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Article

Gordon Campbell

[Fr.: entrelacs]

Small garden where clipped, low-growing plants are laid out in a series of continuous interlacing bands. The term knot garden is sometimes used in 15th-century English to refer to a maze and in 16th- and 17th-century English to a French parterre (formal flower garden). Knot gardens seem to have originated in the knot designs of carpets and rugs imported into Europe from the Middle East in the 15th century.

The knot garden reached its apogee in England and France with designs printed in Thomas Hill’s The Profitable Art of Gardening (1568, 1608) and in L’Agriculture et la maison rustique (1564, 1570, 1572, 1582) by Charles Estienne and Jean Liébault; the 1572 edition was translated into English as Maison rustique, or the country farm by Richard Surflet in 1600, and the 1608 edition of Hill’s text replaces the knot design of the earlier edition with one borrowed from the ...

Article

[Theodor]

(b Hamburg, ?1575; d Rome, Jan 23, 1624).

German engraver. Based first in Hamburg and from 1614 in Nuremberg, he produced engravings after Dürer, including Christ the Gardener (1614; see Hollstein, no. 7) and Ecce homo (1614; h 8), ornamental prints, typified by the Bunch of Fruit of 1614, and a series of 14 prints of the Twelve Apostles with Christ and Paul (1614; h 9–22). He travelled subsequently to Bologna and Florence and in 1618 settled in Rome, living with other artists in the house of the painter Francesco Albani in the Via Paolina from 1621 until his death. His friendship with the engraver Francesco Villamena provided him with considerable inspiration for his own engraving. He worked in Italy from the paintings of Franciabigio and Lanfranco and, most notably, executed a series of 14 engravings of the Life of St John the Baptist (two versions, 1617 and 1618; h 30–43) after Andrea del Sarto’s frescoes (...

Article

F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

(b Paris, March 12, 1613; d Paris, Sept 15, 1700).

French garden designer and collector. He was outstanding in his time for his innovation and skill in garden design, particularly in his work at Vaux-le-Vicomte, Versailles, and Chantilly, and his ardent disciples carried his gardening principles throughout France and beyond, so spreading his influence. Popular among contemporaries, he also enjoyed a special relationship with the traditionally aloof Louis XIV, who bestowed upon him the Order of St Lazare (later replaced by the even more prestigious Order of St Michel), a coat of arms, and, on his retirement, a princely pension. Although the original spelling of his name was Le Nostre, by the late 20th century the form of Le Nôtre had gained most currency.

His career was doubtless determined at an early age, since his grandfather, Pierre, and his father, Jean, were both royal gardeners, who worked principally at the Palais des Tuileries. He was thus initiated into gardening practice by his father and a coterie of distinguished gardeners that included Claude Mollet (i) (...

Article

[Remee; Remy] [Vallemput, Remigius; Vanlimpitt, Remigeus]

(bapt Antwerp, Dec 19, 1607; d London, bur Nov 9, 1675).

Flemish (possibly French) painter, copyist, collector and dealer, active in England. In 1635 he was living in the newly developed area of Covent Garden, London; at that time he was closely associated with Anthony van Dyck and presumably assisted in his studio. Through his varied activities, van Leemput became a leading figure in the London art world, and he assembled a major collection of paintings and drawings. He bought extensively when Charles I’s collections were sold in 1649–51; his purchases included works attributed to Titian, Giorgione, Correggio and Andrea del Sarto. Later he acquired the great equestrian portrait by van Dyck of Charles I with M. de St Antoine (British Royal Col.), which he apparently attempted to sell in Antwerp but asked too high a price. It was still with him at the Restoration in 1660, when it was recovered from him for Charles II.

Although van Leemput painted original works, he was best known for his small-scale copies after van Dyck and others. A series of ‘14 … Ladies heads Copys by Remy’ (described thus in Queen ...

Article

Robert Williams

(d Edgware [now in London], Jan 12, 1714).

English garden designer. He probably first trained at St James’s Palace, and he was subsequently Bishop Henry Compton’s gardener at Fulham Palace. In 1681 he co-founded Brompton Park nursery; by 1687 Henry Wise had joined, soon becoming London’s sole business partner and co-translator of their two gardening directories.

At William III’s accession in 1688 London’s political connections secured him the post of Master Gardener and Deputy Superintendent of the Royal Gardens. William spent large sums on his palace grounds, and London and Wise brought new designs, with stock supplied from Brompton, to Kensington, Hampton Court and elsewhere. Through his contacts in architectural and aristocratic circles, London strove further to expand his business; with Wise left in charge at Brompton, London travelled ceaselessly and gradually received commissions from the provinces. He served an aristocracy demanding productive yet ostentatious gardens, and his numerous layouts were mostly developed through the 1690s and beyond. At ...

Article

(b Florence, 1570–80; d Madrid, Dec 24, 1643).

Italian architect. His career began in Florence, where he was apprenticed to Bernardino Poccetti. He collaborated with Bernardo Buontalenti on the decoration (1593) of the Boboli Gardens and created several hydraulic systems for the gardens of Pratolino and Castello. He designed trophies to adorn the Via Tornabuoni façade of the Palazzo Strozzi and worked on stage settings, mainly with the dramatist Jacopo Cicognini at the court of Grand Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany. Lotti was sent to Spain in 1626 by Grand Duke Cosimo II to serve at the court of King Philip IV. His accomplishments enabled Philip to compete with the splendour of contemporary Italian and French courts by renovating the royal gardens, which had fallen into disrepair after the expulsion of Moorish engineers, and by producing spectacular theatre settings. Lotti designed a new theatre at the royal palace of Zarzuela (1634; destr.) and the Coliseo de Comedias (begun ...

Article

Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

Term applied to a style of architecture, interior décor and garden layout associated with the reign of Louis XIV of France (reg 1643–1715; see Bourbon, House of family, §I, (8)). Once he began his personal rule in 1661, the King took a passionate interest in the building and furnishing of the royal residences, notably Versailles, bringing together the most talented artists of the day to promote the power and magnificence of the monarchy. The style had its origins at Vaux-le-Vicomte, château of, the opulent late Baroque château created in the 1650s for Nicolas Fouquet, Surintendant des Finances, and the collaborative effort of the architect Louis Le Vau (see Le Vau family, §1), the garden designer Le Nôtre [Le Nostre], André and Le Brun, Charles, painter and designer. After Fouquet’s disgrace and imprisonment in 1661, the three worked together to transform the King’s hunting-lodge at Versailles into a statement of political absolutism....

Article

Ian Dunlop

French royal château near Paris. The first château at Meudon (the Vieux Château) was built for Cardinal Sanguin and his niece Anne de Pisselieu, Duchesse d’Etampes (1508–80), mistress of Francis I, between 1520 and 1540. It was of an austere simplicity: two superimposed orders proportioned the façades, and the dormer windows were surmounted by triangular and segmental pediments. On the garden front appeared, probably for the first time, what was to become the classic French façade arrangement. It was divided into five sections with three projecting pavilions, one central and one at each end; each section had a separate roof, those of the pavilions being taller than those of the blocks connecting them. The châteaux of Fontainebleau and Coulommiers, for instance, followed this example. Four small corner towers were built out on corbels like those at Anet.

In 1553 the Duchesse d’Etampes sold Meudon to Charles de Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine, who added a grotto designed by ...

Article

F. Hamilton Hazlehurst and Kathleen Russo

French family of artists. Jacques Mollet (fl to 1595) was employed by Charles de Lorraine, Duc d’Aumale, at Anet, château of, Eure-et-Loire, where he worked in collaboration with the architect Etienne Dupérac and made the first parterre de broderie in France (after 1582). His son Claude Mollet (i) (c. 1564–c. 1649) trained under him at Anet, afterwards becoming ‘premier jardinier de France’. The sites at which Claude Mollet worked include Fontainebleau, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Monceau-en-Brie and, most notably, the Tuileries in Paris. His assistants included, in turn, Pierre Le Nôtre and Jean Le Nôtre, grandfather and father respectively of André Le Nôtre, who became the greatest garden designer of the 17th century. Claude Mollet, whose Théâtre des plans et jardinages was posthumously published in Paris in 1652, had a number of his elaborate parterre designs illustrated in Olivier de Serres’s Théâtre d’agriculture et mesnage des champs...

Article

Valeria Farinati

(b Lacima [now Cima], Lake Lugano, Jan 22, 1669; d Vicenza, Feb 21, 1747).

Italian architect, architectural editor and expositor, landscape designer, draughtsman and cartographer. His work represents the transition from late Venetian Baroque to Neo-classicism, which his studies of Palladio did much to promote in its early stages. His style, however, was never entirely free of the Baroque elements acquired during his formative years.

Muttoni was the son of a builder, and in 1696 he went to work in Vicenza, as members of his family had done since the 16th century, enrolling that year in the stonemasons’ guild. From the beginning of the 18th century he was active as an expert consultant (‘perito’) and cartographer, as is exemplified by the plan of the fortifications of Vicenza that he drew in 1701 for the Venetian government (Vicenza, Archv Stor. Mun.). Throughout his life he continued to undertake various small professional commissions for surveys and on-site studies. His first major commission, however, was the majestic Palazzo Repeta (...

Article

Jerzy Z. Łoziński

Polish village, c. 70 km south-west of Warsaw. It is the site of one of the few Polish palaces preserved with all its furnishings. The property belonged to the Nieborowski family in the 16th century, and it was redesigned (c. 1695) by Tylman van Gameren as a Baroque palace for the Primate Michał Stefan Radziejowski. It was a rectangular two-storey building with a façade framed by two towers. In 1922 a third storey, designed by Romuald Gutt, was built into the mansard roof. The palace was redecorated in 1766–8 for Prince Michał Kazimierz Ogiński. The Radziwiłł family, who owned the property from 1774 to 1945, also redecorated the interiors several times. The interiors dating to 1766–8 include the stairwell, with walls covered with faience tiles manufactured in Harlingen, and the Rococo Red Salon. Neo-classical decorations (c. 1784–5) by Simon Bogumił Zug, with grotesque wall paintings by ...

Article

Zbigniew Bania

Residential complex in L’viv, Ukraine (formerly Lwów, Poland), consisting of a fortified manor house with a terraced garden and a church. The house was commissioned by Stanisław Koniecpolski (1591–1646) as a country residence and built between 1635 and 1640 (destr. 1956; rest.), probably to the design of Andrea dell’Aqua (1584–c. 1654). It has four wings, arranged on a plan based on the quadrilateral design of a bastion fortification. Three of the wings are one-storey, their flat roofs forming a terrace that surrounds the interior courtyard on three sides. The fourth wing is three-storey and double-pile, with a three-sided central projection containing a chapel on the courtyard side, and with two, three-bay, corner pavilions. The principal portal of the house was executed according to Italian models, as were the internally retained chimney-pieces and doorframes of black and brown marble from Chȩcin. The stucco decorations of the chapel are from the workshop of ...

Article

Rueil  

Susan B. Taylor

French garden near Malmaison, Hauts-de-Seine. It was laid out between 1633 and 1642 for Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal de Richelieu, by the architect Jacques Le Mercier with the assistance of Thomas Francini (1571–1651). Rueil marked the introduction of the monumental architectural style of the Italian garden into France, and its Grande Cascade became an inspiration for cascades at Sceaux, Marly-le-Roi and Saint-Cloud.

The site at Rueil was a shallow valley in hilly terrain. A garden had been laid out there earlier by Jean Moisset (d 1620), known as Montaubon, but after he acquired the château (destr. 1817) and surrounding property in 1633 Richelieu made substantial alterations and improvements. The principal feature in the new garden was the Grande Allée (over 800 m long), which ran the length of the estate on a north–south axis. At its southern end the Grande Cascade (destr.) was constructed, modelled on Italian architectural waterfalls such as those found at the Villa Lante, Bagnaia, the Villa d’Este, Tivoli, and in the gardens of several villas at Frascati. Three fountains at its summit threw forth water which spilt into a succession of vases descending the broad steps of the cascade and culminated in a circular basin. At the northern end of the Allée was the Grand Escalier (destr.), a balustraded flight of steps decorated with statues. Beyond it were small cypress groves next to orchards, and the Allée terminated at the Grotte de Rocaille (destr.). This consisted of a central niche encrusted with stalactites, flanked by coupled Doric columns. The niche formed the yawning mouth of a grimacing mask, made in emulation of the Italian Mannerist ‘Gate of Hell’ portals, as found, for example, fronting grottoes at the Villa Aldobrandini, Frascati, and Bomarzo, near Viterbo....

Article

Ian Dunlop and Bet McLeod

French town on the River Seine, 11.5 km west of Paris. It was the site of a French royal château, built in the 17th century on the site of an existing house and destroyed (with the exception of a few outbuildings and its majestic garden) in 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. The town was also an important centre of ceramics production during the 17th century and the early 18th.

See also Orléans, House of family, §1.

Ian Dunlop

A house in the ‘Italian style’ was first built at Saint-Cloud in 1572, for the Gondi family. It was embellished in 1625 by Jean-François de Gondi, Archbishop of Paris, after whose death it was acquired in 1655 by the financier Bartélemy d’Hervard. In 1658 the house was acquired by Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, brother of Louis XIV, known as Monsieur. From c. 1660 to 1668 Philippe had a new house built on the site of the Maison Gondi, to the designs of his architect ...

Article

French royal château, west of Paris in the Yvelines département. It was begun c. 1124 by Louis VI (reg 1108–37) as a fortified hunting-lodge in the forests of St Germain and Marly on the site of a 10th-century monastery founded by Robert the Pious (reg 996–1031). Around 1238 Louis IX replaced an earlier chapel of 1223 built by Philip II Augustus (reg 1180–1223) with the present Sainte Chapelle, consisting of three bays and an apse (much restored in the 19th century). It has portals, a rose window and sharp tracery details that are clearly by the same hand as the later parts of the abbey church of Saint-Denis (1231–41) and not, as often claimed, by Pierre de Montreuil. It served as a prototype for the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. In c. 1370 Charles V rebuilt the château on an irregular rhomboid plan.

In 1539 Francis I decided to rebuild Saint-Germain, using ...

Article

Dutch 17th-century palace and gardens at Soest in the province of Utrecht. The estate was bought by William III (see Orange Nassau, House of family §(5)) in 1674, partly to re-establish his presence in the province of Utrecht after its surrender in 1672 during the war with France. The house was rebuilt to designs by Maurits Post (1674–8; see Post §(3)) in the sober Dutch classicist style, with a balcony above the main entrance; Gérard de Lairesse and Melchior d’Hondecoeter were among the artists employed to decorate the interior. From 1681 a garden of simple design was laid out with long avenues creating extensive vistas. To the north and south were parterres de broderie decorated with statues, and the northern garden had two fountains designed by Willem Meester. In 1689 Bastiaen Stopendael (1637–93) executed an engraving after a coloured etching of the estate by ...

Article

David Rodgers

English family of gardeners and collectors. John Tradescant the elder (b London, 1590s; d Lambeth, 1638) was gardener in turn to Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, Edward, 1st Baron Wotton (1548–1626), George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and Charles I. In 1611 he travelled in France and the Low Countries, collecting plants for Salisbury; it was probably on this journey that he also began to collect ‘curiosities’. In June 1618 he travelled to Russia in the suite of Sir Dudley Digges (1583–1639), the Ambassador to Russia, returning the following September; his diary of this voyage (Oxford, Ashmolean) records, inter alia, his acquisition of a coat from Greenland made of fish entrails. In 1626 Tradescant bought a house in South Lambeth where he established his renowned ‘Closett of Rarities’, enhanced by gifts from Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria, Buckingham and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. His son, ...

Article

Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French term used to describe artefacts made in Turkey, or in France by Turkish craftsmen, and by derivation the influence on French design of elements from the Byzantine Empire, the Saljuq Islamic period and the Ottoman Empire. Specific motifs, borrowed from the original Turkish carpets, included arabesques or stylized flowers and vegetal scrolls and decorative animal forms—also included within the generic term ‘grotesques’—from the Renaissance onwards. From the Middle Ages inventories and accounts record objects façon de Turquie imported from the East through the Crusades or the Silk route. In the accounts (1316) of Geoffroi de Fleuri, treasurer to King Philippe V of France, ‘11 cloths of Turkey’ were noted, and in 1471 the inventory of the château of Angers records a wooden spoon and a cushion ‘à la façon de Turquie’. In the 16th century Turkish textiles were highly prized, and Turkish craftsmen were employed in Paris to embroider cloth for ladies’ dresses: in ...

Article

Twickel  

Dutch garden near Delden, in the province of Overijssel. In the 17th century the gardens were designed in typical Dutch Renaissance style, with canals, parterres and woodland. In 1676 Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam married a descendant of Herman van Twickelo and commissiond Daniel Marot I to redesign the gardens. Marot’s remaining design shows intricate parterres, bordered at the top with a semicircular canal, which appears in a mid-18th-century map of the garden; this also shows that further changes were made, including the introduction of parterres in the Rococo style and a small English garden, probably an early example of such a garden in the Netherlands. In 1765 the garden was opened to the public. Between 1770 and 1794 the garden was increasingly anglicized and the formal design gradually gave way to a landscape (although the older structure remained visible) and Marot’s canal became an irregular lake. On the lake was a thatched hut, possibly after a design by ...

Article

French château c. 6 km north-east of Melun, in the département of Seine-et-Marne. It was built in 1656–61 for Nicolas Fouquet, Louis XIV’s Surintendant des Finances, by Louis Le Vau (see Le Vau family §(1) 3.) with the assistance of Charles Le Brun (see Le Brun, Charles §1, (ii), (b)). The gardens were laid out by André Le Nôtre under Le Vau’s guidance. The forerunner of Versailles, it is the most important château built in France in the mid-17th century; it was here that Le Vau, Le Brun and Le Nôtre learnt to work as a team and to produce the unity of architecture, interior decoration and garden layout that distinguishes the Louis XIV style.

Built in creamy limestone, the main block of the château is of compact design and sits in splendid isolation, surrounded by a moat and with an inner forecourt without flanking wings. The entrance front is a series of recessed planes with two-bay outer pavilions with tall roofs overlapping two-bay inner pavilions with mansard roofs that provide a necessary intermediary between the lower roof of the main block. The outer forecourt beyond the moat is flanked by two vast courtyards of stables and service buildings in brick and stone, providing the architectural overture to the château and the huge formal gardens beyond. The château and courtyards are visually related by the use of tall roofs on the pavilions nearest the château and mansard roofs on those nearest the entrance gates. On the garden side of the château the composition is dominated by an oval dome, a feature first introduced by Le Vau at Le Raincy (begun ...