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Article

Els Maréchal

(b Brussels, Oct 19, 1927).

Belgian painter, draughtsman, printmaker and film maker. He studied book illustration and typography at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture et des Arts Décoratifs from 1944 to 1946. In 1947 he became a member of the Jeune Peinture Belge group and had his first one-man exhibition in the Galerie Lou Cosyn in Brussels. In 1949 he became a founder-member of the Cobra movement after meeting Christian Dotremont. With a number of artist friends he set up a type of research centre and meeting-place in Brussels, the Ateliers du Marais. Towards the end of 1951 he went to Paris, moving to Japan in 1955 to study the art of calligraphy, also making a film called Calligraphie japonaise (1956). He adopted the Oriental manner of painting, whereby the paper is spread on the floor and the artist leans over the work holding the bottle of ink, allowing a greater freedom of movement. In ...

Article

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Madrid, 1942).

Spanish painter, sculptor and printmaker. After studying at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes in Madrid he came under the influence of Pop art during a stay in London in 1965. On settling again in Madrid in that year he began to concentrate on images of movement, as in the screenprint Story of the Man Who Falls I, for which he was awarded a prize at the Kraków Biennale in 1966. He continued to explore movement through serial forms and stereotyped images in plexiglass constructions such as the Changeable Movement series (1967) and from 1968 used computers as part of this process. These interests led to sculptures and paintings titled Transformable Movements, which he presented in association with aleatoric music.

Alexanco became increasingly involved with performance and collaborated with the Spanish composer Luis de Pablo (b 1930) on Soledad interrumpida (1971) and Historia natural...

Article

Leah Lipton

(b Killingly, CT, Feb 3, 1800; d Florence, March 27, 1880).

American painter and lithographer. He studied briefly with Alexander Robertson (1768–1841) in New York and copied portraits by John Trumbull and Samuel Waldo. From 1821 to 1825 he painted portraits in Killingly, CT, and Providence, RI. He received encouraging advice from Gilbert Stuart in Boston, probably in 1825, and by 1828 was a prominent portrait painter and lithographer there. Portraits such as Mrs Jared Sparks (1830; Cambridge, MA, Harvard U.) demonstrate a well-developed sense of pattern and design but display some deficiency in draughtsmanship, with conventional shapes used to determine the sitter’s features.

From 1831 to 1833 Alexander travelled and painted in Italy. After returning to Boston, he exhibited 39 paintings in 1834 at Harding’s Gallery, many of which were derived from the Italian trip. His unusually theatrical portrait of Senator Daniel Webster (1835; Hanover, NH, Dartmouth Coll., Hood Mus. A.) shows the effect of his exposure to Romanticism; Webster is presented with fiery eyes and wild hair, silhouetted against a dramatic sky. When Dickens visited America in ...

Article

Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...

Article

Vivian Atwater

(b 1762; d Paris, Dec 27, 1817).

French printmaker. During the last two decades of the 18th century he followed Jean-François Janinet and Louis-Marin Bonnet in popularizing the technique of multiple-plate colour printing for the progressive tonal intaglio processes of mezzotint, aquatint, stipple and crayon manner. Alix produced many illustrations of contemporary Parisian life and fashion but was best known for his colour aquatint portraits of celebrated figures of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic period. In 1789 he provided 18 sheets for an engraved portrait collection published by Levacher de Charnois, which documented members of the French National Assembly. Alix also produced colour prints of such Revolutionary heroes as Jean-Paul Marat, Marie-Joseph Chalier and Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, after pastel drawings by Jacques-Louis David and other artists. Chief among such prints, which were widely distributed to promote patriotic zeal, were Alix’s portraits of the boy heroes Joseph Barra and Agricola Viala. One of his best works of the period is a portrait of ...

Article

John Steen

(Hendrik)

(b Borger, Feb 11, 1900; d Drachten, Jan 30, 1984).

Dutch painter and printmaker. He trained between 1919 and 1923 as a cabinetmaker, taking evening classes in furniture drawing and design at the Academie Minerva in Groningen. He also took private drawing lessons with the Dutch sculptor Willem Valk (1898–1977). Around 1920 he started to make drawings and paintings in an abstracted, geometric style, similar to that of Bart van der Leck (e.g. En passant, 1921–2; priv. col., see 1984 exh. cat., p. 17). From 1924 he worked in the architectural firm of Van Lingen in Groningen, and he continued to design furniture until the 1930s. He joined De Ploeg and started to mix with Dutch artists such as Jan Wiegers, Jan Altink (1885–1971) and Hendrik Nicolaas Werkman. He produced geometric abstract works such as Composition with Yellow Circles (1924; Groningen, Groninger Mus.). From c. 1924 he began to associate with the Belgian Constructivists involved in the magazine ...

Article

David Alexander and Stephen Deuchar

English family of artists of Danish descent. The earliest member active in England was Sefferien Alken (1717–82), who was a wood-carver, gilder and stone-carver employed by William Chambers. His son (1) Samuel Alken was an engraver. Four of Samuel Alken’s sons, Samuel Alken (1784–c. 1825), (2) Henry (Thomas) Alken, George Alken (c. 1794–?1837) and Sefferien John Alken (1796–1857), were sporting artists. In the next generation Henry Alken’s sons Samuel Henry (Gordon) Alken (1810–94), known as Henry Alken junior, and Sefferien Alken (1821–73) were also artists.

Gunnis F. Siltzer: The Story of British Sporting Prints (London, 1928, rev. 1979) S. Mitchell: The Dictionary of Equestrian Artists (Woodbridge, 1985)

David Alexander

(b London, Oct 22, 1756; bur; London, Nov 9, 1815).

Engraver. He entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, as a sculptor in 1772. In 1779...

Article

Chr. Will

[Augustus]

(b Amsterdam, April 19, 1838; d Amsterdam, Jan 10, 1927).

Dutch painter and lithographer. He attended evening classes in drawing at the Felix Meritis School in Amsterdam and on 27 May 1854 sat the entrance exam at the city’s Koninklijke Academie. Lodewijk Royer, the director, gave him lessons in figure drawing and taught him about Greek art. As a student at the Academie he won several prizes. In 1855 he took up lithography under the influence of the French lithographer Adolphe Mouilleron (1820–81), whom he had seen at work in Amsterdam in 1854. He wanted to become a professional lithographer, and from 1858 to 1859 he was in Paris in order to learn the art at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Mouilleron’s direction. He made copies after paintings in the Louvre and the Musée du Luxembourg and visited Barbizon. In Paris he met Fantin-Latour and Courbet, but his special admiration was reserved for Ingres, Delacroix and Decamps. In the 1850s and 1860s Allebé frequently sought inspiration in the countryside, staying at ...

Article

John Steen

[Petrus]

(b Medan, Sumatra, Jan 18, 1886; d Amsterdam, May 23, 1969).

Dutch painter and printmaker. He trained at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1904–6). From 1907 until 1914 he stayed in Paris, where he worked at Académie Humbert. Initially he used an impressionistic style, but after contact with Dutch artists in Paris, including Conrad Kickert (1882–1965), Piet Mondrian and Lodewijk Schelfhout (1881–1943), c. 1914 he became influenced by Cubism. In 1912 he took part in the Sonderbund exhibition in Cologne and in 1915 he exhibited at the Kunstkring in Rotterdam with Henri Le Fauconnier and Mondrian. In 1921 he travelled to the USSR, where he met Vasily Kandinsky, El Lissitzky, Vladimir Tatlin and Kazimir Malevich. In 1923 Alma organized the exhibition of contemporary Russian art at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, which had been shown as the Erste russische Kunstausstellung in the Galerie van Diemen in Berlin in 1922. His first one-man show was held at the Stedelijk Museum in ...

Article

Christiaan Schuckman

(b Mijdrecht, c. 1652; d after 1683).

Dutch etcher and draughtsman. His birthplace and date are inscribed on his mezzotint portrait of his father, Johannes ab Almeloveen (1678; Hollstein, no. 38), who was a preacher in Mijdrecht. Jan’s other 37 prints are all etchings, mainly landscapes. In his topographical views of Dutch rivers and occasionally the Rhine, van Almeloveen followed the tradition of established masters. Twenty of these landscapes are based on designs by Herman Saftleven, including a series of twelve depictions of Dutch villages such as Langerack and an unusual diamond-shaped series of the Four Seasons. The remaining, less lively compositions were made after his own designs. An annotation on one of his landscape drawings (Leiden, Rijksuniv., Prentenkab., AW #1008) indicates that on 8 August 1680 he was working at Frankfurt an der Oder, but he was presumably in Utrecht for most of the period from 1678 to 1683, when he dated his last known print, one in a series of six landscapes (Hollstein, 21–6)....

Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Jan 25, 1923; d July 31, 1993).

Argentine draughtsman, painter and printmaker. He was self-taught and in 1943 began to illustrate publications throughout Latin America, continuing to do so for more than 20 years. His early work consisted of highly emotive ink drawings marked by an intricacy of design and lack of idealization, for example The Vacuum II (1976). He later worked in both pastels and oils to create spectral images of love, death, eroticism and the obscure world of nightmares, fears and terrors. Critics sometimes spoke of these in terms of Magic Realism, although he did not subscribe to any specific stylistic tendency. He often treated human heads and figures in fragmentary form, as if they were the victims of violent torture, and with a veiled but sarcastic humour.

With time Alonso gradually simplified his drawings and replaced his invented characters with fictional objects and childhood memories, moving towards more intimate and abstract work, for example in the pastel ...

Article

Sepp Kern

(von)

(b Vienna, Aug 28, 1812; d Vienna, March 12, 1905).

Austrian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He was perhaps the most productive and accomplished watercolour painter in German-speaking Europe in the 19th century. On his frequent travels he produced local views, landscapes and interiors, often commissioned by aristocratic patrons. He studied with his father, Jakob Alt (1789–1872), a landscape and watercolour painter and one of the first to use the new technique of lithography. From the age of six Rudolf accompanied him on study trips, and, together with Alt’s other children, he coloured his father’s drawings. During his student days at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1825–32), Rudolf joined his father on further journeys and collaborated in his studio. In 1832 he won a prize, which simultaneously freed him from military service and marked the beginning of his independent artistic activity. In the same year he produced his first oil painting, after his own watercolour, of the ...

Article

(b Rödichen-Schnepfenthal, Thuringia, Nov 22, 1926; d Dresden, Dec 30, 1989).

German painter, printmaker and sculptor. He studied at the Hochschule für Baukunst and Bildende Kunst in Weimar under H. Hoffmann-Lederer (b 1899). From the start his interest was directed towards modernism, especially by its literary aspects, which inspired him to produce lyrical works of his own. Even in his first drawings, for example Ecce homo I (1949; priv. col., see 1969 exh. cat., no. 142), in which he addressed the painful experience of war, he achieved a marked individual style. His determined preoccupation with modern art and the vocabulary of form set him at odds with the prevailing artistic ideology until late in his life. In the 1940s and 1950s, although his plants and figures were depicted objectively, he produced tight-woven but reduced abstract shapes that anticipated the meticulously applied successive layers of non-objectivism. His work was always closely influenced by the area in which he was born and lived, particularly his landscapes, for example ...

Article

Julieta Ortiz Gaitán

(b La Piedad Cabadas, Michoacán, 1905; d Mexico City, 1981).

Mexican printmaker. His skill as a printmaker became apparent at an early age when he was employed as an assistant metal-engraver by Francisco Díaz de Léon at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City. In 1929 he succeeded his teacher Emilio Valadés as professor of printmaking and subsequently became Director of the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas and of the Escuela Nacional de Pintura y Escultura La Esmeralda, both in Mexico City. He was influential both as a teacher and for his virtuoso handling of traditional printmaking techniques, including line-engraving, drypoint, aquatint, mezzotint, wood-engraving and linocut. His prints, mainly of Mexican landscapes, combine technical skill with affective expressiveness. He experimented constantly with methods of improving procedures, especially with mezzotint, with the modification of printing presses and with the introduction of new acids. Alvarado Lang also did much to popularize 19th-century Mexican prints as a collector and writer.

El grabado a la manera negra...

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Le Havre, Oct 19, 1938).

Panamanian painter and printmaker of French birth. He first studied with the figurative painter Alberto Dutary but established himself in the 1960s as one of the few abstract artists in Panama with paintings such as Green Force (Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp.), which attest to the influence of American Abstract Expressionism; in other works he was also influenced by Post-painterly Abstraction. During a visit to Japan in 1969 he came into contact with Japanese art and Zen Buddhism, after which he sought to achieve the maximum impact of form and colour through reduction to essentials. The techniques used in his acrylic paintings and drawings were well suited also to screenprints such as the series Form and Space (1975; Panama City, Gal. Etcétera). Alvarado was also active in organizing exhibitions for others and promoting the arts in Panama as director from 1970 to 1975 of the Departmento de Artes Plásticas of the Instituto Nacional de Cultura y Deportes....

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Santiago de Veraguas, March 25, 1869; d Panama City, Nov 12, 1952).

Panamanian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He is known chiefly as the designer of the national flag (1903) of Panama. He studied business administration and had a long career in public office. When Panama became independent in 1903, he became Secretario de Hacienda and in 1904 Consul-General ad-honorem to Hamburg. In 1908 he moved to New York, where he studied with Robert Henri, who strongly influenced his style of vigorous drawing, loose brushwork, distorted expressionist images and sombre colours, as in Head Study (1910; Panama City, R. Miró priv. col.; see Miró). He produced most of his work between 1910 and 1914 and again after the late 1930s; his main subject was the human figure, but he also painted portraits, landscapes and still-lifes. On his return to Panama in the 1930s he worked as an auditor in the Contraloría General. After his retirement he resumed painting and produced some of his most passionate works, such as ...

Article

Radu Bogdan

(b Cîmpulung-Muscel, March 20, 1831; d Bucharest, Aug 19, 1891).

Romanian painter, sculptor and printmaker. After mastering the principles of painting in Craiova and Bucharest, where he studied under Constantin Lecca (1807–87) and Carol Valştein (1795–1857), he left for Paris around 1850. There he attended the studio of Michel-Martin Drolling and, after Drolling’s death, that of François-Edouard Picot. In 1853 he made his public début at the Paris Salon with a Self-portrait (Bucharest, Mus. A. Col.). A year later he travelled to Constantinople (now Istanbul), where the Sultan bought his painting the Battle of Olteniţa (1854; Istanbul, Dolmabahce Pal.). Aman then went to the Crimea, where he documented the Battle of Alma (Bucharest, N. Mus. A.) in a painting shown at the Exposition Internationale in Paris (1855). The autumn of the same year and the spring of the following year were spent in Wallachia, where the prince, Barbu Ştirbei, honoured Aman with a minor nobiliary title and a grant to enable him to continue his studies in France. In ...

Article

(b Chevry-Cossigny, Seine-et-Marne, Nov 13, 1858; d ?Paris, 1935–6).

French painter, pastellist and printmaker. He studied from 1880 under the academic painter Henri Lehmann at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris; there he befriended Georges Seurat with whom he shared a studio for several years. He also studied under Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, working as his assistant on the Sacred Grove (1884; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). In 1886 he obtained a travel scholarship to Rome and on his return befriended Symbolist poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine and Philippe-Auguste Villiers de l’Isle Adam. While the poets sought to subvert language in order to express new sensations, Aman-Jean relied on pictorial and iconographic traditions. He specialized in pictures of languid young women turned in profile to the left or gazing into space, as in Girl with Peacock (1895; Paris, Mus. A. Déc.), using broken brushstrokes and colour contrasts that by then had largely shed their avant-garde connotations. Typical works such as the colour lithograph ...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b São Paulo, 1935).

Brazilian painter and printmaker. After studying engraving in São Paulo, he moved to New York in 1959 to complete his studies at the Pratt Graphic Center, where his contact with international Pop art merged with his own interest in Brazilian popular imagery, for example in the portfolio of woodcuts Mine and Yours (1967). Immediately afterwards he began painting ambiguous and ironic still-lifes collectively titled Brasíliana, which use bananas as symbols of underdevelopment and exploitation, for example BR-1 SP (1970; São Paulo, Pin. Estado) and Bananas (1971; Washington, DC, Mus. Mod. A. Latin America). In 1971 he won a trip abroad in the National Salon of Modern Art (Rio de Janeiro), which took him again to New York between 1972 and 1973. On his return to São Paulo he began the series Battlegrounds, in which he submitted the previously reclining bananas to slashing, torture and putrefaction. Subsequently shapes were reorganized into configurations of an undramatic Surrealism, playful, colourful, tumescent and as firmly rooted as ever in his native Brazil and Latin America....

Article

Blanca García Vega

(b Barcelona, 1768; d Madrid, Oct 20, 1841).

Spanish Catalan engraver. He was assistant professor at the Escuela de Artes, Barcelona, in 1787 and received a scholarship from the Junta de Comercio to study engraving in Madrid (1790–95) under Manuel Salvador Carmona. In 1793 he was awarded first prize for engraving by the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, for his portrait of Ventura Rodríguez after the painting by Goya (1784; Stockholm, Nmus.), and in 1797 he was made an Academician. In 1803 he made the engraving the Ostrich Hunt; he also produced book illustrations, religious engravings and reproductions of paintings. His success led to his appointment as Grabador de Cámara in 1815, in which position he executed a portrait of Ferdinand VII (1821) after drawings by Vicente López y Portaña. On the death of Salvador Carmona in 1820, Ametller Rotllan was made Director de Grabado at the Real Academia, a post he held until his death....