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Nadine Pouillon

(b Château-Renault, Indre-et-Loire, April 24, 1873; d Montoire-sur-le-Loir, nr Vendôme, Aug 12, 1958).

French painter. Like many naive artists, he discovered his vocation for drawing and painting late in life. His work as a gardener in Touraine awakened his love of nature, and he educated himself by reading history and mythology and by travelling in central and western France. He was mobilized in World War I and was sent to Greece to take part in the Dardanelles campaign; on his return to France his drawing skills were recognized by the Army and he was put in charge of charting and rangefinding. It was this experience that encouraged him to become a painter in 1919.

Bauchant exhibited his work for the first time at the Salon d’Automne in 1921. His flower pictures were soon succeeded by subjects from history, such as Louis XI Having Mulberry Bushes Planted near Tours (1943; Paris, Pompidou), from mythology, as in Cleopatra, on her Way to Anthony (...


Susan B. Taylor

(b Paris, April 12, 1744; d Paris, May 1, 1818).

French architect and landscape designer. He had a distinguished career as a royal architect at the courts of Louis XV and Louis XVI. Although his fame rests on his accomplishments as a landscape architect, his mercurial talents are perhaps best characterized in his drawings for interior decoration and court festivals. After studying physics under the Abbé Nollet at the Collège de Navarre, Bélanger attended the Académie Royale d’Architecture in Paris between 1764 and 1766 where he worked under Julien-David Le Roy and Pierre Contant d’Ivry. He was not a successful student and left without achieving the illustrious Prix de Rome. Nevertheless, under Le Roy’s influence he was involved with the circle of Neo-classical artists, including Charles-Louis Clérisseau, who had recently returned from Italy. In 1767 Bélanger became a Dessinateur du Roi at the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs under Charles Michel-Ange Challe. Since the Menus Plaisirs were responsible for the temporary decorations and stage scenery for court festivities, Bélanger was involved with preparations for the marriage celebrations in ...


Term applied, mostly in the 18th and 19th centuries, to towers, either free-standing or attached to a house, that were constructed in order to provide a view. The word, which derives from the Italian bello (‘beautiful’) and vedere (‘to see’), was also used to denote buildings located on hills in order to command a view and could thus be applied even to utilitarian architecture. For example, the siting of the Forte di Belvedere (formerly the Fortezza di S Maria del Belvedere) in Florence, built by Bernardo Buontalenti in 1590–95, had a defensive rather than aesthetic purpose, but the fortress’s name reflected the beauty of its view over the city. In succeeding centuries, however, the term was applied to buildings constructed solely for pleasure, such as Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach’s belvedere (1687–90; destr.) for the Palais Liechtenstein in der Rossau in Vienna. This was created for John Adam Andreas, Prince of Liechtenstein, with an imposing façade inspired by Roman Baroque architecture. The name ...


Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...


Brent Elliott

English garden in Staffordshire. It was laid out from 1849 by its owner, James Bateman (1811–97), in collaboration with the painter Edward William Cooke and the sculptor Waterhouse Hawkins (fl 1830s–1850s). Bateman, a noted amateur orchid-grower, purchased a farmhouse on Biddulph Moor in 1842 and began his major landscaping work there about seven years later. An Italianate parterre was laid out immediately in front of the house, but beyond this terrace the grounds were subdivided into a network of irregular compartments, each devoted to a different architectural style or manner of planting, the whole bounded by a walk planted as a pinetum. These compartments were to provide ‘a suitable home for nearly all the hardy members of the great plant family’, according to the garden designer Edward Kemp, thus necessitating ‘the production of an unusual number of separate and independent areas, each of which has a character of its own’. The two most important compartments were an Egyptian garden, having stone sphinxes and high walls of shaped yew hedging, and ‘China’, a garden planted with Chinese plants and ornamented with chinoiserie garden buildings designed by Cooke and sculptures by Hawkins. These disparate areas at Biddulph Grange were screened from one another by a variety of rockworks, walls, tunnels and mounds, so planted (noted Kemp) as to seem from the house ‘an irregular wavy sea of shrubs and trees in which there is nothing incongruous’....


Carola Hicks

English country house near Woodstock, Oxon, designed by John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. It was begun in 1705 and completed c. 1725. The gardens, initially laid out by Vanbrugh and Henry Wise, were largely redesigned in 1764–74 by ‘Capability’ Brown. Blenheim Palace is regarded as one of the finest examples of English Baroque architecture. It was a gift to the Duke from a grateful Crown and nation to commemorate his victory in 1704 over the French and Bavarians at Blenheim (now Blindheim) during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The intention was to create a public monument symbolizing the glory of Britain and a palace fit for a hero, rather than a building on a domestic scale. This is reflected in Vanbrugh’s dramatic and monumental design, inspired by both English and French architecture, which developed the style he had begun to formulate in his earlier work at Castle Howard, N. Yorks. In both undertakings he was assisted by ...


Brent Elliott

Garden in Gwynedd, Wales. It was laid out from 1874 by Edward Milner (1819–84) for Henry Davis Pochin, an industrial chemist, with further improvements undertaken in the early 20th century by Pochin’s descendants. Milner’s initial design confined Bodnant’s formal and architectural features—most notably a laburnum archway and beds of flowering shrubs—to the curtilage of the house, while an extensive lawn, artificial rockworks by James Pulham (c. 1820–98) and a conifer collection filled the rest of the grounds. Between 1905 and 1914 Pochin’s grandson, Henry Duncan McLaren, 2nd Baron Aberconway (1879–1953), carved the lawn into a series of five Italianate terraces of individual character (including one with a buttressed wall and formal water-lily pool) and a canal terrace. This last terrace was provided with trelliswork and an open-air stage backed by yew hedges, and it was further supplemented in 1938 by the Pin Mill, a small industrial building of ...



Claudia Lazzaro

Sacro Bosco [Villa Orsini]

Italian estate below the hill town of Bomarzo, near Viterbo. The popular name derives from an inscription in the wood, which refers to it as a ‘sacro bosco’, an allusion to Arcadia (1504) by Jacopo Sannazaro. The Sacro Bosco, built for Pier Francesco (‘Vicino’) Orsini (d 1585) from c. 1552, was dedicated by him to his deceased wife, Giulia Farnese. Called a boschetto (little wood) by Orsini, the site is hilly with untouched terrain, although there are also level terraces and rectilinear enclosures. Much was done by 1564; sculpture was added during the 1570s, and work continued until Orsini’s death in January 1585.

The original planting plan is unknown, and since the rediscovery of the site in the 1940s much has been replanted. The stream may have been dammed to form a lake in the areas of the present entrance and the path lined with heads (moved there in the modern restoration). The original entrance was probably near the Leaning House, the former location of the sphinxes, as their inscriptions address the entering visitor. The hypothesis of a formal garden contemporary with the Sacro Bosco on the hillside above must be rejected without further evidence....


Lucia Tongiorgi Tomasi


A type of Garden developed by university medical schools in Europe from the mid-16th century for the collection and scientific study of plants; its origins lie in the monastic herbal gardens of the medieval period. The observation of plant specimens for educational purposes led to the establishment of numerous ‘physic’ gardens (hortus medicus): both Pisa and Padua had a botanic garden by 1544, and that at Florence was established in 1545; other early important examples include Leipzig (1580), Leiden (1587), Montpellier (1593), Oxford (1621), the Jardin des Plantes (1626), Paris, Uppsala (1665), Chelsea Physic Garden (1673), London, and Amsterdam (1682). The experimental method that was gradually beginning to dominate scientific study, together with the requirements imposed by the cultivation of plants, soon began to overshadow the aesthetic qualities that had characterized the Renaissance and Baroque garden. Virtually all decorative elements, such as statues, grottoes, fountains or mazes, were excluded from the botanic garden, whose value resided in its collection of such rare and exotic plant species as the sunflower, the agave or the tomato, all from newly discovered parts of the world. Certain plants, including the tulip, fritillary, narcissus, iris and anemone, were particularly sought after in the 17th century because of their shape and colour....


F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

(b Saint-Jean-d’Angely, Charente-Maritime, c. 1562; d Paris, c. 1634).

French garden designer and theorist. Of Huguenot origin, he seems early to have enjoyed the favour of Henry of Navarre, later Henry IV. A respected member of the royal entourage, Boyceau was appointed Surintendant des Jardins du Roi in the succeeding reign of Louis XIII. Consequently, he was in a position to exert substantial influence in determining the nature of garden design at that time. In his Traité du jardinage, published in 1638, Boyceau succinctly summarized the history of French gardening and codified the rules that would govern the 17th-century formal garden. For the first time a French designer adopted an aesthetic point of view, thereby promoting the intellectual climate that was to establish gardening as a fine art. He introduced a new feeling for monumental scale to the French garden, insisting that it should reflect a strong sense of organic unity in which order, symmetry, and visual harmony would be all-pervasive....


David Rodgers

(d London, July 19, 1738).

English landscape gardener. His origins and education are obscure, but his father may have been gardener to the Harley family at Wimpole Hall, Cambs. Bridgeman is first recorded at Blenheim Palace, Oxon, working for Henry Wise, the Royal Gardener, under the general supervision of John Vanbrugh. A plan of the estate drawn by Bridgeman in 1709 reveals him to have been an accomplished surveyor, and he may well have worked for Wise and his partner George London previously.

Bridgeman’s contribution at Blenheim during this period is unknown, but it may be assumed that Vanbrugh was pleased with his work, for the two men collaborated at Stowe, Bucks, for Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham (from 1716); at Eastbury (destr.), Dorset, for George Bubb Dodington, 1st Baron Melcombe (1691–1762), in 1718; and at Claremont, Surrey, for Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle (1693–1768), in the 1720s. By the mid-1720s he was established as the most successful, influential and fashionable gardener of his day and had begun a long association with ...


(bapt Kirkharle, Northumb., Aug 30, 1716; d London, Feb 6, 1783).

English landscape gardener and architect.

Following his schooling at the nearby village of Cambo, Brown was first employed c. 1732 by Sir William Loraine of Kirkharle, who was then extending his grounds and remodelling the house. Here Brown learnt the rudiments of building and land management and in time was entrusted with laying out extensions to the garden. At Kirkharle, Loraine rebuilt the village on a new and more distant site and, with Brown’s assistance, laid out extensive lawns, flanking them with massive plantations in which several thousand trees of contrasting foliage were introduced. Scarcely a trace remains of this transformation, but a descendant of Loraine recorded that it was Brown’s ‘first landscape work’ and led to him being consulted on other gardens in the area towards the end of the decade.

In about 1739 Brown decided to make a career for himself further south, and his first known commission (...


Aonghus Mackechnie

(b Perthshire, 1625; d 1710).

Scottish architect and garden designer. He was the younger son of Robert Bruce of Blairhall, Perthshire, and probably attended St Salvator’s College, St Andrews, in 1637–8. Bruce was interested in the arts and was reputed to be well versed in languages, but it was as a politician that he first achieved recognition. He played a significant role in General Monk’s conversion to the Royalist cause in 1659 and was a confidential messenger between the Scottish Lords and Charles II in the months preceding the Restoration. Shortly after 1660 he was knighted, and through John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 1st Duke of Lauderdale—whose second wife was a full cousin of Bruce’s—he obtained various minor though lucrative employments before his appointment in 1671 as Surveyor-General of the Royal Works in Scotland (the ancient post of Master of the Royal Works, which had been re-created specifically for the rebuilding of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh), which he held until ...



Asok Kumar Das

City in Rajasthan, India. It flourished in the 17th–18th centuries ad as capital of the state of the same name. It contains a wide variety of palaces, mansions (hāvelīs), temples, stepwells and gardens. The city is dominated by the Taragarh hill-fort, founded by the Rajput king Rao Deva in 1241; the palace on the hillside below contains many attractive structures, including the Ratan Mahal, built by Rao Ratan Singh (reg 1607–31), the beautifully painted Chatar Mahal by Rao Chatarsal (reg 1631–58) and the Chitra Shali by Rao Umed Singh (reg 1739–70) (see Indian subcontinent, §III, 7, (ii), (b)). Bundi was also a centre of manuscript painting from the 17th century (see Indian subcontinent, §V, 4, (iii), (c)).

H. C. Ray: Dynastic History of Northern India, 2 vols (Calcutta, 1931) K. C. Jain: Ancient Cities and Towns of Rajasthan (Delhi, 1972)...


Paulo J. V. Bruna

(b São Paulo, Aug 4, 1909; d nr Rio de Janeiro, June 4, 1994).

Brazilian landscape architect, painter and designer. He studied painting at a private school in Berlin from 1928 to 1929, and during this time he frequently went to the Botanical Gardens at Dahlem to study the collections of plants that were arranged in geographical groupings, providing useful lessons in botany and ecology. He thus learnt to appreciate many examples of Brazilian flora that were rarely used in Brazilian gardens, an experience that had a lasting effect on him. In 1930 he entered the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro to study painting; he also took a course in ecology at the Botanical Gardens in Rio. From 1934 to 1937 he was Director of Parks and Gardens at Recife, leaving when he established his own practice as a landscape architect in Rio de Janeiro. To this period belong the gardens of the Casa do Forte, where aquatic plants predominate, and the gardens he designed for the Praça Euclides da Cunha, where his studies of the ...


Michael Spens

Capital of Australia. Founded as a result of the federation of the Australian colonies (1901), the city (population c. 270,000) is noted for its urban plan, a remarkable combination of garden city and Beaux-Arts ideals. The inland site for Canberra was established in the Australian Capital Territory c. 250 km south-west of Sydney and c. 480 km north-east of Melbourne. An international competition for the design of the urban plan was won in 1912 by the American architect Walter Burley Griffin. His scheme (for illustration see Griffin family) combines formality, befitting the ceremony of state, and informality, reflecting the democratic structure of Australian society. The plan is closely related to the undulating topography of the site, with prominent hills employed as radial hubs for a system of formal axes that are in turn aligned to distant topographical features. The focus of the entire plan is Capital Hill, site of the parliament, which forms the apex of the Parliamentary (or Federal) Triangle where the principal government buildings are located. A central, tree-lined land axis links Capital Hill with Mt Ainslie to the north (site of the Australian War Memorial, ...


Peter Fidler

[Marcell Armand]

(b Vincennes, 1730; d Vienna, Nov 2, 1786).

French architect and landscape designer, active in Austria. He trained in Paris under Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, whom he followed to Vienna in 1760. There he worked for the Crown Prince (later Emperor Joseph II (reg 1765–90)), and in 1776 he became Court Architect with responsibility for work in the suburbs of Vienna. Besides numerous architectural monuments, including a triumphal arch (1765) in Innsbruck, Canevale was also commissioned by the Emperor to design several private buildings, as well as summer houses for him in the Prater district of Vienna (1781–4) and on the Laaerberg (1786). Canevale also redesigned the Allgemeines Krankenhaus (the ‘Narrenturm’; 1783), the Josephinum (1783–5), a military medical school founded by the Emperor, and the anatomical theatre in the old university, all in Vienna (see Austria, Federal Republic of §II 4.). Other works included the garden ‘castle’ known as ‘Josephstöckl’ (...


Richard John

[Carrogis, Louis]

(b Paris, Aug 15, 1717; d Paris, Dec 26, 1806).

French draughtsman, designer and writer. He began his career as tutor to children of nobility, among them those of the Duc de Luynes at the château of Dampierre, where in 1754 he redesigned the park in the English manner. During the Seven Years’ War he worked as a topographical artist for Pons de Saint-Maurice and made portraits and caricatures of the soldiers in his regiment. Pons de Saint-Maurice recommended him to Louis-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans (1725–85), who in 1763 appointed him lecteur to his son Philippe, Duc de Chartres. Carmontelle quickly became involved in all aspects of the ducal household, notably in the theatre; he wrote ‘proverbes’ (playlets illustrating a moral point) for it and supervised their production to his own designs. His texts were published as Proverbes dramatiques between 1768 and 1787, but his illustrations to them remained unpublished until 1933 (original drawings at Chantilly, Mus. Condé). He also recorded the members of the ducal household at the Palais Royal and at Villers-Cotterets in a series of portrait drawings, in pencil and watercolour or gouache. These were made rapidly, often in less than two hours, and almost all show the sitter full-length in profile. They are an invaluable record of both courtiers and distinguished visitors, such as the young ...


Jörg Garms


Large 18th-century palazzo situated in Italian town of Caserta, the successor of ancient and medieval Capua. The town is the capital of a province of the Campania region and is situated 28 km from Naples. Its growth dates from the 19th century. The Bourbon king Charles VII of Naples (from 1759 King Charles III of Spain) decided to make Caserta the site of a royal residence in imitation of Versailles. His choice was based on the excellent local hunting and the vulnerability of his palazzo at Naples in the event of a popular uprising or an attack from the sea. The building was designed by Luigi Vanvitelli and executed between 1752 and 1772. It was inhabitable from 1775 onwards and in the late 1770s and during the 1780s such artists as Fidele Fischetti and Domenico Mondo produced frescoes for various rooms (e.g. Mondo’s Classical Heroes, 1781, for the overdoors of the Sala delle Dame, and ...


Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in October 1698, when the 3rd Earl took out a lease for life on the ruinous Henderskelfe Castle (burnt 1693; destr. 1724) and its manor from his grandmother, Anne Howard, Countess of Carlisle. The following spring he consulted the architect William Talman, Comptroller of Works to William III, on the design for a house to replace the old castle of Henderskelfe, but during the summer Talman was supplanted by the playwright John Vanbrugh. Castle Howard was Vanbrugh’s first important architectural commission. A model in wood was shown to the King in the summer of 1700, and work on the hill-top site began in the spring of ...