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Bernadette Nelson

(d Lisbon, 1779).

Portuguese potter and painter. He became director and painting master of the Real Fábrica do Rato in Lisbon after the expulsion in 1771 of the first director Tomás Brunetto. With his predecessor, Almeida is associated with the factory’s most successful and distinctive period. Initially he collaborated with the potter and painter Severino José da Silva (d 1797) who was also vice-director and head of the potters’ workshop. Almeida planned to reform the factory, but his ideas were thwarted in 1772 when the board of directors instructed him to dismiss many employees including da Silva and the painters João and Antonio Berardi. However, in 1777 Almeida was granted a ten-year monopoly, the conditions being that he was obliged to have six well-trained artisans at hand, and he was to be given all the materials he needed, provided that he reimbursed the board of directors within the ten-year period. There was a marked change in style in the wares produced at the factory under Almeida’s direction. In particular, the large pieces enamelled with polychrome decoration were abandoned in favour of smaller and more delicately executed items of blue-and-white tableware that were influenced by wares from the Rouen faience factories (...

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José Meco

(fl Lisbon, c. 1720–60).

Portuguese decorative artist. His apprenticeship was probably undertaken with Master PMP, the painter of glazed tiles. His most important commission between 1729 and 1731 was for the panels of blue and white tiles, made in Lisbon, that cover the lower storey of the cloister of Oporto Cathedral, which represent scenes from the Song of Solomon. These panels are characteristic of the High Baroque phase of tile-making and show an appreciation of theatre and stage design in the deepening landscape backgrounds of the figurative panels, in the bold outlines and in the enlarged ornamental framing. The spectacular arched frames of the Oporto panels were influenced by Roman Baroque architectural ornament.

The attractive blue and white panels (c. 1735–45) in the cloister of the monastery of S Vicente de Fora, Lisbon, are attributable to Almeida. They contain landscapes, buildings, gardens, Baroque fountains, hunting scenes and other secular subjects, some after the engravings of ...

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Mieke van der Wal

(b The Hague, Jan 6, 1876; d The Hague, Dec 11, 1955).

Dutch sculptor and ceramicist. He trained at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1894–7) and in various sculpture studios. In 1898 he decorated the shop-front of the gallery Arts and Crafts in The Hague after a design by Johan Thorn Prikker, who advised him to set up on his own. From 1901 Altorf exhibited regularly and successfully; he was represented at the Prima Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa Moderna in Turin in 1902, where he won a silver medal, and at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925.

Altorf was a leading exponent of Dutch Art Nouveau. His work is characterized by a strong simplification of form. It is often compared with that of Joseph Mendes da Costa but is somewhat more angular and austere. At first Altorf made mainly animal forms from various types of wood, ivory, bronze and ceramic. In firing his modelled figures, he worked with the ceramicist ...

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Alzata  

Gordon Campbell

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Gordon Campbell

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Ellen Paul Denker

American pottery manufacturer. Beginning in 1828 D. & J. Henderson made award-winning Rockingham in a factory previously occupied by the Jersey Porcelain and Earthenware Co. in Jersey City, NJ, but in 1833 David Henderson (c. 1793–1845) took control of the company and changed the name to the American Pottery Manufacturing Co. (see fig.). In addition to the fine Rockingham modelled by the Englishman Daniel Greatbach (fl after 1839; d after 1866), the company was the first to make transfer-printed pearlware in the USA and c. 1833 reproduced Ridgway’s ‘Canova’ pattern. Many English potters who settled in the USA during the second quarter of the 19th century started their American careers in Henderson’s pottery. After Henderson’s death in 1845, the firm continued until 1852, when John Owen Rouse (d 1896) and Nathaniel Turner (d 1884) took over the works for the production of whiteware, which was made there until ...

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Amol  

Gordon Campbell

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Ampel  

Gordon Campbell

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Amphora  

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Gordon Campbell

Dutch porcelain factory near Amsterdam, originally founded at Weesp (1764; see Weesp Porcelain Factory), then moved to Oude Loosdrecht (1771), Oude Amstel (1784) and Nieuwe Amstel (1799); it closed in 1810 (see Netherlands, Kingdom of the §VII 3.). The term ‘Amstel porcelain’ is sometimes used to denote the products of the period 1784–1810, when the factory was in Oude Amstel and Nieuwe Amstel, but is also used to denote all the products of the factory from 1764 to 1810. The original workmen were from Dresden, and the early pottery resembles white Dresden pottery with landscape and figure decorations; the late pottery tends to follow French models, especially Sèvres. Amstel tableware and utilitarian containers suited bourgeois tastes, and apart from a few busts in biscuit there was no attempt to mimic the refined technical mastery of Delft pottery. Decoration and shape were eclectic, so the pottery never developed a strong visual identity. Some pottery is entirely white, with ornament in low relief; piercings are sometimes outlined in blue; cartouches contained a wide variety of pictures, often portraying flowers or landscapes; Sèvres cornflowers are a common adornment....

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Lisa M. Binder

(b Anyako, Ghana, June 13, 1944).

Ghanaian sculptor, active in Nigeria. He earned a bachelor’s degree in sculpture (1968) and a postgraduate diploma in art education from the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (1969). After graduation he taught at the Specialist Training College (now University of Winneba), Ghana, in a position vacated by the eminent sculptor Vincent Kofi. From 1975 he was Professor of Sculpture at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Anatsui’s practice often makes use of found objects including bottle caps, milk-tins and cassava graters. However, he is not concerned with recycling or salvaging; instead he seeks meaning in the ways materials can be transformed to make statements about history, culture and memory.

His early work consists of ceramic sculptures manipulated to reconfigure pieces of memory. In 1978 he began his Broken Pots series, which was exhibited the following year at the British Council in Enugu, Nigeria. Several of the ceramic works were made of sherds that were fused together by a grog-like cement of broken pieces. Making art historical references to ...

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Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti

[Giorgio da Gubbio; Mastro Giorgio]

(b Intra or Pavia, c. 1465–70; d Gubbio, 1555).

Italian potter. He probably learnt the rudiments of pottery at Pavia and seems to have moved to Gubbio c. 1490, together with his brothers Giovanni Andreoli (d c. 1535) and Salimbene Andreoli (d c. 1522). He became a citizen of Gubbio in 1498. He is particularly well known for his lustrewares, and other potters, especially from the Metauro Valley, sent their work to be lustred in his workshop. His wares made in 1518–19 were frequently signed and dated. His istoriato (narrative) wares (e.g. plate decorated with Hercules and the Hydra, c. 1520; Oxford, Ashmolean) can be dated until at least 1537. In 1536 the workshop seems to have been taken over by his sons Vincenzo Andreoli (Mastro Cencio) and Ubaldo Andreoli.

G. Mazzatinti: ‘Mastro Giorgio’, Il Vasari, 4 (1931), pp. 1–16, 105–22 F. Filippini: ‘Nuovi documenti interno a Mastro Giorgio e alla sua bottega (1515–1517)’, Faenza: Bollettino del Museo internazionale delle ceramiche in Faenza...

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Claire Dumortier

(b ?Castel Durante, fl 1512; d Antwerp, 1541).

South Netherlandish potter of Italian birth. He probably worked in Venice before settling in Antwerp at the beginning of the 16th century (see Antwerp §III 2.). In 1512 he purchased a house called De Groote Aren in the Oude Veemerct and in 1520 established the Den Salm workshop in the Kammenstraat, which became the most important in Antwerp. His five sons also worked as potters in Antwerp and abroad: Guido Andries the younger (1535/41–c. 1587) in Antwerp; Frans Andries (b before 1535; d after 1565) in Seville; Joris Andries (c. 1535–c. 1579) in Middelburg; Jaspar Andries (1535/41–c. 1580) in Norwich and London (Lambeth); while Lucas Andries (b before 1535; d c. 1573), the eldest son, eventually inherited his father’s workshop in Antwerp. Guido Andries the elder produced faience pots and paving-tiles, the most remarkable of which are those from the abbey of Herkenrode, which are influenced by Venetian maiolica (...

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Gordon Campbell

Austrian family of porcelain painters active also in Italy. Johann Karl Wendelin Anreiter von Zirnfeld (1702–57) moved to Vienna where he worked as a Hausmaler until 1737, when he moved to the newly established Doccia Porcelain Factory as its principal painter. His son Anton (c. 1725–1801) trained under his father in Doccia, and then moved in ...