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Article

Gordon Campbell

[Ger.: Bartmannskrug; ‘bearded-man jug’; d’Alva bottle

Type of German glazed stoneware jug produced from the 15th century through to the 19th, and known in English from the 17th century as the bellarmine, the eponym of which was Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino (1542–1621), who was detested in England because of his anti-Protestant polemics. The jugs, which are decorated with the moulded face of a bearded man (sometimes with a coat-of-arms below it) are also known as ‘Greybeards’ and as ‘d’Alva bottles’; the latter name alludes to the third Duke of Alba (...

Article

Sean McCrum

Irish ceramics factory. It was built in the village of Belleek, Co. Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, between 1857 and 1863, when production began. The factory was close to sources of such essential materials as feldspar, kaolin, flint, shale and water. During the early years potters from Staffordshire, England, were employed to assist in the technical developments at the factory. The pottery was funded by the Dublin entrepreneur David McBirney (d 1884), who also owned shares in the Sligo and Bundoran Railway; a branch line was built to the factory, which aided distribution. The architect Robert Williams Armstrong (d 1884) probably designed the factory building and was the factory’s first artistic director. He was particularly interested in developing high-fired ceramic bodies, especially stoneware and porcelain. Three types of wares were produced at the factory: utilitarian, transfer-printed earthenwares, which continued to be made until 1947; stonewares, including telegraphic insulators and vases, and porcelain. Belleek is most famous for its very thin porcelain, the glaze of which has a nacreous lustre; wares included vases, centrepieces, sweetmeat dishes (e.g. of ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the village of Bellvue (near Toul, in Meurthe-et-Moselle) in 1758. In 1771 it passed into the hands of Charles Bayard (former director of the Lunéville pottery) and François Boyer, who in 1773 were given the right to style the pottery ‘Manufacture Royale de Bellevue’. Bayard left in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(UK)

English centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the town of Hull (near what is now the Albert Dock) in 1802; the proprietors included Job Ridgway family. It soon closed, but in 1826 it was bought by William Bell, who called it Bellevue; it closed in 1841. The factory produced large quantities of earthenware, much of which was exported to Germany through the Company’s depot in Hamburg. Very few examples of its wares survive; some are marked Belle Vue....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Australian pottery founded in 1858 by a Scot, George Guthrie (1808–1909), in the town of Bendigo, Victoria. The factory made household wares, including acid bottles, bricks, clay pipes, roof tiles and tableware. During World War I it also made portrait jugs of military commanders, and in the 1930s it made agate-ware vases that were marketed as Waverly ware. The pottery is still active, but since ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American pottery manufactory in Baltimore, MD, founded in 1846 by Edwin Bennett, a Staffordshire potter, and his brother William. The company was known as Bennett & Brothers and in 1890 was incorporated as the Edwin Bennett Pottery Company. It closed in 1936. The early products were household wares with a brown glaze (known in America as Rockingham ware) and jugs of biscuit porcelain resembling Parian ware, but with a blue or sage-green ground and white decorations. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1840; d 1907).

Anglo-American potter. He was born in Staffordshire and as a young man worked for Doulton, where he developed a distinctive method of underglaze painting. In 1877 he emigrated to New York, where he established a studio; at first he imported English biscuit clay, but then developed his own compound. His pottery, in which he favoured Arts and Crafts styles or Islamic styles, was distributed through Tiffany & Co. Examples of his work at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, include a vase dated ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German centre of ceramics production.The term ‘Bernburg Pottery’ is used to describe both Prehistoric pottery made in Thuringia c. 3000 bc, and the product of two faience factories that flourished in the 18th century. The first operated from c. 1725 to c. 1775, and produced blue-and-white wares (e.g. chinoiserie vase, ...

Article

Hélène Guéné-Loyer

(b Mer, nr Blois, Nov 5, 1862; d Paris, 1927).

French ceramics manufacturer. He was initially a physics and chemistry teacher and in 1889 visited the Exposition Universelle in Paris, where he saw Chinese porcelain with opaque glazes that enhanced the ground colours and emphasized the forms of the body. He transferred this technique to stoneware, a less expensive material that has the advantage of being able to withstand great variations of temperature when fired. In this way, with one type of ceramic body, it is possible to vary the degree to which enamels are fused in order to obtain dull, oily or crystalline finishes in the greatest possible variation of colours.

Bigot exhibited his work in the Salons from 1894 and through Siegfried Bing in 1897. In 1900 he won a major prize at the Exposition Universelle, for which he made a frieze of animals in low relief, after the design by the sculptor Paul Jouve (b 1880...

Article

John Mawer

(b Derby, bapt Oct 12, 1758; d Coalport, Jan 16, 1828).

English ceramic artist and porcelain manufacturer. In 1774 he was apprenticed to William Duesbury at the Derby porcelain factory, where his father, William Billingsley (d 1770), was a flower painter. He became one of their chief flower painters and some ten years later developed a new, soft, naturalistic style of painting flower petals on ceramics that came to be widely, though poorly, imitated at other English factories. His innovative technique involved painting with a heavily loaded brush, and then wiping away much of the paint with a virtually dry brush to produce more delicate colours and highlights (e.g. two-handled tray, c. 1790; Derby, Mus. & A.G.). Though particularly famous for his ‘Billingsley roses’, he also painted landscapes, buildings and other botanical subjects. In 1795 he helped John Coke (1776–1841) to set up a porcelain factory at Pinxton, Derbys. By 1799 he was working as a decorator of blanks, first in Mansfield, then moving in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Danish porcelain factory founded in Copenhagen in 1853 by Frederik Vilhelm Grøndahl, a former employee of Bing & Grøndahl’s only predecessor, the Kongelige Porcelainsfabrik (Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Factory, established 1775); Grøndahl’s partners were the art dealers Jacob Herman and Meyer Herman Bing, whose chain of retail outlets sold the products of the factory. Grøndahl’s two sons later became managers in the company. The company made (and still makes) table and display wares in porcelain and stoneware. Its designers have included the painter Pietro Krohn (1840–1905), who made the ‘Heron’ dinner service (1888); Jean René Gauguin (1881–1961; son of the painter Paul Gauguin), who made figures; Ingeborg Plockross-Irminger (1872–1962), who made statuettes of women and children; Jens Peter Dahl-Jensen (1874–1960), who later started his own factory; and the silversmith Henning Koppel (1918–81), who famously designed for Georg Jensen. The Company has issued Christmas plates annually since ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Worcester, UK, Oct 4, 1857; d Alfred, NY, Dec 4, 1934).

American potter and teacher of English birth. As the son of Richard William Binns (1819–1900), director of the Worcester Royal Porcelain Co. Ltd, he was exposed at an early age to the pottery industry. After holding various positions in the Worcester firm, he resigned. In 1897 he settled in the USA, where he was appointed director of the Technical School of Arts and Sciences in Trenton, NJ, and superintendent of the Ceramic Art Co., also in Trenton. In 1900 he became the first director of the New York College of Clayworking and Ceramics at Alfred University, NY. In this capacity and as a founder-member and officer in the American Ceramic Society, he greatly influenced the development of American ceramics. He frequently contributed articles to Craftsman, Keramic Studio and the Transactions and Journal of the American Ceramic Society, and he was the author of several books. His own technically exquisite stoneware, produced at Alfred, was inspired by early Chinese ceramics and emphasized the interrelationship of classical shape and finely textured glazes. His students included ...

Article

Jean Stern

(b Bomen, Austria, Jan 14, 1864; d Pasadena, Feb 5, 1929).

American painter and porcelain painter of Austrian birth. Bischoff began his artistic training at a craft school in his native Bomen. In 1882 he went to Vienna for further training in painting, design and ceramic decoration. He came to the USA in 1885 and obtained employment as a painter in a ceramic factory in New York City. Bischoff moved to Pittsburgh, PA, then to Fostoria, OH, and finally to Dearborn, MI, continuing to work as a porcelain painter. In 1906 he moved his family to the Los Angeles area. Two years later he built a studio–home along the Arroyo Seco in South Pasadena, which included a gallery, ceramic workshop and painting studio. Once in California, Bischoff turned to landscape painting, in addition to continuing his flower paintings and his porcelain work. Through the 1920s, he painted the coastal areas of Monterey and Laguna Beach, the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the desert near Palm Springs. In ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Pascale Méker

(b Paris, July 25, 1781; d Paris, June 12, 1853).

French painter. After an apprenticeship at the Dihl et Guerhard porcelain factory in Paris, where he was taught by Etienne Leguay (1762–1846), Blondel moved to Jean-Baptiste Regnault’s atelier in 1802. He won the Prix de Rome in 1803 with Aeneas and Anchises (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.) but did not go to Rome until 1809, when he stayed there for three years. After gaining a gold medal in the Salon of 1817 for the Death of Louis XII (Toulouse, Mus. Augustins), Blondel embarked on a wide-ranging and successful career as official decorative painter. In addition to the decoration of the Salon and of the Galerie de Diane at Fontainebleau (1822–8) and the ceiling of the Palais de la Bourse (Justice Protecting Commerce, sketch, 1825; Dijon, Mus. Magnin), he received commissions for several ceilings in the Louvre, of which the earliest and most remarkable is in the vestibule to the Galerie d’Apollon (...

Article

Thérèse Picquenard

(b Paris, Oct 9, 1743; d Paris, March 10, 1809).

French sculptor. He was the son of Antoine Boizot (1704–82), a designer at the Gobelins, and a pupil of René-Michel Slodtz. He studied at the Académie Royale, Paris, winning the Prix de Rome in 1762, and after a period at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés he completed his education from 1765 to 1770 at the Académie de France in Rome. He was accepted (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1771, presenting the model (untraced) for a statuette of Meleager, but was not received (reçu) as a full member until 1778, when he completed the marble version (Paris, Louvre). He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon until 1800.

The first years of Boizot’s career were dedicated primarily to decorative sculpture, such as the model for the elaborate allegorical gilt-bronze clock known as the ‘Avignon’ clock (c. 1770; London, Wallace; see France, Republic of, §IX, 2, (iii), (a)...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English ceramics manufactory founded in 1842 by Thomas Latham Boote and Richard Boote at the Central Pottery, Burslem, Staffs; in 1850 the company bought the Waterloo Potteries, Burslem from Thomas Edwards. The Company produced unglazed pavement tiles, Parian ware (notably a group consisting of Repentance, Faith and Resignation) and earthenware with inlay decoration (which they called ‘Royal Patent Ironstone’). In 1888 the Company discontinued most of its decorative lines, and thereafter concentrated on the manufacture of plain white granite ware for the American market and on the production of glazed and unglazed pavement tiles; the company supplied the tiles for the Blackwall Tunnel (Greenwich, London), which opened in 1897. Decorative tiles included a set of ‘The Four Seasons’ (1891) designed by the children’s book illustrator Kate Greenaway. After 1906, production was restricted to tiles. In 1963 T. and R. Boote was bought by T. & R. Boote Richards Tiles, and it now trades as H. & R. Johnson Tiles Ltd. Boote wares were variously marked as T & R B, T & R BOOTE and T B & S; Victorian marks often included the royal arms....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(bapt Bromsgrove, Worcester, Jan 25, 1828; d St Martin’s, Worcester, Dec 12, 1870).

English porcelain painter and designer, was born near Kidderminster, Worcestershire, the son of a maker of spade handles. He was trained from 1846 as a glass painter at Richardson’s glassworks at Wordsley near Stourbridge. In 1853 he moved to Worcester to work as a painter for the Worcester Porcelain Factory, where he developed ‘Worcester enamel’, a tinted white enamel on a dark ground (often blue); the resemblance to 16th-century Limoges enamels led to his work being sold as ‘Limoges ware’....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English manufacturer of stoneware and earthenware in Derbyshire from 1809 to the present. In 1806 a Derbyshire potter called William Bourne leased the rights to a seam of clay in Denby, and in 1809 established a pottery to make bottles; he installed his son Joseph Bourne as manager of the Denby Bottle Works, which became known as Joseph Bourne and later as Joseph Bourne & Son. Joseph Bourne opened a second pottery in Belper in ...