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John Ford

[Rudolf]

(b Stollberg, Saxony, April 20, 1764; d Finchley, London, March 30, 1834).

English publisher and patron of German birth. He trained as a carriage designer in Paris and moved to England between 1783 and 1786. He established his own business as a carriage maker, undertaking major commissions in London and Dublin. In 1804 he designed Pius VII’s carriage for the coronation of Napoleon and in 1805 the funeral carriage of Horatio, Viscount Nelson. By 1800 Ackermann had built up a unique business at 101 The Strand, London, known as ‘The Repository of Arts’. This encompassed a drawing school with 80 pupils, the sale and loan of Old Master paintings and watercolour drawings, the publication of decorative prints and illustrated books and the manufacture of watercolour paints including a number of new chemical pigments.

In the early 19th century, Ackermann was an important and regular patron of English watercolour painters, employing William Henry Pyne, Augustus Charles Pugin, Thomas Heaphy, Frederick Mackenzie (1787–1854...

Article

Colin J. Bailey and U. v. Hase-Schmundt

German family of painters. (1) Albrecht Adam had four sons who were artists: Benno Adam (1812–1892), Franz Adam (1815–1886), Eugen Adam (1817–1880), and Julius Adam (1826–1874). Albrecht’s brother Heinrich Adam (1787–1862) was also an artist. (2) Richard Benno Adam was the grandson of Benno Adam.

Colin J. Bailey

(b Nördlingen, April 16, 1786; d Munich, Aug 28, 1862).

He trained under Christoph Zwinger (1744–1813) in Nuremberg, and in 1807 he moved to Munich to continue his studies. From 1809 he worked in Milan, following his appointment as court painter to Eugène de Beauharnais, viceroy of Italy, whom he accompanied to Russia in 1812. After returning to Munich in 1815, he executed a series of 83 small battle-pieces in oil on paper, based on sketches made in 1812. His Russian exploits also provided the material for a set of 100 lithographs entitled ...

Article

Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Paris, Dec 7, 1862; d Paris, Jan 1, 1920).

French writer and critic. His fictional work developed rapidly from a naturalist concept of the novel (e.g. Chair molle, Paris, 1885) to a symbolist one (e.g. Etre, Paris, 1888). As an art critic, he played an important role in the first years of Neo-Impressionism. The few pieces that he wrote between 1886 and 1889 placed him in the top rank of contemporary critics and were of considerable influence. He was less interested in analysing the theoretical bases of Neo-Impressionism than in deciphering their implications, stressing the relationship of this new method of painting to Symbolism. He felt that the use by Seurat and his followers of a body of scientific theories on which to base their art was not only an indication of their adherence to the modernity that pervaded the century but also revealed an underlying tendency towards abstraction. At the same time fundamental visual concepts or ‘preconceived sensorial notions’ that had served as the basis of western art were called into question. In this regard, the ‘pictorial concern to interpret the pure phenomenon’ corresponded to the aspiration towards synthesis that marked Symbolism and was ‘in close correlation to contemporary philosophy, biology and physics in denying the existence of objects, declaring matter to be the mere appearance of vibratory movement that is the source of our impressions, our sensations, our ideas’ (...

Article

Patricia Strathern

(b La Ferté-sous-Jouarre, Seine-et-Marne, Jan 9, 1818; d Paris, 1881).

French photographer and sculptor. He originally worked as a sculptor, and he turned to portrait photography under the influence of the Munich photographer Franz Hanfstaengel. Adam-Salomon’s antique poses, making much use of light and shade to give painterly effects, were inspired by Classical sculpture and painting and incorporated expensive fabrics and settings. He also favoured heavy retouching of the negatives, for which he was criticized by some contemporaries. He was, however, much admired for the imposing character of many of his portraits (e.g. Portrait of a Man, c. 1865; see Berger and Levrault, no. 1). He continued his sculpture as well, producing portrait busts (many still extant), generally based on photographs. Subjects included Rossini and the poet Lamartine, as well as a monument in Les Invalides, Paris, to the Duke of Padua. Some of those hostile to photography, such as Lamartine, were persuaded to consider it as an art by the work of Adam-Salomon. He founded his studio in Paris in ...

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Chiara Stefani

In 

Article

Gordon Campbell

Pittsburgh glasshouse founded in 1851 and active throughout the second half of the 19th century. The factory produced tableware and lamps; its glass included flint glass, lime glass and cut glass and, in the 1870s and 1880s, opal ware.

J. Shadel Spillman: ‘Adams & Company’, Glass Club Bull., 163 (1990–91)...

Article

Jennifer Wingate

[née Pond, Adeline Valentine]

(b Boston, MA, Oct 24, 1859; d Brooklyn, NY, July 1, 1948).

American critic and author. Adams was a vocal proponent of American sculpture during the last decades of civic sculpture’s golden age. She expressed her views on the state of the field in two significant publications, The Spirit of American Sculpture (1923; reissued in 1929) and a chapter in the 1930 edition of Lorado Taft’s History of American Sculpture, as well as in regular contributions to the American Magazine of Art.

Adams was an artist herself, though writing claimed her full attention. While she was in Paris in 1887, she posed for the sculptor Herbert Adams, whom she married two years later. The resulting marble bust (1889; New York, Hisp. Soc. America) was exhibited at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, an exposition that Adams hailed for fostering a new ideal of collaboration between architects and sculptors. Adams praised the role that sculpture played in public life and promoted figurative work modeled in the French academic tradition. She admired artists like Daniel Chester French (...

Article

Janet A. Headley

(b West Concord, VT, Jan 28, 1858; d New York, NY, May 21, 1945).

American sculptor. Raised in Fitchburg, MA, he trained at the Institute of Technology in Worcester (subsequently Worcester Polytechnic Institute), the Massachusetts Normal Art School in Boston (now the Massachusetts College of Art and Design) and the Maryland Institute of Art in Baltimore, following an artistic path that mirrored that of many of his contemporaries. Arriving in Paris around 1885, he found a mentor in Antonin Mercié (1845–1916), whose accomplished bronzes evoke Italian Renaissance prototypes. He briefly established his own studio in Paris in 1888, and from 1890 to 1895 he taught at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn.

Adams won important commissions for public monuments in Boston (clergyman William Ellery Channing, 1904) and New York (William Cullen Bryant, 1911). The latter, located on the grounds of the New York Public Library, features a dignified seated portrait of the poet, editor and advocate of Central Park and the Metropolitan Museum; architect Thomas Hastings (...

Article

T. Affleck Greeves

(b Burgess Hill, Sussex, 1849; d London, Aug 17, 1933).

English architect, editor and draughtsman. After completing his articles with H. N. Goulty of Brighton, he became assistant to William Ralph Emerson, and Architect to Brighton Council. Between 1872 and 1923 he was Editor of Building News. He instituted the Building News Designing Club, which enabled young architects to submit designs for his criticism. He contributed largely to the paper’s illustrations, redrawing designs for lithographic reproduction, and covered a wide range of subjects in a skilful and accurate, if somewhat dull, linear style. He also published several architectural books. Through the owner of Building News he obtained his major architectural commissions, notably Camberwell Polytechnic and Art Gallery (1902). He also designed country houses near London, for example Queensmead Cottage, Kings Road, Windsor, Berks (1883), for Reginald Talbot, as well as in Australia (e.g. Bellevue Hill, Double Bay, for Charles B. Fairfax in the mid-1880s) and America, where he designed timber houses in New Jersey for E. S. Wilde in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Name of at least four potters in Staffordshire in the late 18th century and early 19th. The most distinguished William Adams (1746–1805) was the founder of Greengates Pottery, where the design and high quality of his jasper ware has led to the mistaken inference that he had been trained by Josiah Wedgwood; in fact he trained with John Brindley, brother of the canal builder James Brindley. His wares, of which some 300 examples are known to survive, are stamped Adams and Co. Apart from jasper ware, he also made underglaze blue-printed ware. He was succeeded by his son Benjamin, who ran the business until its closure in 1820.

The works of Adams of Greengates are sometimes confused with those of his three namesakes: William Adams (1748–1831) of Brick House, Burslem and Cobridge; William Adams of Stoke-on-Trent (1772–1829), who exported many blue-painted wares to the USA; and William Adams (...

Article

Sergey Kuznetsov

[Amand (Ivanovich)]

(b Uuga Rätsepa, nr Paldiski, Nov 12, 1855; d Paldiski, June 26, 1929).

Estonian sculptor. From childhood he excelled in wood-carving. His first serious work after graduating from the St Petersburg Academy of Arts, where he studied (1876–81) under Alexander Bock (1829–95), was a carved frame for Johann Köler’s painting Tribute to Caesar (1883; Tallinn, A. Mus.), commissioned by several Estonian art associations on the occasion of the coronation of Alexander III (reg 1881–94). This work was inspired by Adamson’s impressions of altars in 17th-century churches in Tallinn. Baroque motifs became an important feature of his work, as in his allegorical miniatures Dawn and Dusk (1895; Tallinn, A. Mus.), carved from pear wood. Adamson completed his studies in Paris, where he was influenced by the works of Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux and Jules Dalou. A theme that runs through his smaller works is the sea, as in the Boat’s Last Breath (wax, 1899; biscuit, 1901, executed at the ...

Article

Julie Lawson

(b Fife, 1809; d St Andrews, Fife, 1870).

Scottish photographer. He studied medicine in Edinburgh (1829) and Paris, but returned to St Andrews in the 1830s. A member of the St Andrews Literary and Philosophical Society, he associated with the circle interested in photographic experimentation and theory. Adamson experimented with Talbot’s calotype process, introduced to Scotland by Sir David Brewster (1781–1868), and made the first calotype portrait in Scotland, of Miss Melville Adamson (c. 1842; Edinburgh, Royal Mus. Scotland; see Morrison-Low, p. 20). He taught several of the early Scottish photographers, including his younger brother, Robert (see Hill and Adamson), and Thomas Rodger (1833–83) of St Andrews. Most of Adamson’s surviving work is in the Royal Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, and St Andrews University Library.

A. D. Morrison-Low: ‘Dr John and Robert Adamson: An Early Partnership in Scottish Photography’, Phot. Col, 4/2 (1983), pp. 198–214

Hill and Adamson...

Article

Juan Nicolau

(b Tarazona, 1741; d Madrid, 1816).

Spanish sculptor. He was trained in Saragossa with José Ramirez. In 1765 he went to Rome, where he won a scholarship from the Spanish Academia de Bellas Artes and was appointed Director of the Accademia di S Luca, Rome. Adán’s early work became known in Spain through the drawings and sculptures he sent from Rome, the finest being a Lamentation. He returned to Spain in 1776 and worked in Lérida, Granada and Jaen, finally settling in Madrid in 1786. In 1793 he was appointed court sculptor (Escultor de Cámara) by Charles IV (reg 1788–1808). He made many carvings in wood, such as a St Joseph and a Virgin of the Sorrows, for churches in Madrid. Other characteristic works are the portrait busts of leading contemporary figures such as Manuel Godoy, the Prince de la Paz, and José Monino, the Conde de Floridablanca. The busts of Charles IV and Queen Maria Luisa...

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Madrid, Feb 6, 1848; d Madrid, March 27, 1906).

Spanish architect. In 1872 he graduated from the Escuela de Arquitectura of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, and began his long service with the Banco de España. He belonged to the generation of Spanish architects active after the restoration of Alfonso XII in 1874. Adaro Magro favoured a variant of eclectic classicism, embellishing the academic designs of his façades with ornament drawn from Renaissance models and in a style not far removed from that of the Beaux-Arts. He was elected a member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in 1903 but was unable to take his place there.

Adaro Magro’s principal work was the Banco de España (begun 1884; inaugurated 1891) in the Paseo del Prado, Madrid. He received the commission after a national competition failed to produce an entry. Severiano Sáinz de la Lastra (d 1884) contributed to the plans, ...

Article

Ettore Spalletti

(b Florence, Oct 9, 1824; d Florence, July 15, 1911).

Italian painter. He was the nephew of the painter Luigi Ademollo (1764–1849) and studied under Giuseppe Bezzuoli at the Accademia dei Belle Arti in Florence. He initially specialized in history painting, turning to genre painting and vedute in the 1850s. In about 1854 he joined the Scuola di Staggia, a group of painters who painted en plein air in the Sienese countryside near Staggia. He also frequented the Caffè Michelangelo in Florence, an important centre of artistic life at the time.

Ademollo was a volunteer in the campaigns of the Risorgimento in 1859 and 1866 and made many sketches and drawings of them, finally being appointed official painter to Garibaldi’s army. He thus established himself as a popular painter of patriotic scenes, such as the monumental Last Onslaught at the Battle of San Martino (Florence, Pitti), the Death of the Cairoli Brothers (Pavia, Mus. Risorgimento) and the Breach of Porta Pia...

Article

Kathryn Bonomi

(b Elberfeld, nr Wuppertal, 1780; d Italy, before July 10, 1846).

German merchant and collector. He played a key role in the introduction of early Netherlandish art to British writers and artists during the reign of George IV. In 1806, Aders and an Englishman, William Jameson, co-founded a counting house—sources suggest it was an accounting firm serving the shipping industry—in Elberfeld, Germany. Business often called him to the commercial centres of Europe, and in the 1810s he began to frequent art dealers and to make purchases. His only adviser in this appears to have been his fiancée (later his wife), Elizabeth Smith, whom he met c. 1816. She was the daughter of the mezzotint engraver John Raphael Smith and was herself an amateur artist.

Aders bought prints and paintings of the Italian and Dutch schools, but the core of his collection was early Netherlandish painting. Few northern artists were known at the time, and little attempt had been made by scholars to sort out and identify various oeuvres. Art dealers attached a few recognizable names, such as Dürer, van Eyck and Memling, to almost any work that came into their possession, and many of Aders’s paintings were falsely attributed to these artists. His collection, mainly purchased by the mid-1820s, was divided between his London house in Euston Square and a summer retreat in Godesberg, Germany. Alexander Gilchrist described the London establishment: ‘The walls of drawing-room, bedroom, and even staircase, were all closely covered; with gallery railings in front to protect the pictures from injury.’...

Article

Rochelle Berger Elstein

(b Stadtlengsfeld, nr Eisenach, July 3, 1844; d Chicago, April 16, 1900).

American architect and engineer of German birth. His family moved to the USA in 1854, and he trained in Detroit, in the architectural offices of John Schaefer, E. Willard Smith and others. After his family moved from Detroit to Chicago, Adler worked under a German émigré architect, Augustus Bauer (1827–94), and gained valuable training in an engineering company during his military service in the American Civil War. After the war, he worked with O. S. Kinney (d 1868), and later Ashley Kinney, building educational and civic structures in the Midwest. Adler’s ability soon brought him to the attention of an established practitioner, Edward Burling (1818–92), who needed assistance in the aftermath of the Chicago fire of 1871. Burling & Adler’s many buildings include the First National Bank (1871) and Mercantile (1873) buildings and the Methodist Church Block (1872), all designed in Chicago by Adler and all demolished. In ...

Article

(b Berlin, Oct 15, 1827; d Berlin, Sept 15, 1908).

German architect, archaeologist and writer. He was one of the leading figures of Berlin’s architectural establishment in the latter half of the 19th century. On completion of his studies in 1852, he was given the prestigious post of Bauleiter at the Neues Museum in Berlin, designed by Friedrich August Stüler. He subsequently became a lecturer and in 1861 a professor of architectural history at the Bauakademie in Berlin. Many of his church buildings used medieval motifs and elements, for example the Christuskirche (1862–8) in Berlin and the Elisabethkirche (1869–72) in Wilhelmshafen. He followed Karl Bötticher in his attempts to merge medieval and classical elements, best illustrated in his design for the Thomaskirche (competition 1862; built 1865–70), Berlin. There, Adler used Gothic structural devices embellished with rich Renaissance detail, a tendency that was also present in many of the entries for the Berlin Cathedral competition (...

Article

(b Bowdon, Cheshire, 1868; d London, April 11, 1946).

English architect and urban planner. The son of a landscape painter, he was apprenticed to an architect in Manchester in 1885. He went to London in 1890, where he built up experience in well-known architectural offices, notably with George Sherrin (d 1909) and William Flockhart (d 1913). His brief and shrewd recollections of these years are a valuable record of prosperous London practice in the 1890s. He gradually gained a reputation as a perspectivist but his architectural career was slow to develop. The library and assembly rooms at Ramsgate, Kent (1904), and offices for the Bennett Steamship Co., Southwark, London (1908), show his preference for an individual, refined Georgian-revival style.

In 1909 Adshead became Professor of Town Planning at Liverpool University and inaugurated the Department of Civic Design, the first town-planning school in Britain, with Patrick Abercrombie as his deputy. In 1910...

Article

Term used to describe a movement of the 1870s and 1880s that manifested itself in the fine and decorative arts and architecture in Britain and subsequently in the USA. Reacting to what was seen as evidence of philistinism in art and design, it was characterized by the cult of the beautiful and an emphasis on the sheer pleasure to be derived from it. In painting there was a belief in the autonomy of art, the concept of Art for Art’s Sake, which originated in France as a literary movement and was introduced into Britain around 1860.

The Aesthetic Movement was championed by the writers and critics Walter Pater, Algernon Charles Swinburne and Oscar Wilde. In keeping with Pater’s theories, the artists associated with it painted pictures without narrative or significant subject-matter. Dante Gabriel Rossetti took his inspiration from Venetian art because of its emphasis on colour and the decorative. This resulted in a number of half-length paintings of female figures, such as the ...