoed the church of Kreuzpullach, near Wolfratshausen. In his request for permission to marry and for mastership in Augsburg in 1712, he referred to an otherwise undocumented stay in the Netherlands. He settled permanently in the Imperial Free City in 1713 and attended its Reichstädtische Kunstakademie from 1715. From this time he rose to become the most influential painter and teacher in Augsburg, with apprentices coming from beyond the city, including ...


Stephanie Nevison Brown

(b Paris, March 20, 1767; d Paris, June 11, 1842).

French painter and lithographer. In 1785 Bertin entered the Académie Royale de Peinture as a pupil of the history painter Gabriel-François Doyen. By 1788 he had become a pupil of the landscape painter Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes who directed him towards idealized Italianate landscape. Between 1785 and 1793 Bertin participated unsuccessfully in academic competitions and his official début came only in 1793 when he exhibited in the ‘open’ Salon. After 1793 he contributed consistently to the Salon until his death. In 1801 he received a Prix d’Encouragement for the Town of Pheneos. Like many of his early Salon works, it is now known only through engravings. Among his early extant Salon works are the Statue, or Interior of a Park (1800; Dijon, Mus. Magnin), View of Ronciglione (1808; Nantes, Mus. B.-A.) and Arrival of Napoleon at Ettlingen (1812; Versailles, Château).

Bertin constructed his paintings predominantly according to Poussin’s principles of idyllic landscape and drew on stock compositional devices from the master’s repertory. The results are decorative but distinguished by a marked correctness and balance in design, severe draughtsmanship and harmonious colour. It was probably their decorative quality that led to the state purchase of many works for official palaces such as the Grand Trianon at Versailles and Fontainebleau, and for provincial museums. Further official recognition came in ...



(b Paris, May 23, 1756; d Paris, March 23, 1822).

French engraver. At baptism he was erroneously registered as Jean-Guillaume instead of Charles-Clément and has consequently been known by two different sets of Christian names, while his assumed surname was taken from his father’s nickname. He received his earliest training in Jean-Baptiste Le Prince’s studio; at the age of 14 he enrolled in the studio of the engraver Jean-Georges Wille, who thought highly of him and of his work, particularly admiring his draughtsmanship. Like his teacher, Bervic worked entirely in burin, which resulted in a severity of style comparable to that of his master. He received numerous prizes and honours. On 24 September 1774 the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris awarded him first prize for drawing from the nude in the quarterly competition for students. On 25 May 1784 he was approved (agréé) as a member by the Académie. In 1792 he won the prize awarded for the encouragement of line-engraving and in ...


Colin Campbell

(b nr Eltringham, Northumb, 10 or Aug 12, 1753; d Gateshead, Nov 8, 1828).

English engraver. The son of a farmer and colliery worker, Bewick had a rural upbringing. He was apprenticed at the age of 14 to Ralph Beilby (1743–1817), a Newcastle trade engraver who taught him how to inscribe and decorate silver and other metals and the art of copperplate engraving. In his youth Bewick learnt to engrave end-grain boxwood, a medium whose potential had still to be developed. In 1776 he received a premium from the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts for a series of wood-engravings illustrating fables, and later the same year he travelled to London, where he worked for the engraver Isaac Taylor the elder. He returned to Newcastle in 1777, entering into partnership with Beilby.

Bewick’s professional life was subsequently devoted principally to jobbing work on metal (the engraving of rings, boxes, salvers, cutlery, clockfaces and so on), but his developing skill as a wood-engraver became known, and this led, in the 1770s, to commissions to illustrate a number of children’s books published by the Newcastle printer ...


(b London, c. 1684; d London, May 4, 1758).

English engraver. A son of John Bickham the elder, he was taught writing and copperplate engraving by John Sturt (1658–1730). He engraved many frontispieces and portraits of contemporary worthies, such as Sir Isaac Newton or the poet Stephen Duck, but he made his name as the finest engraver of writing copybooks of his day. At least 18 titles are known, most of them made up solely of engravings after examples of Bickham’s own calligraphy.

Bickham advertised that he boarded and taught youths writing, drawing, engraving and accounts. In the early 18th century these subjects were still relatively interdependent, and it was not at all unusual to find a writing master capable of intricate Baroque penwork flourishes or a mathematician (who could more easily understand the rules of perspective) offering lessons in drawing. Thomas Weston (d 1728), Assistant Astronomer Royal and Master of the Academy at Greenwich, employed Bickham to engrave and provide examples for his ...