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Article

Carolyn Kinder Carr

(b Cincinnati, OH, July 9, 1857; d New York, June 8, 1903).

American painter and illustrator. The son of German–American parents, he probably became interested in magazine illustration while an apprentice at Gibson & Co., lithographers in Cincinnati, during 1873 and 1874. He began drawing lessons at the McMicken School of Design (now the Art Academy of Cincinnati) c. 1873, transferring to the Ohio Mechanics Institute in 1874. Blum visited the Centennial Exposition (1876) in Philadelphia and was impressed with paintings by Giovanni Boldini and Mariano Fortuny y Marsal and by Japanese art. He remained there for about nine months, studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.

In 1878 Blum moved to New York, where he contributed illustrations to such magazines as St Nicholas and Scribner’s Magazine. Two years later he took the first of numerous trips to Europe. In Venice he met James McNeill Whistler and Frank Duveneck and under their influence took up etching. He travelled frequently with ...

Article

Sascha Scott

(b Pittsburgh, PA, May 25, 1874; d Albuquerque, NM, June 6, 1960).

American painter and illustrator. Raised in Dayton, OH, Blumenschein showed an early aptitude for music, art, and sports. Upon graduating from high school, he began training as a musician on a violin scholarship at the Music Academy of Cincinnati. Blumenschein left the Academy after a year and enrolled in the Art Academy of Cincinnati, where he received a prize for illustration in Fernand Harvey Lungren’s class. In 1893, he moved to New York City and enrolled at the Art Students League, where his instructors included John Twachtman and Kenyon Cox. Over the course of the next 15 years, he moved back and forth between New York and Paris, periodically visiting other locales, including Taos, NM, Italy, and Giverny. He twice enrolled at the Académie Julian (1894–6 and 1899), where he studied with Jean-Paul Laurens and Benjamin Constant. In 1905, he married artist Mary Shepard Greene (1869–1958), and, with the birth of their daughter in ...

Article

Leslie Heiner

[Carl]

(b Riesbach, Switzerland, Feb 1809; d Barbizon, Seine-et-Marne, Oct 30, 1893).

Swiss painter and graphic artist, active in the USA and France. Bodmer’s earliest exposure to art probably came from his uncle, the landscape painter and engraver Johann Jakob Meyer (1787–1858). When he was 22, Bodmer moved to Paris, where he studied art under Sébastien Cornu. In Paris he met his future patron, Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied, who was planning an ambitious scientific expedition to North America. Bodmer was engaged to accompany the expedition and to provide sketches of the American wilderness. After touring the East Coast, the party made their way westward via the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to St Louis, MO, and in 1833 travelled up the Missouri River into country scarcely inhabited by white men. On the journey north to Ft MacKenzie, WY, Bodmer recorded the landscape and the groups of Indians they encountered. Having wintered in Ft Clark, ND, they returned to New York and then Europe in ...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Saluzzo, Feb 16, 1740; d Nov 29, 1813).

Italian typographer. He was born into a family of typographers and at the age of 18 moved to Rome, where he was introduced to Cardinal Spinelli. In 1766 Bodoni set out for England, but illness forced him to return home. He started printing and received some local commissions; then, through the offices of Cardinal Spinelli’s librarian, Paolo Maria Paciaudi (1755–1829), he was employed as head of the Stamperia Reale of the dukes of Parma. His early books show the influence of the types used by Pierre-Simon Fournier. He developed a dramatic, bold style, exemplified by the Epithalamia (1775), which celebrates the wedding of the sister of the French king Louis XVI. His mature style achieved a stark brilliance and Neo-classical purity, and from the 1780s he worked with his brother Giuseppe Bodoni (d 1825) to produce his own types. Bodoni made three main innovations in ...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Fyodorovich)

(b Feodosiya, Ukraine, Jan 12, 1872; d Feodosiya, Feb 17, 1943).

Ukrainian painter and graphic artist. He studied at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, from 1891 to 1897 under Arkhip Kuindzhi, and he was profoundly influenced by Kuindzhi’s ideas of national romantic landscape. Bogayevsky was a member of the World of Art (Rus. Mir Iskusstva) Society and of the Union of Russian Artists (Soyuz Russkikh Khudozhnikov). Most of his work was devoted to the Eastern Crimea, and he became a master of the epic historical landscape. He was dedicated to depicting ‘Kimmeriya’ (the poetic name for the Crimea, after ‘Kimmerians’, ancient tribes that inhabited the peninsula in 8–7 bc), as was his friend, the poet and artist Maksimilian Voloshin (1877–1932).

On a number of occasions Bogayevsky approached a fine stylization in his work in the spirit of the Italian quattrocento (e.g. Memories of Mantegna, 1910; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), but he usually worked from the motif, which he made monumental in the tradition of ‘heroic landscape’ (e.g. ...

Article

José-Augusto França

Portuguese family of artists. Manuel Maria Bordalo Pinheiro (1815–90) was a successful amateur painter, specializing in genre paintings on historical themes. The work of his son (1) Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro is sharp, graphic and witty, caricaturing intellectuals and politicians, while that of his younger son (2) Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro is more introverted, expressing in many portraits a notably sombre image of Portuguese life in the late 19th century. Rafael’s son Manuel Gustavo Bordalo Pinheiro (1867–1920) continued his father’s work, with less distinction.

(b Lisbon, March 21, 1846; d Lisbon, Jan 23, 1905).

Draughtsman, caricaturist and ceramic designer. He attended drawing classes at the Academia de Belas-Artes in Lisbon. He also had a great and lasting passion for the theatre and a degree of acting talent that helped his early success as a caricaturist. His first humorous publication was the album O Calcanhar de Aquiles...

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...

Article

Michael Howard

(b Vercelli, Piedmont, March 11, 1806; d Dijon, March 5, 1867).

French painter, illustrator, set designer and poet. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Guillaume Lethière from 1821. The Punishment of Mazeppa (1827; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.), inspired by the scene from Byron’s poem, in which Mazeppa is tied to the back of a wildly stampeding horse, is his most important early painting and one of the key images of the Romantic movement.

Early in his career Boulanger became friendly with Eugène and Achille Devéria. Through them he met Victor Hugo, who became his ardent supporter and the source of many of his most typical works. Among Boulanger’s illustrations were those for Hugo’s Odes et ballades (1829), Les Orientales (1829), Les Fantômes (1829) and Notre-Dame de Paris (1844). Boulanger interpreted the macabre and romantic quality of Hugo’s texts with an imaginative power and freedom that anticipated Redon (e.g. ‘...

Article

(b Orléans, Oct 18, 1851; d Nemours, Seine-et-Marne, March 16, 1913).

French painter and illustrator. From 1869 he took a course at the De Rudder school of art and in the following year was admitted to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he worked in the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. He took part in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and afterwards studied under Jules Lefebvre, Gustave Boulanger and Carolus-Duran. From Carolus-Duran he acquired a liking for portraiture (e.g. Rachel Boyer as Diana, 1886; Paris, Louvre) and for the works of Ribera, which he admired particularly for their dark and resinous tones. From 1873 he exhibited at the Salon and in 1885 he created a stir with his Apotheosis of a Scoundrel (or Apotheosis of Robert Macaire; Orléans, Mus. B.-A.), a work imbued with a violently anti-republican spirit. As well as painting, he illustrated children’s literature, beginning with the successful La France en zig-zags (1881). Other collections followed: ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Boston, MA, July 10, 1868; d La Mesa, CA, Jan 25, 1962).

American book-illustrator and designer of posters, typefaces and furniture. In 1893 Bradley began designing for Vogue magazine. He subsequently worked for Ladies’ Home Journal, and in 1901–2 published an influential series of eight articles on ‘The Bradley House’; the designs in these articles (and another three in 1905) seem not to have been implemented, but they nonetheless exerted a seminal influence on public taste and on subsequent furniture design; his designs for pianos were used by Chickering & Sons of Boston. Bradley also designed two series of plates for Royal Doulton: ‘Golfers’ (...

Article

Clare A. P. Willsdon

(b Bruges, May 12, 1867; d Ditchling, Sussex, June 11, 1956).

English painter and graphic artist. Largely self-taught, he helped his father, William Brangwyn, who was an ecclesiastical architect and textile designer in Bruges. After his family moved to England in 1875 Brangwyn entered the South Kensington Art Schools and from 1882 to 1884 worked for William Morris. Harold Rathbone and Arthur Mackmurdo encouraged him to copy Raphael and Donatello in the Victoria and Albert Museum, complementing his already broad knowledge of Dutch and Flemish art.

Brangwyn’s plein-air work in Cornwall from 1884 to 1888 resulted in a series of oils, exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Royal Society of British Artists, London, in which the subdued tones indicate the influences of Whistler and the Newlyn school. Journeys to the Near East, South Africa and Europe in the early 1890s, and contact with Arthur Melville, encouraged the use of a brighter palette in exotic subjects such as the Slave Market...

Article

(b Prague, April 9, 1858; d Prague, May 23, 1934).

Bohemian etcher, illustrator, painter and writer. As the daughter of František Augustín Braun, a prominent Bohemian politician, she was able to play a significant role in Bohemia’s cultural life at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, especially in the area of Czech–French cultural relations. She was a frequent visitor to Paris, where her elder sister, who was married to the writer Elémir Bourges, lived. She was instrumental in familiarizing Bohemian artists with French culture and introduced them to such prominent artists as Rodin, Redon and others. In Bohemia she was much to the fore in bringing writers and artists together and in discovering such artists as František Bílek. She painted landscapes and together with her teacher Antonín Chittussi established contacts in France with members of the Barbizon school. She was, however, primarily an etcher and illustrator and she specialized in etchings of Old Prague, for example ...

Article

Michèle Lavallée

(b Rothau, Vosges, Oct 24, 1824; d Paris, Nov 5, 1877).

French painter and illustrator. His family settled in Strasbourg in 1831 and placed him in the studio of the portrait and history painter Gabriel-Christophe Guérin (1790–1846) in 1840. He then earned his living mainly by teaching drawing and copying paintings. In 1847 he successfully submitted his first work to the Salon: Farmhouse Interior at Dambach (untraced). In the summer of 1850 he moved to Paris, where he took a studio in a house shared by Realist artists. Brion exhibited regularly at the Salon: in 1852 The Towpath (untraced) was bought by the de Goncourt brothers; and in 1853 he showed the Potato Harvest during the Flooding of the Rhine in 1852 (Nantes, Mus. B.-A.), in which the influence of Gustave Courbet and Jean-François Millet (ii) can be seen in the Alsatian peasant figures.

During the 1850s Brion produced landscape, rustic, and historical genre subjects and portraits, but later in the decade he concentrated on subjects from Alsace, which he regularly visited. Their success, and Napoleon III’s campaign to foster Alsatian culture, led him to produce such historical pieces as ...

Article

Thomas W. Leavitt

(b Boston, MA, Feb 2, 1814; d Malden, MA, June 25, 1889).

American painter and illustrator. Brown was apprenticed at about 14 to the Boston wood-engraver Alonzo Hartwell and had produced scores of illustrations by 1832, when he turned to painting and sailed to Europe for further training. After brief stays in Antwerp and London, he settled in Paris, where he was admitted to the atelier of Isabey family, §2. Returning to America in 1834, Brown produced illustrations, portraits and landscapes. He travelled throughout the north-eastern USA, sketching in watercolour and in oil. His work was admired by Washington Allston, who assisted him in a second visit to Europe.

Brown and his wife settled in Florence from 1841 to 1846. At first he painted copies from Old Masters for American and British tourists, but gradually, as his technique and composition improved, he began to create original Italian landscapes with strong chiaroscuro and impasto. He became closely involved with American expatriates and many artists and writers. He moved to Rome in ...

Article

Lewis Johnson

[Phiz]

(b London, July 12, 1815; d Hove, W. Sussex, July 8, 1882).

English illustrator, etcher and painter. Browne’s only formal education consisted of sporadic attendance at the St Martin’s Lane Academy life class and apprenticeship to the line-engraver William Finden. In 1834 he cancelled his indenture and established an illustrators’ workshop with fellow apprentice Robert Young, producing etchings and watercolours in preference to the more laborious line-engravings. He won the Silver Isis medal of the Society of Arts in 1833 for his etching, John Gilpin’s Ride. He also produced illustrations for Sunday under Three Heads (1836), an anti-Sabbatarian pamphlet published pseudonymously by Charles Dickens, who later preferred Browne to Thackeray as collaborator in the production of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club. Initially The Pickwick Papers was merely meant to accompany etchings of pastimes of contemporary London by Robert Seymour (1798–1836), but after Seymour’s suicide Dickens took charge and made them a narrative with illustrations in monthly parts. Symptomatic of this accommodation of image to prose is Browne signing himself first ‘Nemo’ and then ‘Phiz’ (a depicter of physiognomies) to harmonize with Dickens’s ‘Boz’. Browne played an important part, for instance, in the portrayal of Sam Weller, whom he made less wiry, less an example of what Dickens called ‘loutish humour’, but more resilient and knowingly ironical....

Article

Catherine Cooke

(Yakovlevich)

(b Moscow, 1873; d Moscow, Oct 9, 1924).

Russian poet and theorist. He is generally seen as the leader of the Russian Symbolist movement in non-visual arts, but he was also closely associated with Symbolist painters and graphic artists through the glossy journals that were mouthpieces for their synthesist philosophy. Thus during 1901–04 he contributed to the literary section of Mir iskusstva (‘World of Art’), and from 1904 to 1909 he was editor of Vesy (‘The scales’); in 1906–07 he wrote for Zolotoye runo (‘Golden fleece’) and during 1909–11 for Apollon, as well as for several literary journals. Becoming aware as a student of the growing ‘decadent’ trend in European poetry he set out consciously in 1893 to lead such a movement in Russia, publishing three small poetry collections in 1894–5 with a schoolfriend, A. Miropolsky-Lang. His translations of European poets such as Paul Verlaine initially brought him more respect than his early poems. Drawing heavily on formal and technical innovations abroad, Bryusov developed a theory of artistic synthesis that emphasized technical precision and control of form over mimetic or theosophical concerns. This attention to detail and emphasis on the aesthetic was symptomatic of the ‘first generation’ of Russian Symbolists, who, under the leadership of Bryusov and Konstantin Bal’mont (...

Article

A. Daguerre de Hureaux

(b Moudon, Vaud, Aug 30, 1850; d Paris, Feb 4, 1921).

Swiss painter and illustrator. Having studied with Barthélemy Menn at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva, he went to Paris in 1872 and joined Jean-Léon Gérôme’s studio. After a visit to Rome in 1876–7, he returned to live in Paris in 1878. Burnand was primarily a landscape painter. Works such as the Village Pump (1879; Neuchâtel, Mus. A. & Hist.), Bull in the Alps (1884; Lausanne, Pal. Rumine) and Day’s End (1896; Lucerne, Kstmus.) reveal his debt to the Realism of Millet and Courbet and express a genuine attentiveness and great sensitivity to nature. This Realism is also present in his religious works, for example the Apostles Peter and John Running to the Sepulchre (1898; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). After learning engraving with Paul Girardet (1821–93) in Versailles, Burnand also produced many illustrations for such newspapers as L’Illustration and Tour du monde. In addition he illustrated editions of numerous literary works: ...

Article

Geoffrey Ashton

[Francis]

(b Worcester, Sept 7, 1760; d London, Dec 16, 1848).

English painter and illustrator. He studied at the Royal Academy Schools, London, from 1777. The work of James Barry and Henry Fuseli was an influence on his style, which often strained unsuccessfully towards heroic effects, but a more mundane technical proficiency was gained from copying portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds. There are several accomplished versions of Reynolds’s 1781 portrait of Dr Charles Burney, Edward’s uncle (e.g. Oxford, Ashmolean), and the best of his few original portraits depicts his cousin, the novelist Fanny Burney (1782; London, N.P.G.). Burney’s first exhibited works were three drawings of scenes from Fanny Burney’s novel Evelina (exh. RA 1780; untraced), and his literary connections may have encouraged his work as an illustrator. Nevertheless, he had dreams of working on a larger scale and made sketches for a St Paul at Ephesus (c. 1800; New Haven, CT, Yale U., A.G.) in the manner of the Raphael Cartoons (London, V&A). Burney’s early drawings, such as the watercolour (...

Article

Colette E. Bidon

(b Cuisery, Saône-et-Loire, April 24, 1862; d Saulieu, Côte d’Or, Oct 29, 1928).

French painter, illustrator and printmaker. He was taught by his father, Victor Bussière, a decorative painter in Mâcon. He went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon and then to Paris, where he studied in the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. During further studies under Puvis de Chavannes, he came into contact with Gustave Moreau. Symbolist paintings followed, drawing on French legend, as in the Song of Roland (exh. Salon 1892), and Nordic myth (Valkyries, exh. Salon 1894); he exhibited at the Symbolist Salon de la Rose+Croix, 1893–5. In 1905 he rented a studio at Grez-sur-Loing on the edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau. Paintings such as the Rhine Maidens (1906; Mâcon, Mus. Mun. Ursulines) drew on observations of the forest, populating its streams with adolescent water nymphs. Such studies of the female nude—a lifelong speciality of Bussière’s—uphold a rigorous draughtsmanship that is yet not devoid of sensuality....

Article

Julian Treuherz

(b Chester, March 22, 1846; d St Augustine, FL, Feb 12, 1886).

English illustrator, painter and sculptor. Caldecott worked as a bank clerk in Whitchurch and Manchester and attended evening classes at the Manchester School of Art. He moved to London in 1872 and studied briefly at the Slade School of Fine Art. Through the painter Thomas Armstrong, he was introduced to London editors and publishers. He collaborated with Armstrong and W. E. Nesfield on decorative paintings for aesthetic interiors, notably at Bank Hall (1872–3), Derbys. Caldecott was taught to model by Jules Dalou, later modelling the gilt capitals of birds for the Arab Hall (1877–9) at Leighton House, London. Outstanding among Caldecott’s work were his illustrations to Washington Irving’s books, such as Old Christmas (1875), and the jolly Christmas stories and illustrated letters from abroad commissioned by the Graphic. However, his reputation rests on the frequently reprinted series of 16 picture books for children published between ...