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Article

Troels Andersen

[Jørgensen, Asger Oluf]

(b Vejrum, Jutland, March 3, 1914; d Århus, May 1, 1973).

Danish painter, printmaker, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor and writer, also active in France. His personality and work exerted a decisive influence on his contemporaries, and he is recognized as one of the most important Scandinavian artists since Edvard Munch. He grew up in the provincial town of Silkeborg, Jutland, but after qualifying as a teacher in 1935 he went to Paris to study under Fernand Léger. He also worked as an assistant to Le Corbusier in 1937 during the Exposition Universelle. In 1938 he held his first exhibition in Copenhagen, with Pierre Wemaëre (b 1913). Jorn had to return to Denmark shortly before the outbreak of World War II. In 1941 he set up Helhesten, a magazine dealing with art, literature and archaeology. Among its contributors were Ejler Bille, Henry Heerup, Egill Jacobsen and Carl-Henning Pedersen; they developed a concept of spontaneous–abstract art, based partly on the pioneer work of Richard Mortensen and Ejler Bille during the 1930s....

Article

Judi Freeman

(b Argentan, Orne, Feb 4, 1881; d Gif-sur-Yvette, Seine-et-Oise, Aug 17, 1955).

French painter, draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, and ceramicist. Among the most prominent artists in Paris in the first half of the 20th century, he was prolific in many media and articulated a consistent position on the role of art in society in his many lectures and writings. His mature work underwent many changes, from a Cubist-derived abstraction in the 1910s to a distinctive realist imagery in the 1950s. Léger attracted numerous students to his various schools, and his ideas and philosophy were disseminated by modern artists throughout Europe and the Americas.

Born in rural Normandy, Léger often said that he was of ‘peasant stock’. Although his father was a cattle merchant, Léger was sent by his family to Caen in 1897 to be an apprentice in an architect’s office, where he remained until 1899. In 1900 he went to Paris and again worked in an architect’s office as a draughtsman. After compulsory military service in ...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Liberec, Bohemia [now in Czech Republic], Sept 28, 1874; d Vienna, March 23, 1960).

Austrian painter, printmaker, designer and ceramicist. After being taught to draw at the Gewerbemuseum in Reichenberg, from 1890 to 1900 he studied drawing at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna (now the Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst) under the Austrian Franz von Matsch (1861–1942). In 1909 he was appointed a teacher at the Kunststickereischule in Vienna, and from 1909 to 1935 he was a professor at the Kunstgewerbeschule. In 1906 he founded Wiener Keramik with Michael Powolny. The firm contributed tiles for Josef Hoffmann’s Palais Stoclet in Brussels (1905–11). From 1907 the Wiener Werkstätte took over the distribution and sale of their vases, figurines, boxes and tiles, selling them also in Germany from 1908. In 1913 Wiener Keramik merged with the Künstlerische Werkstätte Franz und Emilie Schleiss in Gmunden to form the Vereinigte Wiener und Gmundner Keramik. In collaborative works by Löffler and Powolny it is often very difficult to establish who did different aspects. Löffler preferred to provide the often fanciful designs, leaving the modelling to other assistants, for example in the figurines ...

Article

Martina Rudloff

(b Berlin, Feb 18, 1889; d Burgbrohl, nr Cologne, Nov 13, 1981).

German sculptor, potter, draughtsman and printmaker. He first sculpted animals while studying under Richard Scheibe (from 1907), and in 1910 modelled animals for the Schwarzburg Porcelain Factory. After World War I his interest in classicism gave way to the influence of Expressionism and of the Sturm artists, as part of a search for a new spirituality. This new style of work can be seen in Woman Suckling (gold-plated limewood relief, 1919; Bremen, Marcks-Haus). Walter Gropius, who founded the Bauhaus in Weimar in 1919, asked Marcks to establish a ceramics workshop for the school in the nearby village of Dornburg. With his students he set out to create a Bauhaus ceramics ethic of simplicity and honesty of design as determined by the materials used and the function of the object. In stylistic terms he combined geometry with a local pottery tradition. He was also inspired by Lyonel Feininger to make woodcuts of rural genre themes....

Article

José Corredor-Matheos

(b Barcelona, April 20, 1893; d Palma de Mallorca, Dec 25, 1983).

Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker and decorative artist (see fig.). He was never closely aligned with any movement and was too retiring in his manner to be the object of a personality cult, like his compatriot Picasso, but the formal and technical innovations that he sustained over a very long career guaranteed his influence on 20th-century art. A pre-eminent figure in the history of abstraction and an important example to several generations of artists around the world, he remained profoundly attached to the specific circumstances and environment that shaped his art in his early years. An acute balance of sophistication and innocence and a deeply rooted conviction about the relationship between art and nature lie behind all his work and account in good measure for the wide appeal that his art has continued to exercise across many of the usual barriers of style.

Article

Melissa McQuillan

(b Málaga, Oct 25, 1881; d Mougins, France, April 8, 1973).

Spanish painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, decorative artist and writer, active in France. He dominated 20th-century European art and was central in the development of the image of the modern artist. Episodes of his life were recounted in intimate detail, his comments on art were published and his working methods recorded on film. Painting was his principal medium, but his sculptures, prints, theatre designs and ceramics all had an impact on their respective disciplines. Even artists not influenced by the style or appearance of his work had to come to terms with its implications.

With Georges Braque Picasso was responsible for Cubism, one of the most radical re-structurings of the way that a work of art constructs its meaning. During his extremely long life Picasso instigated or responded to most of the artistic dialogues taking place in Europe and North America, registering and transforming the developments that he found most fertile. His marketability as a unique and enormously productive artistic personality, together with the distinctiveness of his work and practice, have made him the most extensively exhibited and discussed artist of the 20th century....

Article

David Blayney Brown

(b Dinsdale, Co. Durham, 1647; d York, 1728).

English draughtsman, printmaker and potter. Of a Yorkshire family living in Durham, Place was intended for the Bar, and he entered Gray’s Inn, London, in 1665. However, a meeting with Wenzel Hollar confirmed his early inclination to art. Place was collaborating with him as early as 1665, and it was presumably Hollar who taught him to etch, for in 1667 he produced several etchings of grotesque heads, two of them after Francesco Parmigianino (e.g. London, BM) and David Teniers. Place was one of several artists invited by Hollar to etch the plates for John Ogilby’s edition of Jan Nieuhoff’s Embassy to the Emperor of China (London, 1669). The 17 plates signed by Place and 23 others attributable to him were his first book illustrations and his earliest essays in topography.

In the mid-1670s Place journeyed around England and probably the Netherlands, for he made drawings of places around Antwerp and The Hague, and some of his etchings bear the names of Dutch publishers such as ...

Article

Freda Constable

(William)

(b Acton, London, July 23, 1903; d off Iceland, Sept 2, 1942).

English painter, wood-engraver and designer. He was educated at Eastbourne School of Art and then at the Royal College of Art (1922–5), where he was taught by Paul Nash and became close friends with Edward Bawden. His early works included the refectory mural (destr. 1940) in Morley College, London, and wood-engravings in the tradition of Bewick for the Golden Cockerel, Curwen and Nonesuch presses. In the 1930s he began painting larger compositions in a wider range of colour, and this led him to use lithography for such illustrations as those for High Street (text by J. M. Richards; London, 1938). Ravilious also produced designs for Wedgwood, including the celebration mug (1936) for the coronation of King Edward VIII, which was withdrawn and revised for the coronations of George VI and Elizabeth II; the Alphabet mug (1937); the Afternoon Tea (1937), ...

Article

Judit Geskó

(b Kaposvár, May 23, 1861; d Kaposvár, Nov 27, 1927).

Hungarian painter, printmaker, pastellist, ceramicist and designer. In 1881 he graduated in pharmacy from the Budapest University of Sciences. He worked as a pharmacist for a short time and then became tutor to Count Ödön Zichy. In 1884 he registered at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich, becoming a student in the life class and studying under Johann Caspar Herterich (1843–1905) and Wilhelm von Diez (1839–1907). In 1887 he went to Paris to work in the studio of Mihály Munkácsy, for whom he copied and finished paintings for export to the USA. In 1889 Rippl-Rónai went to Pont-Aven, where he painted In a Pont-Aven Bar (1889; Budapest, priv. col.) and Woman in a White Spotted Dress (1889; Budapest, N.G.), which shows the influence of Whistler (which persisted throughout his career) and in which, as in many of his paintings of this period, the dominant colour is black. In ...

Article

Birgit Hessellund

(Johannes)

(b Copenhagen, Nov 17, 1889; d Copenhagen, March 21, 1961).

Danish potter, printmaker, designer and painter. He trained at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1909–14) and exhibited at the Kunstnernes Efterårsudstilling (Artists’ Autumn Exhibition), the Den Frie and Grønningen exhibitions, among others. He was among the young generation of modernists associated with the periodical Klingen (1917–20), of which he was a co-founder. In 1921 this developed into the group De Fire (the Four), comprising Salto, Svend Johansen (b 1890), Vilhelm Lundstrøm and Karl Larsen (b 1897), who exhibited from 1920 to 1929, often from their base in the south of France. Salto’s paintings and prints drew on Classical mythology, which also interested his contemporaries, as in such early heroic figure compositions as his first painting Bacchus and Ariadne (1914). He produced lithographic illustrations for such works as Ovid’s Metamorphoses (Forvandlingerne; Copenhagen, 1918) and woodcuts for Apuleius’ The Golden Ass...

Article

Anna Bentkowska

(b Łódź, May 3, 1924).

Polish sculptor, draughtsman, painter, ceramicist, printmaker and tapestry designer. He studied at the School of Fine Arts in Łódź, graduating in 1951. His style derives from Constructivism and from the ‘Unism’ of his teacher Władysław Strzemiński. Starczewski’s complex art uses the complementary treatment in combination with different visual disciplines. He was particularly interested in rhythmic, precise arrangements of forms and signs (e.g. MF 7/9, embossed paper, 1972, see D. Wróblewska: Polish Contemporary Graphic Art (Warsaw, 1983), fig.). One of his earliest works was a large-scale ceramic bas-relief entitled Disposition for Two Hands (1959–60), a geometric abstraction made for the University Library in Łódź. In 1963 he produced his first Alphabet of sculptural signs, a series of works that led to his conception of Tables (examples of both in Łódź, Mus. A.), which he started to create in 1973. On a long, rectangular table covered with a white tablecloth, Starczewski arranged alternate rows of identical forms, such as potatoes or bread rolls (ceramic or real), or sequences of three objects (e.g. a wine glass, toothbrush and tube of toothpaste). These arrangements are accompanied by graphic compositions that explore different types of signs (print, braille, handwriting) and examine their relationship (e.g. ...

Article

Mark Allen Svede

(b nr Cēsis, April 28, 1896; d Tbilisi, Georgia, July 14, 1944).

Latvian painter, printmaker, ceramicist, interior designer, tage and film set designer and theorist. He was the foremost ideologue for modernism in Latvia and was one of its greatest innovators. His militant defence of avant-garde principles befitted his experience as a soldier and as one of the artists who, after World War I, was denied a studio by the city officials and staged an armed occupation of the former premises of the Riga Art School. At the end of the war he painted in an Expressionist manner: In Church (1917; Riga, priv. col., see Suta, 1975, p. 19), for example, is an exaltation of Gothic form and primitivist rendering. Unlike his peers Jāzeps Grosvalds and Jēkabs Kazaks, he was extremely interested in Cubism and Constructivism, the theories of which informed his paintings, drawings, prints and occasional architectural projects of the 1920s. At this time he and his wife, the painter ...

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Horconcitos, Chiriquí, Feb 11, 1927).

Panamanian painter, ceramicist, printmaker, tapestry designer and landscape architect. He studied both architecture and painting in Panama, holding his first exhibition in 1953; he then continued his studies in Madrid (1954–8) at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, at the Escuela de Cerámica de la Moncloa and at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura. In 1959 he returned to Panama, where he began a long teaching career at the Universidad de Panamá. In the early 1960s Trujillo painted social satires, such as The Commissioners (1964; Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp.) with small monstrous figures in cavernous settings. Later his palette brightened as he turned to new subjects based on nature, including numerous still-lifes and semi-abstract paintings with botanical allusions, for example Still-life with Fruit (1975; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas).

Always a versatile and prolific artist, in the 1970s and 1980s he based his subjects both on his rich imagination and on his knowledge of Panama’s indigenous cultures. He made recurring reference to the patterns of pre-Columbian ceramics, natural and biomorphic forms, mythological and primitive figures, and Indian symbols and ceremonies, all treated as elements of an iconography strongly related to his Panamanian origin. Although generally classified as belonging to the return to figuration among Latin American artists, he ranged stylistically from realism to abstraction....

Article

Dario Succi

(b Angarano di Bassano, March 30, 1740; d Rome, Sept 22, 1803).

Italian engraver and porcelain manufacturer ( see fig. ). In 1760 he entered the famous copperplate printworks of Giambattista Remondini in Bassano and, under the guidance of Antonio Baratti, learnt the art of engraving and etching. During this early period he engraved, signing himself Jean Renard, four Rustic Capricci after Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, the Four Parts of the World after Jacopo Amigoni, the Four Ages of Man after Andrea Zucchi and the portrait of Giambattista Morgagni. On the invitation of Francesco Bartolozzi, who had noted his talent during a visit to Bassano, he moved to Venice in 1762 and was thus able to refine his technique while maintaining his connection with the Remondini concern as a technical consultant and commercial adviser.

In Venice, Volpato engraved four landscapes after Francesco Zuccarelli, six landscapes after Marco Ricci, four religious scenes after Amigoni, the Four Seasons and six Flemish Scenes after Francesco Maggiotto, as well as various portraits, including those of the ...

Article

Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...

Article

Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Langres, Haute-Marne, March 16, 1804; d Paris, Dec 25, 1856).

French painter, ceramicist, writer and lithographer. He first studied in Paris under Ingres and François-Joseph Heim. In 1830 he toured Italy, spending time in Venice especially, and then went to Munich, where he learnt the technique of fresco painting from Peter Cornelius. After spending some time in Belgium, he returned to Paris and illustrated such Romantic pieces of literature as E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Contes fantastiques. At the Salon of 1831 he exhibited paintings based on his travels, including View of Venice (Nantes, Mus. B.-A.) and Souvenir of Germany. In 1833 he established his reputation as a history painter by showing at the Salon two works that were based on medieval sources: Giotto in Cimabue’s Studio (Bordeaux, Mus. B.-A.), bought by the State for the Musée du Luxembourg, and the Death of Foscari (Arras, Mus. B.-A.). At the Salon of 1835 he was awarded medals for portraits of Connétable, Comte de Sancerre...