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Maria Angela Mattevi

[Buon Consiglio; Trent; Trento]

Vast monumental complex built between the north and east gates of the ancient city walls (c. 1200–20) of Trent, the capital of Trentino in Italy. It has three main nuclei: the Castelvecchio, the Magno Palazzo and the Giunta Albertiana. The oldest part, Castelvecchio, was built (1239–55) around the strong donjon, the Torre d’Augusto, by the Imperial Podestà of Trent, Sodegerio da Tito (d 1255), who took up office in 1238. Its function was predominantly military. In 1277 it passed to the Church and became the residence of the prince–bishop of Trent. In subsequent centuries a series of modifications and extensions have brought the castle to its present form. Of fundamental importance were the works completed in 1475 by Giovanni Hinderbach (d 1486) with the aid of Venetian craftsmen, who built the Renaissance Gothic internal court with tiered open galleries and the small loggia on the third floor. At that time the walls of the upper loggia were frescoed with portraits of the bishops of Trent from the city’s origin to the year ...


J. M. Maddison


Royal fortress and palace in Gwynedd, Wales. It was begun in 1283 on the site of a Norman predecessor, built c. 1090 by Hugh, Earl of Chester, and is the most splendid and important of the royal castles built in connection with Edward I’s Welsh wars. The castle made an impact on the development of both secular and religious architecture in early 14th-century England and successfully emulated one of the great works of antiquity.

The royal building accounts have been analysed by Taylor (1952) to establish a chronology, which is divided into two phases. The full length of the south curtain wall from the Eagle Tower to the North-East Tower was constructed between 1283 and 1292. This completed the enclosure of the town walls, which were built simultaneously. Associated work on the north curtain wall was suspended after the excavation of a substantial ditch and the laying of the lower masonry courses. Welsh forces led by Prince Madoc overran these unfinished defences in ...



Mariapia Branchi

[Schloss Tirol]

Castle on a hilltop dominating the Merano valley, near Bolzano, in the Alto Adige, northern Italy, which was the seat of the counts of Tyrol. Its strategic position controlling the transalpine road network persuaded the medieval German emperors to devolve the county’s power on the prince-bishops of Trent, Brixen, Coira, and Salzburg, all close to the imperial lineage. This situation hindered the local nobility in establishing power. The castle was built in four phases (before 1100; after 1138; around 1174; and from the mid-14th century to the present), although the collapse of the eastern section in the 17th century, some minor renovation work at the end of the 15th century, and extensive alterations in the 18th century have caused problems in trying to reconstruct the entire history of its construction.

Two Romanesque stone portals are preserved. The first, at the entrance to the great hall, has pairs of lions and rams on either side of the entrance, representing justice and the power of the counts. Beneath these figures are groups of people. Almost all of the group of figures to the right is missing, but the group on the left has been identified as the brothers Alberto and Bertoldo with their wives: the first lords of Tyrol (documented in ...



R. Allen Brown and Michael Thompson

Fortified residence. In Europe in the Middle Ages the castle was the fortified residence of a nobleman, effectively displaying his authority and feudal lordship over the territory associated with it as well as serving a military function. In the post-medieval period the castle type persisted as a residence—usually unfortified, but aristocratic—that made use of the forms but not the substance of medieval fortification to display the power and authority of the owner or merely his antiquarian interests; in this context the term ‘castellated style’ is also used, particularly for 19th-century buildings.

See also Military architecture and fortification, §III, 1.

The castle is one of the best-known and least understood of buildings. The word no longer refers exclusively to the true castle of the Middle Ages; rather, one may still hear and read of Iron Age ‘castles’ (e.g. Maiden Castle, Dorset) and Roman ‘castles’ or find the word applied to 16th-century Tudor coastal ...


K. Somervell

English ceramics factory. The factory was founded in 1837 by Edward Bingham (d 1872) in Castle Hedingham, Essex, where there were good-quality deposits of clay. The earliest output was earthenware for local use. During the 1850s Bingham’s son Edward Bingham (1829–c. 1900) took over the factory, and more decorative wares were produced. The first pieces of ornamental ware were red terracotta baskets introduced in 1853 and trelliswork cache-pots in 1854. By 1860 over 60 different types of unglazed vases, baskets and bowls were being produced. In the 1870s more ambitious glazed wares were made. From 1875 lead-glazed wares with moulded reliefs and sgraffito decoration were manufactured in quantity. Included in the range were wares that reflect Bingham’s interest in ceramic products of the 16th and 17th centuries. The range of wares include tigs, mugs, candlesticks, miniature vessels and large vases. In 1899 Bingham’s son Edward William Bingham (...


Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in October 1698, when the 3rd Earl took out a lease for life on the ruinous Henderskelfe Castle (burnt 1693; destr. 1724) and its manor from his grandmother, Anne Howard, Countess of Carlisle. The following spring he consulted the architect William Talman, Comptroller of Works to William III, on the design for a house to replace the old castle of Henderskelfe, but during the summer Talman was supplanted by the playwright John Vanbrugh. Castle Howard was Vanbrugh’s first important architectural commission. A model in wood was shown to the King in the summer of 1700, and work on the hill-top site began in the spring of ...


Gordon Campbell


Javier Rivera

Spanish monastery in the town of Celanova in the province of Orense, Galicia. It was founded in 936 by the bishop and monk St Rosendo (d 977), who was also abbot of the monastery from 959 until his death. The monastery belonged to the Benedictine Order and was dedicated to St Salvador. The oldest and most important part of the monastery, the chapel of St Michael of Celanova, founded in the 10th century by St Rosendo, is located in the former novitiate’s garden. It comprises a small pre-Romanesque, Mozarabic oratory that can be dated to the fourth decade of the 10th century, as the monastery was consecrated in 942. Its architectural language and its spatial concepts belong to contemporaneous art developed in the kingdom of León, with similarities to such buildings as Santiago de Peñalba and Santa Comba de Bande and drawing on Asturian, Visigothic, and Islamic influences. Its ground-plan covers an area of 22 sq. m, and the chapel reaches a maximum height of 6 m. It is composed of three spatial units arranged longitudinally. The first unit contains the access door on its south side; it has a square ground-plan and a horseshoe arch along its axis. The next unit, slightly larger in area and of a greater height, has a rectangular ground-plan and has a ribbed vault resting on arches with lobed pendentives. The chancel is entered via a horseshoe arch that is framed by an ...


Jakub Vítovský

Castle in the Czech Republic, overlooking the River Sázava, c. 60 km south-east of Prague. It is one of two castles founded by Zdeslav, a leading member of the court of Ottokar II Přemysl (reg 1253–78). Český (Bohemian) Šternberk was founded c. 1240 and became the family seat of Zdeslav’s descendants, the lords of Šternberk. Český Šternberk was completed by 1300 and, although it was later modified several times, the original medieval nucleus has been preserved, an interesting example of the development of fortified architecture.

Disposed along a rocky ridge above the river, the castle has a tower at each end. The entrance, on the north side, was protected by a massive cylindrical tower à bec, now partly covered by later buildings. The tower adjoins the long, narrow palace, which lies on the steep eastern side of the ridge and was originally protected on the west by a fortified courtyard (later reduced by infilling). The south side of the castle was protected by a huge quadrangular residential tower with a thickened gable wall, beyond which are the moat and the saddle dividing the castle from the summit of the ridge....


Jean-Pierre Chapuisat

Castle in Vaud Canton, Switzerland, situated on the shore of Lake Geneva (Leman), between Montreux and Villeneuve. Much of its reputation is due to literary descriptions, especially those by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (La Nouvelle Héloïse, 1761), Percy Bysshe Shelley (History of a Six Weeks’ Tour, London, 1817), and Lord Byron (The Prisoner of Chillon, 1816). Chillon Castle is first recorded in 1150, but it may have been constructed several decades earlier, as the lower part of the donjon and the old chapel appear to date back to the 11th century. Its position, on a rocky outcrop on the lake, enabled it to control the road leading to Italy over the Simplon and Great St Bernard passes, at the point where the road is confined between the steep mountain slopes and the lake shore. The castle was progressively enlarged and its defences reinforced by the counts of Savoy, ...


Nicola Coldstream

[Fr. Clermont; It. Castel Tornese; anc. Chelonatas]

Frankish castle in Elis, Greece. Designed to dominate a vast province of Frankish Greece, Chlemoutsi was built in 1220–23 by Geoffrey II de Villehardouin (1219–46). It was the first building on the site in historic times. Never besieged, Chlemoutsi became less important under Venetian and Turkish rule, and it was abandoned in the early 19th century and fell into ruin. Chlemoutsi is one of the best preserved Frankish castles in Greece. Built of limestone on the summit of a low hill, it is in two parts, the main castle being flanked on its vulnerable west side by an outer bailey with walls and posterns. The castle is an irregular hexagon (c. 90×60 m) round an open courtyard (31×61.50 m). It was built in two phases but not substantially altered. There is no donjon. The hexagon comprises a series of large, two-storey rooms with pointed barrel vaults and windows with segmental arches. The lower storey was subdivided with a double range of vaulting; the vaults of the upper storey had transverse arches on engaged shafts. The entrance on the north side originally had two square towers and a passage containing at least two doors. The apsed room over the entrance was probably the chapel. On the exterior there was a crenellated walkway, but only two, semicircular, towers; the finely mortared roofs were designed to channel rain-water into several cisterns, and the interior was fitted up for comfortable living, with a kitchen and with chimneys in several rooms. The plan of Chlemoutsi emphasizes connections between western Europe and the Crusader kingdoms, paralleling contemporary works of similar design at ...



John Curran, Andrew N. Palmer, J. van Ginkel, Francis Woodman, John W. Cook, Robert Ousterhout, Natalia Teteriatnikov, Warren Sanderson, Tania Velmans, Nigel J. Morgan and Doug Adams

Building for public Christian worship (see also Christianity) as well as the medieval rhetorical designation for the broader community of the Christian faithful.

As buildings churches vary from single-aisled structures divided simply by walls or screens to buildings of complicated design, based on the two fundamental types, the basilica and the centrally planned church, that are discussed below (see also Chapel, §1). Most churches are orientated, with the main axis running east–west and the ritual area at the east end; the phrase ‘liturgical east end’ used here and in other articles indicates the ritual area of a church that is not orientated.

A basilica is essentially an oblong, aisled building. The Christian basilica owed much to the secular basilicas that were used by emperors and officials of the later Roman Empire as audience halls. The latter buildings were large, rectangular structures divided into aisles and nave with an apse at one end housing the tribunal of the emperor or presiding magistrate....



Priscilla Boniface

Building for the projection and viewing of films. The term derives from cinématographie, the equipment devised for showing moving pictures patented by the Lumière brothers in France in 1895. Significant forerunners of this development include the Diorama, invented by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre in 1822, and the Kinetoscope, a machine for running a film-reel, invented by Thomas Edison’s assistant William Dickson and introduced by Edison in the USA in 1891. The Kinetoscope was one of a variety of solutions produced in Europe and the USA in the last decade of the 19th century to the challenge of presenting moving pictures to an audience. Pressure for improvements in technology and comfort was probably at its most intense in the USA, and the first permanent, purpose-built cinema, the Electric Theater, was opened in Los Angeles, CA, by Thomas L. Tally in 1902.

The early cinema was typically a simple rectangular auditorium fronted by an ostentatious façade; this derived in part from fairground booths and shops, in the recesses of which picture shows were held during the 1890s. Music halls and theatres were often used for projecting moving pictures in conjunction with other forms of entertainment, and their decoration and plan were emulated in the design of early cinemas, many of which had stages. A few cinemas built before World War I had simple balconies and, occasionally, side-boxes, despite the limited vision these usually provided. From ...


Cathedral in Co. Galway, Ireland, dedicated to St Brendan. The rubble walls of the pre-Romanesque nave (10th or 11th century) originally formed a simple rectangular church. The rectangular chancel, with its paired east windows, was added in the early 13th century, and in the Late Gothic period the building was enlarged with transept-like chapels and an elegant square belfry, similar to those in Irish friaries, above the west end of the nave. The cathedral is renowned chiefly for the 12th-century sandstone doorway inserted into its west façade (see Romanesque, §III, 1, (v), (e)).

The decoration of the doorway consists of an extraordinary range of motifs, of both foreign and Irish derivation, forming the most idiosyncratic of all Hiberno-Romanesque portals. Jambs, archivolts, and a high-pitched ‘tangent gable’ were exploited as fields for a dense array of pattern-making. Following ancient Irish custom, the decorated jambs are inclined inwards. They support seven orders of deeply cut voussoirs, ornamented with interlace, bosses, scallops, geometrical designs, and beast heads. The beast heads bite a roll moulding and are comparable to those on the west portal of the Nuns’ Church at Clonmacnois (Offaly). The gable contains an arcade and a series of triangular compartments filled alternately with carved human heads and floral motifs. The five heads that peer out from the arcade may have had painted bodies, possibly emulating the enamelled figures with cast bronze heads found on contemporary Limoges plaques. Among the many delightful details are the rows of tiny beast heads on the lower faces of the abaci. Characteristic of the Hiberno-Romanesque is the juxtaposition of shallow carving, as is found here on both the jambs and pilasters, with much deeper cutting, as on the archivolts. Although this eclectic and exotic design was once attributed to the 1160s, most scholars now prefer a date of ...


Roger Stalley

[Gael. Cluain Moccu Nóis]

Monastery in Co. Offaly, Ireland. Clonmacnois was one of the most celebrated Early Christian monasteries in Ireland, famed for its learning and artistic patronage and best known today for an outstanding collection of monuments and stone carvings. The monastery was founded by St Ciaran in 548 (or 545 according to some authorities) on a commanding site above a bend in the River Shannon. Located in the heart of the country, it enjoyed the patronage of a number of Irish dynasties and benefited particularly from the O’Conor kings of Connaught, several of whom were buried there. What started as a small religious community became the core of a monastic city, with much commercial activity and hundreds of lay inhabitants (in one incident in 1179 no fewer than 105 houses were burnt). Associated with the monastic workshops are such major items of Irish metalwork as the shrine of the Stowe Missal (...


José María Azcárate Ristori

Castle in the province of Segovia, Spain. It was built on the site of ancient Cauca, the birthplace of the Roman emperor Theodosios, and was populated by the Arevaca in the 2nd century bc. Situated on a plain on the banks of the rivers Voltoya and Eresma, with markedly uneven ground on three of its sides, it is a magnificent example of a late medieval castle–palace. Begun in 1448 by Don Alonso de Fonseca (1418–73), Bishop of Avila and Archbishop of Seville, but still unfinished at the end of the 15th century, Coca is a characteristic example of the Mudéjar style, combining elements drawn from Islamic traditions with Flamboyant Gothic.

The castle is built of brick, laid in a smooth surface so that the mortar layers and lines of brickwork are equally emphasized, creating a decorative surface pattern. The rectangular ground-plan comprises two curtain walls surrounding a central enceinte, on the north side of which is the keep (Tower of Homage). Traces of the outer curtain wall and the large rectangular towers marking the boundaries of a wide ditch survive. On the second curtain wall, beyond the bridge, is a gateway near the Tower of Homage; its high, pointed brick arch has a square-framed border (...



Michael Kiene

Building or group of buildings for members of a school or university foundation. The first examples were established towards the end of the 12th century, and they gradually became widespread throughout western Europe. Around the middle of the 14th century colleges throughout Europe had begun to erect buildings of their own rather than buy or rent existing ones.

The term ‘college’ originally denoted a form of organization, not a type of architecture: the Latin collegium meant, initially, an association of persons exercising an office in common and, then, by extension, a colleague or, metaphorically, a fellowship or brotherhood. With the creation of universities it acquired the additional meaning of an association of teachers and/or students. The original range of meaning remained valid, however, for a long time—a ‘college’ was a professional association with a chairman elected for a limited time to manage current business. In Roman law universitas was generally held to be synonymous with ...


Michael Forsyth

Building or part of a building in which public performances of music or events with musical accompaniment are held. The earliest public concerts in Europe were held in taverns, coffee-houses and assembly rooms. High-society concerts took place in the music- and ballrooms of such palaces as the Redoutensaal in the Hofburg, Vienna; these differed little from other rooms, except perhaps in their decoration. The earliest purpose-built concert halls appeared in London: the first such room, said by the amateur musician Roger North to have been ‘reared and furnished on purpose for publick music’ (Roger North on Music, ed. J. Wilson, London, 1959), was in the York Buildings, off the Strand, a fashionable development of c. 1675. During the next century many others followed, notably Giovanni Gallini’s celebrated Hanover Square Rooms (1773–5; destr. 1900), London, at which J. C. Bach and others held subscription concerts. The earliest concert hall still in use is the ...