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Jean van Cleven

(b Courtrai [Flem. Kortrijk], May 20, 1819; d Beloeil, March 10, 1886).

Belgian architect. One of the most distinguished Belgian architects of the second half of the 19th century who designed in several styles, he won a first prize at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in 1845 and specialized in the study of medieval architecture under Joseph Jonas Dumont. Around 1852 he established himself in Bruges, where he collaborated with Jean-Baptiste Charles François Bethune on the chapel of the Sisters of Charity (1858); before 1861, however, he moved to Beloeil, where he was employed on alterations to the Prince de Ligne’s château (which was then largely rebuilt following a fire in 1900). Carpentier was most influential in the field of ecclesiastical architecture. His churches at Beloeil (1862), Châtelet (1867; destr. by fire 1937), Thollembeek (1869), Antoing (1869) and Awenne (1881) show a personal interpretation of High Victorian Gothic, whereas St Remacle (...


Seymour Howard

(b Rome, ?1716; d Rome, Dec 9, 1799).

Italian sculptor, restorer, dealer, collector and antiquary. He lived and worked all his life in the artists’ quarter of Rome. He was apprenticed to the French sculptor Pierre-Etienne Monnot from c. 1729 to 1733, and by 1732 had become a prize-winning student at the Accademia di S Luca. From the early 1730s he appears to have worked for Cardinal Alessandro Albani on his collections of antiquities, renovating sculptures with Carlo Antonio Napolioni (1675–1742).

In 1733 Clement XII bought most of Albani’s earlier holdings of antique sculpture in order to prevent their sale and export to the court of Augustus the Strong in Dresden. He housed them in the Museo Capitolino, Rome, where Cavaceppi worked as a principal restorer, with Napolioni and his nephew Clemente Bianchi, under the direction of Marchese Gregorio Capponi and Cardinal Giovan Petro Lucatelli, until the end of the papacy (1740–58) of Benedict XIV. By mid-century, after renovating Early Christian antiquities in the Lateran, Cavaceppi’s reputation extended beyond Italy and with the aid of Albani he had become an independent dealer. He was in great demand among the major collectors and agents of central Europe and England—including ...


Jaynie Anderson

(b Caravaggio, Aug 8, 1844; d Milan, Dec 7, 1918).

Italian restorer and painter. He studied painting and restoration under Giuseppe Bertini and Giuseppe Molteni at the Accademia di Brera, Milan, and, after Molteni’s death in 1867, inherited his studio at the Brera and his private clientele. Cavenaghi was closely associated with Giovanni Morelli and his circle, most notably the collectors Gian Giacomo Poldi-Pezzoli in Milan, Sir Austen Henry Layard and Prince Giuseppe Giovanelli in Venice, as well as Morelli’s pupils, Gustavo Frizzoni and Jean Paul Richter. From the early 1870s most of the important pictures from north Italian collections in need of conservation were sent to Cavenaghi. Among his most famous restorations were the frescoes by Francesco Francia and Lorenzo Costa (i) (rest. 1874) in S Cecilia, Bologna, Donato Bramante’s frescoes (Milan, Brera) formerly in the Casa Panigarola, Milan, and Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper (Milan, S Maria delle Grazie; rest. 1908). As revealed in letters between Richter and Morelli, Cavenaghi’s studio became a laboratory for testing restoration techniques and for the re-attribution of paintings and was frequented by the most important international museum directors and connoisseurs. From ...


Ilaria Bignamini

(d London, 1748).

English restorer and art dealer. Possibly related to the print-seller and auctioneer John Cock (d 1714), he began his career cleaning and restoring Old Master paintings. In this capacity he was employed by some of the foremost collectors of his time, including John Hervey (1665–1751), 1st Earl of Bristol, and James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos. Around 1726 Cock set up the earliest art auction rooms in London to survive for any length of time. These were situated in the house in Covent Garden formerly occupied by Peter Lely. Around the same date he joined the gatherings of artists and amateurs of the Rose and Crown Club, London, where he met William Hogarth, who later satirized Cock’s supposed greed and cunning in his engraving Battle of the Pictures (1745). Cock also acted as a property auctioneer, conducting his business on a scale unprecedented in England. After his death he was succeeded in the salerooms in Covent Garden by the firms of ...


In earlier times creative sculptors were also occasionally restorers; by the late 20th century sculpture restoration had become a separate profession in its own right. The history of sculpture restoration provides numerous examples of formal reconstitutions in which errors of stylistic interpretation have been recognized. A notable example of this is the famous Laokoon (Rome, Vatican, Mus. Pio-Clementino), which was given a new arm, the gesture and position of which constituted a Baroque explosion rather than dramatic Hellenistic intensity; the rediscovery of the authentic arm was a lesson in humility for the restorers. The restoration of nearly a third of the ancient Greek pediments (Munich, Glyp.) from the Temple of Aphaia in Aigina carried out by Bertel Thorvaldsen in 1816 consisted of new elements, and in about 1970 provoked a “derestoration” that was in every regard as radical as the first intervention. The recent history of art restoration has laid down stricter regulations. The trend should be towards preventive conservation (...


Andrew Oddy, Sarah Staniforth, Jill Dunkerton, Myriam Serck-Dewaide, David Leigh and Perry Smith

Terms for the preservation of the manmade material remains of the past. Conservation is an all-embracing term that includes the processes of cleaning, stabilization, repair and restoration. To many people, the words ‘conservation’ and ‘restoration’ are interchangeable, and this confusion is exacerbated by the fact that in French a conservateur is the equivalent of an English curator, and a restaurateur is most usually rendered in English by the title conservator. The English title of restorer is now little used within the museum profession but is widely employed in the antiques and antiquities trade to mean someone who ‘restores’ a painting or an object to make it more functional and/or saleable. Restoration is also in general use as a term to describe the repair and renovation of ancient buildings and historic monuments, but its meaning is not really so far removed from the limited use in the museum to mean a part of the whole process of conservation....


A. Elena Charola and Inge Rörig-Dalgaard

Good-quality bricks are among the most durable building materials available. Nonetheless, as they weather over time they will eventually return to the clay from which they were made. Deterioration is caused by several factors such as the presence of soluble salts, air-pollution, freeze-thaw cycling, biological action, and incompatible mortars used in their setting. The following discussion deals specifically with the conservation of exposed brick masonry and does not include brick veneer.

The presence of soluble salts, such as sodium chloride (NaCl, halite), either in the brick, mortar, or the ground where the wall foundation is set, as well as deicing salts, can cause rapid deterioration in a very short time when alternating wet–dry cycles occur. Water dissolves salt crystals, carrying their ions into porous bodies of bricks. When dry conditions prevail, the water migrates back to the surface and evaporates, causing the salts to recrystallize causing the damage. The degree of this damage is related to the amount of salt that recrystallizes, the conditions under which the recrystallization occurs, the number of wetting and drying cycles to which the masonry is exposed, as well as changes in temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH). Some bricks, if not fired properly, may inherently contain salts, such as sodium sulfate which can crystallize as an anhydrous salt (Na...


Canvas paintings have been restored for centuries and some paintings may have undergone conservation many times. Work may have been carried out to repair mechanical damage such as tears or distortions in the canvas, to reattach flaking paint, and to address materials the original artist used that may have deteriorated. There are also aesthetic treatments such as removing dirt or yellowed varnish from the painted surface. As a consequence of the aging of the original materials, no artwork will look the same as when it was first painted after some time has passed. Even contemporary paintings may be made with materials that age within an artist’s lifetime, and consequently need conservation treatment.

See also Canvas

In the days before heating could easily be controlled, rooms were heated by open fires. Light was provided by candles or torches made from oil-soaked rags. Thus the natural processes of aging to which paintings were subjected were exacerbated by seasonal and diurnal changes in temperature and humidity, as well as the soot and fumes given off by these fires. Paintings of all media can be affected by air-borne surface dirt settling on their surfaces, but unvarnished surfaces are affected more directly than are varnished ones. Acrylic paintings are affected particularly adversely as dirt does not always remain on their surfaces but can be drawn into the paint layer. Varnishing is not always the solution. Some modern media cannot be varnished and varnish itself can discolor with age, changing the look of the paint it covers, whether it is a traditional oil or modern paint. In fact, some artists never intended their work to be varnished. Aged canvases become brittle and no longer perform their primary function of supporting the paint. Contemporary works also suffer from uncontrolled, fluctuating enviromental conditions. Mishandling can result in bumps and scratches....


Lucy Branch

The conservation of metals begins with the process of assessing the condition, stability, and losses or alteration that may have occurred to metal objects. Conservators are then in a position to manage risk and take preventative measures to protect the longevity of the material as well as consider a variety of treatments to repair any damage.

See also Metal

Each metal has particular conservation issues related to the metal species or alloy used, how the object was made (cast, beaten, formed, rolled, machined, or extruded), whether or not a decorative finish was applied, and the nature of the environment to which the object was exposed. Condition issues can be identified as being either structural or surface related.

Structural instability can be the result of manufacturing flaws or physical damage. How the object was made can in turn dictate how an object should be treated. For example, a dent in a cast bronze sculpture should not be hammered out due to the crystalline structure of cast metal; the most likely outcome would be the formation of a crack (...


Angela H. Moor, Ian L. Moor and Susie Clark


The conservation of photographic materials relates to the passive and interventive techniques used to clean, stabilize, consolidate, repair, and restore original photographic positive and negative images.

See also Photography

Angela H. Moor and Ian L. Moor

Conservation for photographic materials must take into account the characteristics and properties that denote the photograph as an artifact, rather than just a visual image, and historic and technological information must be preserved to ensure the continuation of the provenance of the photograph. Regarding the photograph as an image will include all the visual, social, historic, artistic, and aesthetic information that is represented within the picture created by the photographer. This concept also relates to the individuality of style, interpretation, and presentation of the photographer in respect of that which he purposefully or accidentally captured in his work. Regarding the photograph as an artifact will include the visual and material characteristics that make up and form the essence of the photograph. These physical properties include the light-sensitive coatings found in non-colloidal images such as calotypes, salted paper prints, cyanotypes, and platinum prints or in the image-carrying colloid or colloidal emulsions, whether silver or pigmented, and their supporting bases, mountants, and presentation materials. These properties are relatively easy to recognize (...


The field of stained-glass conservation seeks to ensure the survival of historic stained glass for future generations using best practices established through collaboration with conservation scientists, art historians, conservation architects, and conservators from related disciplines such as stone and metal conservation. Strategies and philosophies for the treatment of stained glass should conform to guidelines for conservation in general which have stressed the need for minimal intervention.

See also Stained glass

In this traditional craft established over a thousand years ago, clear and colored glass, produced by a glassmaker, was supplied to the stained-glass artist. This glass was cut to conform to a design, originally employing a red-hot iron, and followed by a notched iron tool known as a grozing iron to achieve the desired shape. In the 16th century diamond cutters were developed, and more recently tungsten wheels have been used to cut glass. The glass was then decorated with vitreous glass paint (grisaille) which was fused to the surface by firing in a kiln. In the 14th century the use of silver-stain to produce a strong yellow color spread rapidly in Europe. The use of this revolutionary technique, in which glass was stained in the kiln with silver nitrate, allowed details such as the hair and nimbus of ecclesiastical subjects to be decorated, and the skill spread rapidly. Later in the 16th century, transparent enamels were developed and used to great effect in heraldic devices....


Conservation is a relatively new discipline which has evolved from a trade of highly skilled craftspeople working mainly with fine art to a profession committed to providing care to vulnerable cultural heritage items. Conservation extends beyond a list of painstaking cleaning and repair tasks to include professional values of ethics, public accountability, scholarship, and acting in consultation to ensure intergenerational access to the cultural heritage. These diverse skills underpin the training of conservators and distinguish the professional from the technician. There are a range of conservation institutions working internationally to communicate the value of conservation, share knowledge, and develop excellence in practice. Professional conservation practice is often focused on an area of specialism, many of which are defined by the materials worked upon, such as fine art, industrial heritage, paper, or archaeology. Other specialisms refer to techniques in practice such as preventive conservation (prevention of damage), conservation science (analytical investigation of materials and decay), and conservation teaching or management. As most conservators choose to specialize in one area, special interest groups have been formed within broader professional bodies....


The conservation of artifacts has traditionally been understood to mean their restoration, but in the second half of the 20th century the term came to include the protection of objects from damage and deterioration. The materials from which artifacts have been constructed, and the techniques that have been used to assemble them, are invariably impermanent. The timescale of their “lives” varies from a few years (in the case of collections that are appropriately called “ephemera”) to millennia. The objects that have survived from the distant past give clues to the permanence of different materials—textiles are rarely found in archaeological excavations, but stone and ceramic objects are often recovered.

Deterioration can be brought about by physical, chemical, and biological changes, and an understanding of these processes is the key to their prevention. Some events can be dramatic, for example the breaking of a piece of ceramic; others are more insidious.

Chemical aging processes often occur slowly. Their effects may not be noticed unless a comparison can be made with how an object looked in the previous century. Unfortunately, this deterioration is irreversible, and there is nothing in the art or craft of the conservator that can turn back the clock. The prevention, or at least the slowing down, of the aging process is essential. In order to control the environment in which objects are kept, it is important to understand what conditions will cause the slowest rate of deterioration, and it is important to know what the enemies are: they include fire, theft, breakage, handling, shock, vibration, light, water, damp, dryness, air pollution, insects, and mold. Security and fire prevention are the most important considerations in the care of any collection, but they are specialist subjects for which the conservator is not responsible. The conservator advises on the way in which an object is exhibited, stored, or transported. This includes lighting, heating, relative humidity control, mounting methods, storage materials, and air pollution. Having specified the optimum conditions, measurements must be made to decide if methods of control need to be introduced. Attempts to improve the environment should be monitored to check that they are effective....


C. V. Horie

Fluid that is impregnated into an object and then sets to a solid, so binding separate parts into a whole. The process of consolidation aims to strengthen a fragile, porous object. Few new artefacts are made of friable materials, but consolidation is occasionally used as part of the original design, for instance when a shape is created in an easily moulded material and then strengthened by consolidation for further use. During conservation treatments, however, consolidants are regularly added to degraded objects to enable their continued use or survival. Applications range from preventing the powdering away of feathers by impregnating with polymer solutions to incorporating reinforced concrete in collapsing masonry. The type of consolidant used depends on the structure and components of the object.

A consolidant can act in two ways, usually concurrently, on friable material. It may create an adhesive join between adjacent particles. In this case, the strength and other properties of the final object have contributions from both the particles and the consolidant. Alternatively, the consolidant may encapsulate the particles, so making the final properties of the object close to those of the consolidant. In the late 20th century there has been a tendency to choose consolidants that closely match the original object physically and chemically. Because the consolidant is then so thoroughly integrated with the original, it is possible to remove no more than a small part of it, and often none at all. Consolidation is therefore an irreversible treatment that must be carefully considered before use....


S. Pressouyre

[Niccolò da Lorena; il Franciosino]

(b Saint-Mihiel, Meuse, c. 1567; d Rome, Nov 24, 1612).

French sculptor and ?painter, active also in Italy. He trained at Saint-Mihiel in the workshop of the Richier family, where he learnt the late Mannerist style current in Lorraine and much of northern Europe at the end of the 16th century. By c. 1590 he was working for Duke Charles III of Lorraine at Nancy, where he executed sculpture in wood (untraced). Late in 1592, at the expense of Charles III, he left for Rome, where he remained for the rest of his life.

Baglione reported that Cordier worked in wood in Rome, but by 1600 he had acquired sufficient reputation as a sculptor in marble to take part in Clement VIII’s decoration of the interior of S Giovanni in Laterano, for which he carved a marble high relief of an angel for the south transept. Stylistically it shares the traits of debased Mannerism common to many northern sculptors working in Rome. His first important works were a seated marble statue of ...


Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Amiens, Sept 12, 1835; d Paris, Feb 2, 1904).

French architect and writer. He was a pupil of Eugène-Emanuel Viollet-le-Duc and began his career by building the Hôtel de Ville (1862–5) at Roanne, the church (c. 1865) at Vougy in the Loire and the château of Fleyriat (1868–9) in the Ain. Subsequently he built the churches of Villers and Saint-Cyr-lès-Vignes (Loire) and, more importantly, the Comptoir d’Escompte (1878–82) in the Rue de Rougemont, Paris. During the same period Corroyer also studied medieval architecture and was commissioned to restore the churches at Lamballe, Saint-Pol-de-Léon and Dol. He undertook commissions at Dinan (1872) and Pleyben (1873) and restored churches at Ham, Nesle and Athies (Somme) and the château of Chamarande (Loire), which belonged to the Vicomte de Vougy. In 1878 he began the restoration of Mont-Saint-Michel Abbey but was dismissed in 1888 after a local intrigue. Corroyer also worked for the Service des Edifices Diocésains as diocesan architect to Soissons (from ...


E. A. Christensen

(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).

British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments ([1824]), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).

During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...


(b Bruges, Sept 27, 1838; d Bruges, Sept 2, 1909).

Belgian architect. He trained at the Municipal Academy of Fine Arts, Bruges, under Jean-Baptiste Rudd (1792–1870). In 1870 he was appointed City Architect in Bruges and Professor of the Academy, becoming Director in 1889. In 1879 he became a member of the Provincial Committee of the Royal Commission of Monuments. He was involved in the restoration of most of the major historical monuments in Bruges: the Chapel of the Holy Blood (1870 and 1877), the Registry (1873–83), the Toll House (1879), the Gruuthuse Palace (1883–95), the Town Hall (1894–5 and 1903–4), St John’s Hospital (1905–9) and the west façade of Notre-Dame (1907–8). In addition he restored several houses in the historic town centre. His approach to restoration was drastic, consisting in the completion of a project according to the intentions of the original master builder or architect and the removal of later additions that destroyed the stylistic unity....


Linda Whiteley

(b 1825).

French dealer, restorer and framer. He began his career managing a modest framing business in Rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs, Paris. The dealer Alexis Febvre (1810–81) became aware of him, provided encouragement and helped him to set up premises in the Rue Laffitte, which in the early years of the Second Empire (1852–70) was rapidly becoming the centre of the art trade. By 1857 Detrimont was buying paintings from Charles-François Daubigny, and in the next few years he gained a reputation as a dealer in contemporary paintings, with a particular interest in landscapes. For a time he was Courbet’s dealer and supervised the stretching and varnishing of his paintings for the Salon of 1861; one of these was Stags Fighting (1861; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay), a picture to which Courbet attached particular importance. It was perhaps through Courbet that Detrimont also dealt with the reclusive painter Amand Gautier, who had briefly enjoyed some success at the Salon of ...


Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...